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History of Joseph Smith, the Prophet. 






Deskrkt !N'ews. 

salt lakk city. utah. 


Copyrighted by 





Volume III. 


Enlightenment a Factor in 
Determining Responsibilitj' 
for Conduct xvii 

The People of Missouri and 
the Saints xix 

The Question of Slavery xxii 


Political Fears xxvii 

The Saints and the Indians... xxix 
The Unwisdom of the Saints xxxii 
The Real Cause of the Mis- 
souri Pei'secutions xlvii 

Retribution Ixii 




Flight of the Prophet and Sid- 
ney Rigdon from Kirtland... 1 

Brigham Young to the Proph- 
et's Rescue 2 

The Bitterness of the Proph- 
et's Enemies 3 

The Prophet's Arrival in 
Missouri 4 

Trial of the Par West Presi- 
dency of the Church 5 

Minutes of Proceedings in • 
Other Settlements than Far 
West 6 

High Council Meeting at Far 
West 7 

The Prophet's Reception in 
Zion 8 

The Political Motto of the 
Church of Latter-day Saints 9 

The Prophet's Answers to 
Questions on Scripture 10 

The Prophet's Letter to the 
Presidencj' of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints in Kirtland 11 



Arrival of Sidney Rigdon at 
Far West .' 13 

Minutes of a General Confer- 
ence of the Church at Far 
West 13 

Minutes of the first Quarterly 
Conference at Far West 14 

Demand on John Whitmer for 
the Church Records 15 

Charges Against Oliver Cow- 

dery 16 

Trial of Oliver Cowdery 17 

Elder Cowdery's Letter 17 

Charges Against David Whit- 
mer 18 

Charges Against Lyman E. 

Johnson 20 

The Work in England— Con- 



ference in Preston 20 A Prophecy 21 

Farewell Meetings with the American Slanders Reach 
Saints 21 England 22 



Revelation Given at Far West 23 
Revelation Given to Brigham 

Young at Far West 23 

Revelation Given at Far West 
Making Known the Will of 
God Concerning the Build- 
ing up of that Place, and of 

the Lord's House 23 

Minutes of the High Council.. 25 
Sundrv Emploj^ments of the 

Prophet 26 

The Prophet's Discourse on 
the Evils of Hasty Judg- 

ment 27 

Arrival of Elder Parley P. 

Pratt at Far West 27 

Death of Jas. G. Marsh 28 

The Prophet's Answer to Sun- 
dry Questions 28 

Elder Rigdon's Political Ad- 
dress 30 

Trial of William E. M'Lellin 

and Dr. MeCord 31 

Remuneration of the Prophet 
and Sidney Rigdon for Tem- 
poral Labors in the Church 31 




The Prophet Leaves Far West 
To Locate Settlements 31 

The Prophet and Party Reach 
"Tower Hill" 34 

Adam-ondi-Ahmao 35 

Council Called to Determine 
Location of Settlements 36 

American Antiquities Discov- 
ered 36 

Varied Movements of the 

Prophet's Company 37 

Birth of Alexander Hale Smith 37 
The Prophet's Return to Adam- 

ondi-Aham 38 

Minutes of the Meeting which 

Organized the Stake of Zion 

called Adamondi-Ahman... 38 
Description of Adam-ondi- 

Ahman 39 



Celebration of Independence 

Day at Far 41 

The Officers 41 

The Procession 41 

The Oration 42 

A Word from Elders Kimball 

and Hyde - 43 

Letter of Don C. Smith to the 
Prophet 43 

Missing Revelations 44 

Revelation, Given atFarWest, 
Julys, 1838 44 

Revelation. Given July 8,1838, 
Making Known the Disposi- 


tion of the Properties Tithed 
as Named in the Preceding 
Revelation 44 

Revelation Given to William 
Marks, Newel K. Whitney, 
Oliver Granger and Others, 
at Far West,July 8, 1838.... 45 

Revelation given at Far West, 
July 8, 1838, in Answer to 
the Question, Show unto us 
Thy Will, Lord, Concern- 


ing the Twelve 46 

Minutes of a Meeting of the 

Twelve 47 

The Disposition of Public 

Church Properties 47 

Arrival of Saints from Canada 48 
Publication of the Elder''s 

Journal.. 49 

The Epistle of Elder DavidW. 

Patten 49 



The Prophet Rests 55 

Reproof of Canadian Brethren 55 
A Citizen's Meeting at Far 

West 56 

Judge Morin's Friendly Warn- 
ing 56 

Peniston's Harangue 57 

"Dick" Welding's Row 57 

John L. Butter's Speech 58 

Gathering of the Mob 58 

Reports of Gallatin Trouble 

Reach Far West 58 

Departure of the Prophet 

from Gallatin 58 

The Prophet commends the 
Brethren for Standing for 

their Rights 59 

Interview with Adam Black... 59 

Adam Black's Agreement 59 

Interview with Citizens of Mill 

Port 60 

Treatise of Peace of Little 

Avail 60 

Peniston's AflBidavit 61 

Reflections of the Prophet 61 

Inquiry at Far West Concern- 
ing Gallatin Affairs 62 

Resolutions 62 

Chased by a Mob 63 

The Prophet's Interview with 
the Sheriff of Daviess Coun- 
ty 63 

Organization of Agriculture 

Companies 64 

Affidavit of Adam Black 64 

Comment on Adam Black 65 

Proclamation of Governor 

Boggs 65 

Conduct of John Corrill Re- 
proved 66 



The Prophet Leaves Par West 

to Found a City of 7ion 67 

Excitement Among the Miss- 

ourians 67 

The Prophet's Review of the 

Wrongs of the Saints 67 

Site for City Selected 68 

Rumors of Mobs Gathering.... 68 

An Appeal to Gen. Atchison.. 69 

Consultation with General 
Atchison 69 

The Prophet and Sidney Rig- 
don Study Law 69 

The Prophet and Lyman Wight 
to Submit to Trial 70 

The Prophet's Affidavit on the 
Adam Black Incident 70 

Judge King at Far West 72 




Start for the Place of Trial.... 72 

The Trial at Raglin's 72 

The Prophet and Lyman Wight 

Bound Over 73 

A Committee of Inquiry from 

Chariton County 73 

Rumors of an Attack upon 

"Diahman" 74 

Capture of Arms Intended for 

the Mob 74 


The Mob Take Prisoners 75 

Allred's Prisoners 75 

Advice from Judge King 75 

Judge King's ApparentDouble 

Dealing 75 

Petition from Ray County 76 

The Trial of Allred's Prisoners 76 
The Citizens of Daviess Coun- 
ty to the Governor 76 

Atchison Orders out the Militia 76 



Trouble at De Witt Begins 77 

Dryden's Report to the Gover- 
nor 77 

DoBiphan's Report to Atchis- 
on 78 

The Prophet's Comment 79 

Atchison's Report to the Gov- 
ernor 80 

Marching Orders to the Mili- 
tia 81 

Movements of the Militia 81 

Excerpts of Atchison's Letter 
to the Governor 81 

Petition of the Saints of De 
Witt to Governor Boggs 82 

General Park's Report to Gov- 
ernor Boggs 83 

Agreement to Buy Out the 
Mob 84 

Extract of a Letter from Gen- 
eral Atchison to Governor 
Boggs 85 

Mob Activities Shifted to De 
Witt 85 

Arrival of Kirtland Camp at 
Far West 85 



Meeting of the Seventies 87 

The Report of the Presidents. 87 
To Move in a Body Not 

Thought Practicable 88 

The Subject Discussed 88 

Foster's Vision 88 

"God Wills It" 89 

Meeting of the 13th of March. 89 

Presidents pro tern appointed.. 89 
Power of Nominating Officers 

Vested in First Council 90 

The Constitution 90 

The Movement Commended... 93 
Hyrum Smith on Previous 

Movements 94 

Hyrum Smith Commends the 

Seventies 94 

Advantage of a Large Com- 
pany 95 

Caution as to the Word of 

Wisdom 95 

Practical Steps 95 

Views of Oliver Granger et al 97 

Admonitions 97 

Sundry Meetings and the Ob- 
ject of Them 97 

Difficulties Encountered 98 

Assembling of the Camp 99 

Solemn Reflections 99 

The Start 100 

Number in Camp 100 

Sorrow at Parting 100 

First Experiences 101 

A Renewal of Covenants 101 




Incidents of a Day 101 

Additional Camp Regulations 102 

The First Deserter 103 

The First Death 104 

Nature of the Country Trav- 
ersed 104 

Difficulties by the Way 105 

Descriptions of Country 105 

Sorrow for the "Deluded'' 

Saints 106 

Preparations for the Sabbath. 107 

Public Worship 107 

Some Left by the Way Re- 
joined the Camp 108 

Prominent Elders Arrested.... 108 
On the Headwaters of the Sci- 

ota and Sandusky 108 

Instructions to Overseers 109 

Reproofs Administered 110 

The Council Relieved of Guard 
Duty Ill 


Threats of Arrest Made 113 

A Case of Healing 113 

Scarcity of Food 114 

A Day of Rest 114 

Camp at the Farm of the Gov- 
ernor of Ohio 114 

Camp Labors 115 

Admonitions lift 

Through Springfield 115 

Astonishment Created by the 

Camp 116 

Abram Bond Disfellowshiped. 117 

John E, Page's Company 117 

Pi'ayer for Ram 118 

Rain 118 

Some Leave the Camp 119 

A Reproof 119 

Elder Page Exhorts the Camp 120 

Work on the Turnpike. 120 

Renewed Diligence 121 

An Assistant Council Ap- 
pointed 121 



Preaching of Joseph Young 123 
An Increase of Interest in the 

Camp 124 

Exhortations 124 

Death of Horses 124 

A Burial 124 

More Employment 125 

Showers 125 

Charles Thompson Corrected. 125 

Spirit of Union Manifested 126 

Jonas Putnam Commended ... 127 

Expulsion from the Camp 127 

Further Investigation of Camp 

Members 128 

Expulsion from the Camp 128 

Religious Service 129 

Births in Camp 130 

Turnpike Contract Finished... 130 
Arrangements for Renewal of 

the Journey 130 

Gatheriog of the Absent 131 

Preparation for the Journey.. 131 
The Camp Resumes its Jour- 
ney 132 

On the Indiana Line I33 

Camp Enters the State of In- 
diana 133 

Course of the Journey 134 

A Sunday Journey 134 

Death of Batbsheba Willey.... 135 
Warning ajid Exhortation'..... 135 

Arrival at Terre Haute 136 

In Illinois 137 

Serious Difficulties Considered 137 

Dissatisfaction in Camp 137 

Increased Sickness 138 

Camp Passes Through Spring- 
field 139 

More Departures from the 

Camp 140 

First Tidings from Far West. 141 

A Missouri Storm 142 

Bad Roads 142 

Re organization of the Camp. 143 
Proposition to Disband the 

Camp 144 

Proposition Rejected 145 

Arrival on Grand River 145 





Vexatious Persecution of Wil- 

lard Richards 149 

Mob Movements at De Witt... 149 

Scattering Fire Brands 150 

Letter of General Lucas to 

Governor Boggs 150 

The Prophet's Comment 151 

Conference at Far West 152 

News of Mob Violence from 

De Witt 152 

The Prophet's Hopes of Peace 

Disappointed 152 

The Prophet Arrives at De 

Witt 153 

Continuance of Far West Con- 
ference 153 

John Taj'lor Sustained as an 
Apostle 154 

England 155 

De Witt 155 

Communication of Clark to 
Atchison on Affairs at De 

Witt 155 

The Mobs' Appeal to Howard 

County for Help 156 

General Clark's Endorsement 

of the Mob 157 

The Governor's Answer to the 

Saints 157 

House Burning and Robbing.. 157 
Mob Leaders Made Command- 
ers of Militia 158 

Hardships of the Saints 158 

Proposals for the Departure of 

the Saints 159 

A Sad Journey 159 



Plan of the Mob to Dispossess 

the Saints 161 

Plans of Doniphan to Protect 

the Saints 161 

State of Affairs in England.... 162 

Organization for Defense 162 

Mob Depredations at "Diah- 

man" 162 

Affairs at Millport 163 

Park's Order to Wight to Dis- 
perse the Mob 163 

Strategem of the Mob 163 

Beginning of William Clay- 
ton's Ministry 164 

Vindication of the Prophet's 
Business Course in Kirtland 164 

A Card 165 

Crimes of the Mob Charged to 

the Saints 165 

Departure of Orson Hyde from 

Far West 165 

Return of the Prophet to Far 
West 165 

The Saints Flock into Far 

West 166 

Infl amatory Letters to the 

Governor 166 

The Mail Robbed 166 

The Course of King and Black 166 
The Apostasy of Thomas B. 

Marsh 167 

Comraurieation of Woods 
and Dickson to Governor 

Boggs 168 

The Prophet's Statement of the 

Buncombe Affair 169 

Raid on the Pinkham Resi- 
dence 169 

Crooked River Battle 170 

List of Casualties — Death of 

Patten and O'Banion 171 

The Prophet's Reflections on 

the Death of David W. Patten 171 
E. M. Ryland's Letter to 

Messrs. Reese and Williams 172 
Governor Boggs Order to Gen- 



eral John B. Clark 173 

Letter of Horace Kingsbury 
and John W. Howdenonthe 
Business Integrity of the 
Prophet and his Agents in 

Kirtland 174 

Funeral of David W. Patten... 175 

Governor Boggs' Exterminat- 
ing Order 175 

Excitement in Upper Missouri 176 
The Appeal of Atchison and 
Lucas to Governor Boggs, 
Asking his Presence at the 
"Seat of War" 176 




The Prophet's Comments on 

Governor Boggs 178 

General Clark 178 

Doctor Sampson Avai'd 178 

Avard's "Danites" 179 

Avard's Manner of Proceeding 180 
Avard's Instructions to his 

Captains 180 

Revolt of Avard's Officers 181 

Avard's Teachings Rejected.. 181 

Avard Excommunicated 181 

Distinction in Organization 

Pointed out 182 

Gathering of the Mob at Rich- 
mond 182 

Gen. Clark's Movements 182 

Joseph Young's Narrative of 

theMassacre at Haun's Mills 183 
AdditionalEvents of the Mass- 
acre 187 

Atchison Withdraws from 

"Militia" 187 

Arrival of more Mob Militia... 187 

Preparations for a Battle 188 

Col. Hinkle's Treachery 188 

Reinforcement of the Mob 188 

Betrayal of the Prophet et al.. 188 
The Prophet and Companions 

Sentenced to be Shot 190 

Robbings by the "Militia" 191 

Excerpt fromGovernor Boggs' 
Communication to General 

Lucas 192 

Citizens ©f Far West Disarmed 192 
High-Handed Procedure of 

the Mob 192 

Avard's Treachery 192 

Report of General S. D. Lucas 
to Governor Boggs 195 



Rival Efforts for Possession of 

the Prisoners 200 

The Prophet's Interview with 

a Lady 201 

Arrival of the Prisoners in 

Independence 201 

Overwhelming Numbers of 

Mob Militia 202 

Severity in the Treatment of 

Prisoners Modified 202 

Fifty-six Additional Prisoners 202 

General Clark's Harangue to 
the Brethren 202 

Progress of Affairs at "Diah- 
man." 205 

The Prophet and his Fellow 
Prisoners sent to Richmond 205 

Prisoners not Sufficiently Pro- 
tected by Guard 205 

Meeting of the Prophet and 
Gen. Clark 205 

The Prisoners Chained 206 




Form of Permit 206 

General Clark Desires to try 
the Prophet by Court Mar- 
tial 206 

General Clark's Report to 

Governor Bog:gs 266 

Hardships Inflicted on the 

"Diahman" Saints 207 

Casualties of the Mobbing 208 

List of the Prisoners 209 

The Villainy of Avard 209 

List of Witnesses Against the 

Saints 210 

Permit 210 

Treatment of Witnesses for the 

Defense 211 

Some Prisoners Discharged... 211 
Misconception ot the Church 


Organization 211 

Ashby'sReport of Haun's Mills 
Massacre 212 

Prisoners Discharged and Re- 
tained 212 

LegalAdvice to Cease Defense 212 

Mr. Arthur, Esq., to the Rep- 
resentatives from Clay 
County 213 

Attested Copy of Mittimus 
Under Which Joseph Smith 
Jun., and Others, Were Sent 
from Judge King to the 
Jailer of Liberty Prison, in 
Clay County, Missouri 214 

In Liberty Prison 215 

Course of Wm. E. M'Lellin 
and Burr Riggs 215 




Report of Governor Boggs to 
the Legislature 217 

Memorial of a Committee to 
the State Legislature of Mis- 
souri in Behalf of the Citi- 
zens of Caldwell County 217 

Minutes of a High Council 
Held at Far West, Thursday, 
December 13, 1838 224 

The Prophet's Letters to the 
Church 226 


OF THE YEAR 1838. 

Varied Reports as to the In- 
tentions of the Saints 234 

Interview Between David H. 
Redfield and Governor 

Boggs 234 

The Turner Committee Report 

to the Missouri Legislature 235 
The Debate on the Petition.... 238 

Nature of the Testimony 239 

Minutes of the High Council 
at Far West 240 

Return of Don Carlos Smith 
and George A. Smith.. 241 

Redfleld's Report 242 

Action of Missouri Legisla- 
ture 242 

State Appropriation of $2,- 
000 243 

Course of the Minority in the 
Legislature 243 

Course of the State Press 244 






Reflections on the Opening; 

Year 245 

Anson Call Beaten 245 

Storm in England 245 

Missouri State Senate Reso- 
lutions on Mormon Difficul- 
ties 246 

Other Provisions of the Bill .. 246 
Proposition to Help the Poor. 247 
The Prophet's Petition to the 

Missouri Legislature 247 

Postscript to the Petition 248 


Minutes of a Public Meeting 
at Far West 249 

Minutes of the Second Meet- 
ing at Far West 250 

List, of Names Subscirbed to 
the Foregoing 251 

Activity of the Committee on 
Removal 254 

Investigation Ordered 254 

Minutes of a Meeting of the 
Committee on Removal 254 




Minutes of a Conference of the 

Church held at Quincy ... 260 

Application for Assistance 261 

Persecution of Brigham 
Young 261 

Petition to Help the Smith 
Family from Missouri 261 

Arrrangements for Paying the 
Debts of the Saints 262 

The Governor's Order to Re- 
turn the Arms Belonging to 
the Saints 262 

Labors in the Interests of the 
Poor 263 

Committee Resolutions 263 

Action of the Democratic 
Commitee of Quincy 263 

Determination of the Prison- 

er^to Escape 264 

Sidney Rigdon's Departure 

from Prison 264 

Importunities for the Release 

of the Prisoners 264 

Meeting of Elder Israel Bar- 
low and Isaac Galland 265 

Communication of Isaac Gal- 
land 265 

Minutes of the Meeting of the 
Democratic Association of 

Quincy 267 

Report 267 

Document "A" 269 

Statement of Sidney Rigdon.. 270 
Minutes of the Adjourned 
Meeting of the Democratic 
Association of Quincy 270 



Edward Partridge's Letter to 
Joseph Smith, Jun., and Oth- 
ers Confined in Liberty Jail, 
Missouri 272 

Letter from Don Carlos Smith 

to Joseph Smith, Jun,, and 
Others Confined in Liberty 

Jail, Missouri 273 

Letter from William Smith to 
Joseph and Hyrum 274 




Minutes of a Meeting of the 
Commitee on Removal 274 

Minutes of the Adjourned 
Meeting of the Democratic 
Association of Quincy 275 

Condition of Affairs in Eng- 
land 275 

Charges of Elder Halsal 
Against Elder Willard Rich- 
ards 277 

The Cause of Elder Richards' 
Troubles 277 

The Petition of the Prophet et 
al. to Judge Thorapkins et al. 211 


TSE prophet's letters FROM LIBERTY PRISON. 

Minutes of the Conference at 
Quincy, Illinois 283 

Departure of Mrs. Pratt 284 

Action of the Committee of 
Removal 284 

Letter of the Prophet to Mrs. 
Norman Bull 285 

The Mission of Kimball and 
Turley to Governor Boggs.. 288 

The Faulty Mittimus 289 

The Prophet's Epistle to the 
Church, Written in Liberty 
Prison 289 



Judge King's Anger 30G 

Plot A gainst the Prophet's Life 30G 
The Truth of a Revelation 

Questioned 30G 

Turley's Defense of the Proph- 
et 307 

Colloquy Between Turley and 

John'Whitmer 307 

Land Sales and the Clothing 

of Prisoners 308 

The Prisoners Hurried into 

Daviess County 308 

Peremptory Orders Considered 308 

Action of the Committee 309 

Arrival of Stephen Markham 

in Gallatin 309 

Judge Morin Favors the Proph- 
et's Escape 310 

The Exau)ination of Prisoners 310 
Letter of Sidney Rigdon to the 
Prophet. Rigdon's Plan for 
the Impeachment of Mis- 
souri 310 

Letter of Alanson Ripley to 
the Prophet 311 

Letter of Don Carlos Smith to 
His Brother, Hyrnm Smith 313 

Letter of Agnes Smith to Hy- 
rum and Joseph Smith 314 

Attempt upon the Life of 
Stephen Markham 315 

A "True Bill" Found Against 
the Prisoners 315 

Meeting of the Committee on 
Removal 315 

Sale of Jackson County Lands 315 

Vision of the Prophet for 
Markham's Safety 316 

Escape of Markham 316 

Jacob Stollingr's Communica- 
tion to the Prophet 316 

The Prophet's Comments 317 

Isaac Galland's Communica- 
tion to the Quincy Argus... 317 

Letters of Robert Lucas, Gov- 
ernor of the Teri'itory of 
Iowa, Respecting tne Man- 
ner in which the Saints 
Might Hope to be Received 
and Treated in Iowa 317 




Activity of the Committee on 
Removal 319 

The Prophet and Fellow Pris- 
oners Start for Boone County 319 

Letter of Elias Higbee to 
Joseph Smith, Junior, and 
Fellow Prisoners 319 

The Prophet's Reasons for Es- 
caping from the Officers of 
the Law 320 

Elder Kimball's Warning to 
the Committee 322 


Attack on Theodore Turley.... 322- 
The Mob's Assault on Elder 

Kimball 322 

The Mob Loots Far West 322 

The Loss of Records, Ac- 
counts, etc 323 

Flight of the Saints via Mis- 
souri River 323 

Assistance for the Poor 323 

Narrative of Amanda Smith 
Respecting the Massacre at 
Haun's Mills 323 



The Prophet and Companions 

Continue their Flight 327 

The Leading Characters in the 

Persecution of the Saints... 327 
Part of Governor Boggs in the 

Persecutions 328 

Treatment of the Prophet by 

the Missouri Mob 328 

Calm Assurance of the Prophet 

Respecting his own Safety 328 

Deportment of the Saints 329 

Sure Reward of the Faithful 

Saints 330 

The Saints not to Marvel at 

Persecution 331 

The Crime of Missouri to be 
Viewed in the Light of the 
Civilized Age in which it 

was Committed 331 

The Appeal of the Prophet to 
the People of the United 

States 332 

Pursuit of Elder Markham 332 

Letters of Governor Lucas of 
Iowa to Elder Rigdon 333 

Letter of Governor Lucas to 
President Martin Van Buren 
Respecting the Latter day 
Saints 333 

Letter of Governor Lucas to 
the Governoi of Ohio In- 
troducing President Rigdon 334 

Letter of W. W. Phelps to 
John P. Greene 334 

Parley P. Pratt et al. Before 
the Grand Jury at Richmond 335 

The Twelve en route for Far 
West 335 

Minutes of Council Meeting 
Held at Quincy, Illinois.... 335 

Seeking a New Location 336 

Minutes of the Meeting of the 
Twelve Apostles at Far 
West. April 2(5, 1839 336 

The Revelation of April 8, 
1838, Fulfilled 339 



Seeking a New Location 341 

Elder Taylor's Warning to the 
People of Quincy Against 
Impostors 341 

Land Purchases 342 

The English Saints Warned 

Against Isaac Russell 342 

Isaac Russell's Letter to the 




Saints in England 343 

ilussell's Efforts Counteracted 344 
Minutes of a General Confer- 
ence of the Church Held 
near Quincv, Illinois, Maj' 

4th, 5th and 6th, 1839 344 

Certificate of Appointment... 346 

Minutes of the 5th 346 

Minutes of the 6th 346 

John P. Greene's Letter of 

Appointment 347 

Letter of Recommendation to 
Elder John P. Greene from 
Certain Citizens of Quincy.. 348 
Sidney Rigdon's Letter of In- 
troduction to the President 
of the United States .349 


The Prophet Settles at Com- 
merce 349 

Sidney Rigdon's General Let- 
ter of Introduction 349 

Letter of Recommendation to 
Oliver Granger from the 
First Presidency 350 

Letter of R. B. Thompson to 
the First Presidency Com- 
plaining of the Conduct of 
Lyman Wight 352 

Letter of Elder Parley P.Pratt 
to Judge Austin A. King.... 352 

Letter of the First Presidency 
to the Quincy Whig Dis- 
claiming the Attitude of Ly- 
man Wight 354 


prophet's narrative of personal EXPERIENCES IN MISSOURI. 

Rabbi Landau's Letter to His Prisoners Arrive a^Columbia 364 

Son 356 The Prophet and Vinson 

The Prophet'sLetterto W.W. Knight's Letter to Mark 

Phelps 358 Bigler 366 

Indictment of Parley P. Pratt The Prophet's Letter to Ly- 

et al 360 man Wight, on the Matter of 

An Adventure by the Way.... 360 R. B. Thompson's Complaint 366 

The Prophet's Letter to E. W. Letter of Appointment to 

Harris 362 Stephen Markham 367 

Letter of the Prophet and Parley P. Pratt et al. Seek a 

Emma Smith to Judge Trial 368 

Cleveland 362 The Prophet's Narration of 

The Prophet's Letter to Bish- his Personal Experiences 

op Whitney, Asking Him to in Missouri, 1838-9, which 

Settle at Commerce 363 he calls "A Bill of Damages 

The Twelve to go to England. 363 Against the State of Mis- 
Cruel Treatment of Parley P. souri on Account of theSuf- 

Pratt and Companions 363 fering and Losses Sustained 

Answer of the FirstPresideucy Therein.'' 368 

to R. B. Thompson on the Hj-rum Smith's Statement of 

Lyman Wight Affair 363 Sufferings and Damages 

Case of William Smith 364 Sustained in Missouri, and 

Parley P. Pratt and Fellow in Being Driven Therefrom. 369 



First House Built by the Saints at Commerce 375 




Description of Commerce 375 

Letter of Edward Partridge to 

the Prophet 37G 

Excitement at Columbia 

Prison, Mo 377 

Visit of the Prophet with 

William Smith 377 

Visit with Don Carlos Smith... 377 
Ministry of the Prophet 378 


Purchase of Lands in Iowa 378 

Return of the Prophet to Com- 
merce 378 

TheProphet's Answer to Jacob 

Stollings 378 

Restoiation of Orson Hyde... 379 
The Prophet's Instructions on 
Various Doctrines 379 




The Prophet Testifies to the 

Book of Mormon 382 

The Missouri Prisoners 382 

Founding- of Zaraherala 382 

The Prophet with the Twelve 

and Seventy 382 

The Prophet's Address to the 

Twelve 383 

Mercy and Forgiveness 383 

Humility and Brotherhood of 

the Twelve 383 

Avard's Vain Glory 3S4 

Be Honest, Sober, Vigilant 384 

Beware of Treason 385 

The Sign of Apostasy 385 

The Prophet on Priesthood 385 

Adam and the Presidency of 

the Priesthood 386 

Eternity of the Priesthood 386 

Adam's Place in the Order of 

Worthies 386 

The Spirit of Man Eternal 387 

The Nature of the Priesthood.. 387 
The Restoration of the Priest- 

hood 387 

Adam in the Valley of Adam- 

ondi-Ahman 388 

Labors of the Patriarchs and 

Moses 388 

Angels to have Pai-t in the 

Work 389 

The Kingdom of Heaven 389 

Future Deliverance of the 

Saints 389 

Importance of Revelation 389 

A Vision and Prophecy 390 

The Mission of Elijah 390 

Blessings for the Saints in 

Stakes of Zion 390 

Haste to Build up Zion 390 

Peace in Zion and Her Stakes 391 
The Prophet's Vision of Judg- 
ment 391 

Visions 391 

Angels 392 

Powers of the Devil 392 

The Gift of Tongues 392 




Baptism of Isaac Gallaud 393 

Epistle of the Twelve to the 
Elders of the Church of Jesus 

Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
to the Churches Scattered 
Abroad and to all the Saints 393 




Parley P. Pratt's Account of His Escape from Missouri 399 





Explanatory Note 403 kin 432 

The Testimony of Hj'rum Testimony of Brigham Young 433 

Smith 404 Testimony of Lyman Wight... 337 

Testimony of Parley P. Pratt 424 Testimony of Sidney Rigdon 449 
Testimony of George W. Pit- 


EnligJitenment a Factor in Determining Besponsibility 

for Conduct. 

Volume Three concludes, for the present, the history of the Church in 
Missouri. I think it proper, therefore, that here should be considered 
the causes of the Missouri persecutions, which resulted in the expulsion 
of the entire Church from that state. 

There have been, of course, more extensive persecutions than those 
inflicted on the Saints in Missouri; but I doubt if there has ever been a 
persecution more cruel or terror- laden in its character. Viewed from 
the standpoint of its net results there were some fifty people, men, wo- 
men, and children, killed outright; about as many more were wounded 
or cruelly beaten, and many more perished indirectly because of the 
exposure to which they were subjected through the winters of 1833-4 
and 1838-9. 

In round numbers it is estimated that between twelve and fifteen thou- 
sand people, citizens of the United States, after being dispossessed of 
their lands, were forcibly driven from the state. It is known that they 
paid to the United States government for land alone, three hundred and 
eighteen thousand dollars, which, at the minimum price of one dollar 
and a quarter per acre, would give them land holdings of over two hun- 
dred and fifty thousand acres, which represented for that day very large 

To this list of results must be added the more horrible one of several 
cases of ravishment at Far West; and also, after barely escaping from 
the sentence of death pronounced by a court martial, the cruel impris- 
onment through weary months of a number of Church leaders. 

In passing judgment upon such matters as these account must be 
taken of the age and country in which they occurred; likewise the pre- 
tensions to right views of life, and devotion to freedom on the part of 
the perpetrators of the injustice. Undoubtedly a heavier debt is in- 
curred to history, to humanity and to God, when the parties who resort 
to such acts of mob violence and injustice live in an enlightened age, 
and where the free institutions of their country guarantee both the free- 
dom and security of its citizens. 

* See "American Commonwealths," Missouri, (Houghton, Mifflin & Com- 
pany, 1888), p. 181. 

b vol. Ill 


If ia the jungle a man meets a tiger and is torn to pieces, no one 
thinks of holding the tiger to any moral accountability. Perhaps the 
hunt will be formed to destroy the beast, but that is merely to be rid of 
a dangerous animal, and prevent the repetition of the deed. If another 
meets a cruel death among savages in heathen lands, while some moral 
responsibility would hold against them, according to their degree of 
enlightenment, yet the fact that it was an act of savages would be held 
to reduce the degree of moral turpitude. And likewise even in civil- 
ized states, in localities to which the vicious may gravitate, when acts 
of violence are committed there, some allowance may be, and generally 
is, made for the ignorance and general brutality of the pai'ticular neigh- 

By this process of reasoning I think it will appear quite clear that 
moral responsibility, both on the part of individuals and communities or 
nations, increases in proportion to their enlightenment. If, therefore, 
this principle be kept in view, the persecution of the Latter-day Saints 
by the people of Missouri was a very heinous offense. 

True it may be said that the worst acts of cruelty were perpetrated 
by low, brutish men among the mob or in the militia — for these bodies 
were convertible from one to the other on shortest possible notice, and 
wholly as the exigencies of the enemies of the Saints demanded — but 
these were led and abetted by quite a different order of men: by law- 
yers, members of the state legislature, by county and district judges, 
by physicians, by professed ministers of the gospel, by merchants, by 
leading politicians, by captains, majors, colonels, and generals — of sev- 
eral grades — of the militia, by many other high officials of the state 
including the Governor and Lieutenant Governor, and finally by the 
action of the state legislature which appropriated two hundred thousand 
dollars to defray the expenses incurred by the mob-militia in carrying 
out the Governor's order, exterminating the Saints from the state. 
These facts are made apparent in the pages of this and the two preced- 
ing volumes of the History of the CnaKCH. The facts cannot be ques- 
tioned. They are written out most circumstantially ia the Prophet's 
story. Times, places, and names are given of the iacidents related, 
and the more important of these may be corroborated by histories of 
these events other than our own. 

The persecutions then of the Latter-day Saints in Missouri, and their 
final expulsion from that state, were crimes against the enlightenment 
of the age and of the state whare the acts occurred; a crime against 
the constitutions and institutions both of the state of Missouri and of 
the Uaited States; as also a crime against the Christian religion. All 
this we have in mind when speaking of the severity and cruelty of 
these compared with other persecutions. The state of Missouri was 


guilty of a greater crime when it persecuted the Latter-day Saints than 
states were which in the barbarous times of the dark ages persecuted 
their people; though when estimated in net results there may have been 
more murders and robberies, greater destruction of property, and more 
wide-spread suffering in the latter than in the former. 

It is in the light of the principle here laid down that I propose to 
review the causes of the persecutions of the Latter-day Saints in Mis- 

The People of Missouri and the Saints. 

The people of the state of Missouri, and especially those living in 
western and upper Missouri, in the early decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, were chiefly from the states of the South — from Kentucky, Ten- 
nessee, Virginia, and the Carolinas. This is not stated as a matter of 
reproach, for among the American people there have been no better or 
nobler citizens of the Republic than the people of the states enumer- 
ated. I merely make the statement in order to present a fact, and be- 
cause other facts grow out of it. To say that Missouri was settled by 
emigrants from the states of Ihe South carries with it the explanation 
why Missouri was one of the slave states, and her people attached to 
the social and industrial methods of life attendant upon that circum- 
stance. That is to say, they looked with contempt upon manual labor; 
regarding it as menial and proper only for slaves to perform. With that 
idea is closely related another; namely, that white people who from 
circumstances were compelled to perform manual labor, or who fol- 
lowed it from principle, in the eyes of the people of the South were of 
an inferior class; contemptuously characterized by some as "white 
trash," and by others, inclined to be more polite, as "poor whites." 

Freedom from manual labor gave to those of active dispositions in 
such communities an opportunity to follow the more desiiable voca- 
tions of professional life; the law, medicine, the Christian ministry, 
merchandizing and general business; or leisure for political or military 
activities; or the pursuit of pleasure, fishing, hunting, horse racing, 
and social life generally. These conditions naturally resulted in pride, 
often in arrogranee, and a desperate sort of courage, which held honor 
high and weakness and cowardice ia contempt; also something of intol- 
erance for those disposed to set themselves against such an order of 

The reader will recognize, of course, that I have so far in mind only 
the better element of the population, the least of the evils and some of 
the advantages resulting from such industrial and social conditions. 
There were, however, quite different and more serious results than any 


yet noted arising: from this system of society. While those disposed to 
activity and inclined to honorable pursuits might enjoy certain advan- 
tages from the system, on the other hand, it fostered man's natural in- 
clination to idleness and love of ease that comes of idleness; and fos- 
tered jealousy and bitterness against those more industrious and suc- 
cessful. In such a class the system led to ignorance, irreligion, and * 
criminal tendencies; constituting them a dangerous element in the com- 
munity. It was doubtless this class the Prophet Joseph had in mind 
when he said soon after his first arrival in western Missouri: "Our re- 
flections were great, coming as we had from a highly cultivated state 
of society in the East, and standing now upon the confines or western 
limits of the United States, and looking into the vast wilderness of those 
that sat in darkness. How natural it was to observe the degradation, 
leanness of intellect, ferocity and jealousy of a people that were nearly 
a century behind the times, and to feel for those who roamed about 
without the benefit of civilization, refinement, or religion! " 

Many of the positions in the higher walks of life, in western Missouri, 
were sought by the unworthy, the corruptible and the vicious — men 
who sought all the advantages of the southern ideals of life without 
possessing the refining virtues which for generations in the older states 
of the south made some of the evils of the social system that obtained 
there at least tolerable. Such were the Brazeales, the Wilsons, the 
Hunters, the Kavanaughs, the Likens, the Loveladys, the McCartys, 
the McCoys, the Pixleys, the Simsons, the Silvers, the Westons, the 
Gilliams,the Birches, the Blacks, the Bogarts, the Clarks, the Liveseys, 
and the Penistons. 

Another circumstance which influenced somewhat the character of 
western Missouri's population in the early decades of the nineteenth 
century, was the fact that these sections of the state constituted part of 
the frontiers of the United States, and here had gravitated a more or 
less lawless class which sought the security of proximity to the bound- 
ary lines of the United States, from whose confines they could make 
their escape in the event of being hard pressed for violations of law 
in the older states whence they had come, or in their new habitat. 
Such were the Lovels, the Hawkins, the Heatherleys and many others. 

The Latter-day Saints who settled in Missouri from 1831 to 1839 had 
come for the most part from the New England States and New York. 
There «vere, therefore, marked differences in character between them and 
the old settlers of Missouri; differences of ideas as to industrial and social 
life; of moral and religious life. The Saints were descendants chiefly 
of the Puritans, and both by inheritance and training had fallen heirs 
to the Puritan's strict views of industry, religion and morality. The 
Puritans taught that all labor was honorable, and industry a duty. Re- 


ligion occupied a large share of their attention — entered in ^act into all 
the affairs of life — though its duties meant largely a regular attendance 
upon church service; a strict observance of the proprieties while there; 
a, rigid observance throughout of the Sabbath day. Neither work nor 
amusements were tolerated on that day. In the olden time among some 
of their forefathers it had been unlawful to sit in Boston Common on 
the Sabbath or to walk in the streets of Boston, except to church. 
Once a man was publicly whipped for shooting a fowl on Sunday. A 
woman was threatened with banishment for smiling in church. A per- 
son absent from church for more than one Sunday was in danger of 
being fined, whipped, or set in the stocks. Swearing was prohibited in 
nearly all the New England colonies, and a split stick was sometimes 
placed on the swearer's tongue.* 

Both food and dress were plain, and the latter, in some instances, 
was regulated by law. Amusements wei'e few. Dancing and card-play- 
ing were forbidden, and there was little music. The state sought to take 
entire charge of the individual, and supposed that tendency toward im- 
morality could be stemmed by legislation. In early Connecticut no one 
under twenty was allowed to use tobacco, and none to use it more than 
once a day. The laws were severe and the penalties cruel. The stocks 
and whipping-post and pillory were in frequent requisition to correct 
moral delinquents. An offender might be made to stand on a stool in 
•church with the name of his misdemeanor displayed on his breast. 
Among the common punishments were cropping or boring the ears and 
branding with a hot iron.f 

Of course in later years there was a general relaxation from these 
severities, and many of these customs and laws, by the time our gene- 
ration of Saints came on the scene, were obsolete. Still, the moral and 
spiritual atmosphere in which the Saints and their fathers had been 
reared was austere in its moral character, and stood in marked contrast 
to the moral atmosphere of the South, where, in respect of such things 
as church attendance, religious observances, personal liberty in eating, 
•drinking and amusements, there was wider freedom. 

In the sparsely settled country of western Missouri, the descendants 
of the old cavaliers and their following, who settled the South, and the 
descendants of the Puritans, who settled the North, were to meet: and 
very naturally one may see in these antagonistic elements — aside from 
the cause of antagonism which will be found in the newly revealed re- 
ligion of the Latter-day Saints — natural causes of irritation between 
them founded in the differences of character, and their respective con- 
ceptions of industrial, moral, and religious duties. That the old settlers 

* "History of the United States," (Morris) p. 132. 
t Ibid, pp. 135-7. 


jn Missouri, even those friendly disposed towards the Saints, recog-- 
nized the incompatibility of the two classes is evident from the public 
utterances of a mass meeting tield at Liberty, in Clay countv, when the 
Saints were urged to seek anew locality where they could live by them- 
selves. "They are eastern men," said the address, "whose manners, 
habits, customs, and even dialect, are essentially different from our 
own. We earnestly urge them to seek some other abiding place, where 
the manners, the habits, and customs of the people will be more conso- 
nant with their own."* 

This difference of character between the Saints and the old settlers I 
account one of the causes of the Missouri persecutions. 

The Question of Slavery. 

The question of slavery in Missouri was a delicate one. It will per- 
haps be remembered that it was the application of the territory of 
Missouri for admission into the Union, 1818-19, that brought the ques- 
tion of slaverj' into one of its acute stages before the country; and in- 
augurated a long series of debates in the National Congress on the sub- 
ject. It was upon the admission of Missouri into the Union in 1821 
that the great Compromise which bears the state's name settled, not the 
question of slavery itself, but, for the time, the agitation of it. 

That Compromise consisted finally in this: that while Missouri her- 
self was admitted with a clause in her constitution permitting slavery^ 
and also prohibiting free people of color from immigrating into the 
state, slavery was forever to be prohibited in all territory of the United 
States north of the line thirty- six degrees and thirty minutes north lati- 
tude (the southern boundary line of the state of Missouri); and Mis- 
souri was required "by a solemn, public act" of her legislature, to de- 
clare that the clause in her constitution relating to the immigration of 
free negroes into the state, should never be construed to authorize the 
passage of any law by which any citizen of either of the states in 
this Union shall be exclude'd from the enjoyment of any of the privi- 
leges and immunities to which he is entitled under the Constitution of 
the United States. 

These historical facts are referred to here that the reader may be re- 
minded that slaverv was a delicate question in Missouri; that her peo- 
ple were super-sensitive about it since she was the first territory upon 
which the National Congress sought to impose the prohibition of slavery 
as a condition precedent to her admission into the Union, which, up ta 
that time, had been a matter left to the people of the territory seeking 
admission to determine for themselves. Of course this attempt at re- 

* HiSTOKT OF THE ChURCH, Vol. II, p. 450. 


striction of slavery was made by northern members of the national Con- 
prress.* All the sentiment for the restriction of slavery was in the North. 
In 1831 the sentiment for the positive abolition of slavery had made 
such progress in Massachusetts, that William Lloyd Garrison estab- 
lished in Boston "'The Liberator,'''' a paper which advocated "the im- 
mediate and unconditional emancipation of every slave in the United 
States.'' As a result of this apritation anti-slavery societies were formed 
and active measures taken to advoca.e these opinions by means of lec- 
tures and pamphlets. These extreme measures against slavery did not 
meet with the approval of all or even the majority of the people of New 
England, much less with the approval of the people of other northern 
states. Still this agitation arose and was chiefly supported in New 
England. It will not be difficult to understand, therefore, that any con- 
siderable number of people from that section of the Union immigrating 
into a slave state would arouse suspicion; especially when that immi- 
gration was into a slave state upon which, when as a territory she had 
made application for admission into the Union, prohibition of slavery 
was sought to be enforced by the northern members of the National 
Congress. Nor will it be sufficient to dispel this suspicion to aver that 
these particular immigrants from New England, and other northern 
states are not abolitionists: that they take no part with, and do not 
shaie the fauatical sentiments of, the abolitionists; that their objects and 
purposes are of an entirely different and larger character. 

The answer to all this was given in a public document drawn up to 
voice the sentiment of a great mass meeting of the people of Clay 
county — a people, be it remembered, who at the time (1836) were not 
unfriendly towards the Saints, but a people who a few years before had 
received the Saints into their homes, and given them shelter when they 
were exiles from Jackson county, and who, at the time of the utterance 
I am about to quote was published, were in a covenant of peace with 
the Saints, and the Saints in a covenant of peace with them — I say the 
answer to all disclaimers on the part of the Saints respecting their not 
being abolitionists was found in this public utterance: "They are 
eastern men, whose manners, habits, customs and even dialect 
are essentially different from our own. They are non-slavehold- 
ers, and opposed to slavery, which in this peculiar period, when aboli- 
tionism has reared its deformed and haggard visage in our land, is well 
calculated to excite deep and abiding prejudices in any community where 
slavery is tolerated and protected." 

I call attention to these facts that the student of the history of the 
Church may appreciate the weight of influence they would have in cre- 

• Mr. Talliuadge, a representative from the state of New York, offered the re- 
stricting provision. 


ating popular sentiment against the Saints; a matter which hitherto, if 
I may be permitted to say so, has not been fully appreciated. One can 
readily see what a potent factor this sentiment against New England 
and other northern states people would be in the hands of political 
demagogues and sectarian priests seeking to exterminate what they 
would respectively consider an undesirable element in politics and a 
religious rival. That both political demagogues and sectarian priests 
made the most of the opportunity which hostile sentiment in Missouri 
against abolition and abolitionists afforded, abundantly appears in the 
pages of the first volume of the Church History. That sentiment was 
appealed to from the first; indeed in the very first manifesto of the mob 
— known as "The Secret Constitution,"* — issued against the Saints in 
Missouri, it was a prominent feature. This was at Independence, in 
July, 1833. In that "Manifesto" the following passage occurs: 
"More than a year since, it was ascertained that they [the Saints] 
had been tampering with our slaves, and endeavoring to sow dissen- 
sions and raise seditions amongst them. Of this their Mormon leaders 
were informed, and they said they would deal with any of their mem- 
bers who should again in like case offend. But how specious are ap- 
pearances. In a late number of the Star, published in Independence 
by the leaders of the sect, there is an article inviting free negroes and 
mulattoes from other states to become Mormons, and remove and settle 
among us. This exhibits them in still more odious colors. It manifests 
a desire on the part of their society, to inflict on our society an injury 
that they know would be to us entirely insupportable, and one of the 
surest means of driving us from the country; for it would require none 
of the supernatural gifts that they pretend to, to see that the introduc- 
tion of such a caste amongst us would corrupt our blacks, and instigate 
them to bloodshed.'' 

The article on "Free People of Color" referred to appeared in the 
Evening and Morning Star for July. The charge of sowing dissensions 
and inspiring seditions among the slaves, and inviting free negroes to 
settle in Missouri, had no foundation in truth. Coucerning such people 
the Missouri laws provided that: If any negro or mulatto came into the 
state of Missouri, without a certificate from a court of record in some 
one of the United States, evidencing that he was a citizen of such state, 
on complaint before any justice of the peace, such negro or mulatto 
could be commanded by the justice to leave the state; and if the col- 
ored person so ordered did not leave the state within thirty days, on 
complaint of any citizen, such person could be again brought before the 
justice who might commit him to the common jail of the county, until 

• History of the Church, vol. 1, p. 374, et seq. 


the convening of the circuit court, when it became the duty of the 
judge of the circuit court to inquire into the cause of commitment; and 
if it was found that the negro or mulatto had rpmained in the state con- 
trary to the provisions of this statute, the court was authorized to sent- 
ence such person to leceive ten lashes on his or her bare back, and 
then order him or her to depart from the state; if the person so treated 
should still refuse to go, then the same proceedings were to be repeated 
and punishment inflicted as often as was necessary until such person 

And further: If any person brought into the state of Missouri a free 
negro or mulatto, without the aforesaid certificate of citizenship, for 
every such negro or mulatto the person offending was liable to a forfeit 
of five hundred dollars; to be recovered by action of debt in the name 
of the state. 

The editor of the Star commenting upon this law said: "Slaves are 
real estate in this and other states, and wisdom would dictate great 
care among the branches of the Church of Christ on this sub- 
ject. So long as we have no special rule in the Church as to people of 
color, let prudence guide; and while they, as well as we, are in the 
hands of a merciful God, we say: shun every appearance of evil." 

Publishing this law and the above comment was construed by the old 
settlers to be an invitation to free people of color to settle in Jaetson 
county ! Whereupon an extra was published to the July number of the 
Sfar on the sixteenth of the month, which said: "The intention in 
publishing the article, "Free People of Color," was not only to 
stop free people of color from immigrating to Missouri, but to prevent 
them from being admitted as members of the Church. * * 
* * * To be short, we are opposed to having free people of color 
admitted into the State."* 

But in the face of all this the Missourians still claimed that the arti- 
cle was merely published to give directions and cautions to be observed 
by "colored brethren," to enable them upon their arrival in Missouri, 
to "claim and exercise the rights of citizenship." "Contemporaneous 
with the appearance of this article" — the above article in the Star 

* In making the statement that it was the intention of the Star article not only 
to stop "free people of color" immigrating to Missouri, but also to "prevent them 
from being admitted as members of the Church," the editDr of the Star, of course 
went too far; if not in his second article, explaining the scope and meaning of the 
first, then in the first article; for he had no authority to seek to prevent "free 
people of color" from being admitted members of the Church. But as a matter of 
fact there were very few if any "free people of color" in the Church at that time. 
The "fears" of the Missourians on that head were sheer fabrications of evil dis 
posed minds. 


— continued the charge published in the Western Monitor — "was the ex- 
pectation among the brethren, that a considerable number of this de- 
graded caste were only waiting this information before they should set 
out on their journey."* And this base falsehood was used to inflame 
the minds of the old settlers against the Saints. 

1 do not refer to this question of slavery in connection with the per- 
secution of the Saints in Missouri in order to set it down as one of the 
causes of that persecution; because, as a matter of fact, the views of 
the Saints, and especially of the leading Elders of the Church on that 
question were such that they could never be truthfully charged with 
being a menace to that institution. The Prophet Joseph himself, at the 
time of the Jackson county troubles and subsequently, held very con- 
servative views on the subject of slavery, surprisingly conservative 
views when his own temperament and environment are taken into ac- 
count, of which fact any one may convince himself by reading- 
his paper on the subject of abolition in Volume II of the Church His- 
tory, pages 436 40. 

Finally, it was given by the inspiration of God to the Prophet first to 
utter the most statesman-like word upon this vexed question of slavery, 
and had the nation and people of the United States but given heed to 
his recommendations it would have settled the question in harmony 
with the convictions of the people of the North, and without injustice to 
the South. Here follows his statesman- like word, published through- 
out the United States in 1844 — eleven years before Ralph Waldo Emer- 
son made substantially the 3ame recommendation, and for which the phil- 
osopher received no end of praise: — 

''Petition, also, ye goodly inhabitants of the slave states, your legis- 
lators to abolish slavery by the year 1850, or now, and save the aboli- 
tionist from reproach and ruin, and infamy and shame. Pray Congress 
to pay every man a reasonable price for his slaves out of the surplus 
revenue arising from the sale of the public lands, and from the deduc- 
tion of pay from the members of Congress. Break ofif the shackles 
from the poor black man, and hire him to labor like other human be- 
ings; for an hour of virtuous liberty is worth a whole eternity of 

But now to return to the course of the Missourians in misrepresent- 
ing the views of the Saints on the subject of slavery. Notwithstanding 
the explicit denials through the ''Evening and Morning Star,''' that 
the article on "Free People of Color" was intended to invite such a 
class into the state; and the further declaration that the Saints were 
opposed to such persons coming iuto the state; as also the fact that it is 

* Western Monitor for the 2nd of August, 1833. 

t Joseph Smith's "Views ofjthe Powers and Policy of the Government of the 
United States," Mill.^Sfnr; Vol. XXII. p. 743. 


doubtful if there were any free negroes who were members of the 
Church — notwithstanding all this, their enemies continued to misrepre- 
sent them, and their views on the subject of slavery. They saw in the 
fact that many of them were from New England, where abolition senti- 
ment was rife,their opportunity to charge them with abolition sentiments 
and intention to interfere with slavery, with every prospect of having it 
quite generally believed— hence the charge was made and became a 
pretext if not a cause of acts of aggression upon the Saints, and as such 
is a factor that must be taken account of in these pages. 

Political Fears. 

I know of no circumstances which developed what the political faith 
of the Saints really was during their sojourn in the state of Missouri; 
and doubt if any data exists from which it could be determined whether 
a majority of them were Whigs or Republican- Democrats, as the party 
now designated as the Democratic party was then called. In fact, 
politics, local or national, concerned the Saints but very little during 
their stay in Missouri. Their minds were occupied by quite other, and 
I may say, larger and higher things; and their activities were con- 
cerned with other issues than those political. They were concerned 
about the redemption of Zion, her establishment, the proclamation of 
the Gospel, the salvation of men, the preparation of the earth for the 
incoming of that Kingdom whose King is the Lord. Their mission 
encompassed the whole world, it was not confined to the state of Missouri 
and her petty political affairs; nor even to the political affairs of the 
United States, important as they were. "Mormonism" was a world-move- 
ment, not merely a national one. It concerned itself with the deeper and 
broader subject of religion, rather than with the principles and methods 
of the administration of government, state or national. Still, in common 
with other people of the county, state and nation of which they were 
citizens, they possessed civil and political rights and privileges, accom- 
panied as such rights and privileges always are in a republic with cer- 
tain duties both to the state and themselves, among which the exercise 
of the elective franchise. As this made them a power in the commu- 
nity, their actual and prospective influence in the affairs of the coun- 
ties where they resided, and in the state, was a matter of frequent 
discussion among the old settlers in Missouri. I do not know that it 
was ever charged that they were Whigs, and that by acting with that 
party in Missouri they could wrest the control of the state from the 
Republican-Democratic party then in power; though that they were 
Whigs might have been inferred from the fact of their being chiefly 
from New England and other northern states; yet this was not charged. 


There was repeatedly expressed, however, a fear of their political 
power. In the document issued by the mob meeting at Independence 
©n the 20th of July, 1833, it is said: "When we reflect on the 
extensive field in which the sect is operating, and that there 
exists in every country a leaven of superstition that embraces with 
avidity, notions the most extravagant and unheard of, and that 
whatever can be gleaned by them from the purlieus of vice 
and the abodes of ignorance, is to be cast like a waif into our social 
circle, it requires no gift of prophecy to tell that the day is not far dis- 
tant when the civil government of the county will be in their hands; 
when the sheriff, the justices, and the county judges will be Mormons, 
or persons wishing to court their favor from motives of interest or am- 

It was an effort to prevent members of the Church from voting at an 
election at Gallatin, Daviess county, in August, 1838, which led to the 
commencement of those acts of hostility against the Saints which 
ended ultimatelj^ in their expulsion from that state. There was no 
political offense even charged against the Saints; only that if permitted 
to exercise the franchise thej' would in time obtain control of the 
counties where they resided, so rapidly were they increasing in num- 
bers; and the old settlers would lose the ofl&ces; and as these old settlers 
were dear lovers of ofl&ce, it was political jealousj" born of fear which 
prompted in part the acts of aggression against the Saints. When such 
jealousy is awakened, pretexts for the justification of its existence are 
not difficult to find, and in this instance the old settlers in Missouri 
relied upon the false charges of ignorance, superstition, and general 
unworthiness of the Saints to be considered good citizens of the state. 
The charge was not that they were all of one political faith; or that 
they voted solidly; or that they were under the political dictation of 
their religious leaders ; or that religious influence was dragged into 
political affairs. None of these charges were made: it was simply a 
fear that the old settlers would lose the offices, and the new settlers, 
the Saints, being in the majority, would hold them. How much justi- 
fication there was for this "fear" may not be determined, since it was 
based upon no accomplished fact, but regarded as the natural outcome 
of the operation of the political system obtaining in the United States; 
namely, the right of the majority to choose the public officers; and if 
the Saints happened to be in the majority it was regarded as likely that 
they would elect their friends to office, among whom, at least, would 
have been some members of their own faith. How the matter would 
have terminated in the event of the Saints having been permitted to 
remain in Missouri — what would have been the political alignment of 


the members of the Church I mean, no one can say. The only political 
utterance made by any Church leader was that given out by the Prophet 
Joseph soon after his arrival in Missouri, and called at the time "T/je 
Political Motto of the Church.'''' I quote it: 

''The Constitution oj our country j armed hy the Fathers of Liberty; peace 
and good order in society; love to God, and good will to man. All good and 
wholesome laws; virtue and truth above all things, and Aristarchy [a govern- 
ment by good men] live Jor ever: but woe to tyrants, mobs, aristocracy* 
anarchy and toryism, and all those who invent or seek out unrighteous or 
evasive law suits, under the pretext and color of law or office, either religious 
or political. Exalt the standard of Democracy! Down with that of priest- 
craft, and let all the people say Amen! That the blood of the fathers may not 
ery from the ground against us. Sacred is the memory of that blood which 
bought for us our liberty." 

This surely is sufficiently non-partisan, cosmopolitan and patriotic. 
Is it not of the essence of Americanism? And under such sentiments 
would not every member of the Church be able to perform his political 
duty in either of the great American parties then existing or afterwards 
to arise? 

It is not necessary to pursue this subject further. It is enough to 
say that the political fears of the old settlers of Missouri, though based 
upon conjecture as to what could or might happen, were real fears, and 
became one of the causes of the Missouri persecutions. 

The Saints and the Indians. 

The interest of the Saints in the American Indians grows out of the 
knowledge they have of their forefathers, revealed through the Book of 
Mormon. From the historical parts of that book they learned the 
origin of these Indians; that they are of the house of Israel: from the 
prophetic parts of the book they learn of their future, that it is to be 
glorious; that fallen as their fortunes now are, they will not always 
remain so; extinction is not their fate, but before many generations 
shall pass away they will become a white and a delightsome people, 
favored of God, and prominent in bringing to pass His purposes in the 
land of Zion — the two Americas. It was a mission to the Lamanites 
or Indians which first brought several of the Elders of the Church of 
Christ to western Missouri. When the people of Missouri learned in 
what esteem the Saints held the forefathers of the Indians, and also the 
Indians themselves, both on account of their forefathers and the prom- 
ises of God to them, it was but reasonable that they should conclude 
there was — as indeed there is — a strong sympathy on the part of the 
Saints towards the Indians; and there was great reason to believe that 
this sympathy might become mutual. 


It was in this substratum of truth that the false accusations 
agfainst the Saints were founded to the effect that they were seeking to 
enter into an alliance with the Indian tribes of the west for the purpose 
of driving the old settlers from their possessions in western Missouri, 
in order that the Saints with the Indians might possess the land to the 
exclusion of the "Gentiles." 

To appreciate the seriousness of this charge, it should be remem- 
bered that the Indian tribes formerly residing east o the Mississippi, 
about this time — during President Jackson's two presidential terms, 
1829-1837 — were being transplanted into the country immediately west 
of Missouri, so that there were great numbers of these people — 
amounting to many thousands — being massed just beyond the bound- 
aries of tbe state. Many of the tribes were in no amiable mood either. 
In some instances the terms of the treaties by which they accepted 
lands in the Indian territory west of Missouri, for lands that consti- 
tuted their old homes in the East and South, were forced upon them 
after — ^to them — disastrous wars; so that it might well be suspected 
that they would be ready to follow any leader who would hold out 
promise of regaining their lost possessions, or who would give them 
the hope of revenge upon their despoilers. 

Let these facts be considered and given their due weight, and the 
reader will not find it difficult to perceive what a potent factor against 
the Saints this charge of holding communication with the Indians for 
the purpose of dispossessing the people of western Missouri of their 
homes would be; and, as in the case of the slavery question, their ene- 
mies were not slow to see the advantage, and made the most of it. It 
was not until the agitation for the removal of the Saints from Clay 
county began,, however, 1836, that this charge of holding communica- 
tion with the Indians for the purposes already set forth, was publicly 
made. Then in the document adopted at the mass meeting setting 
forth the several reasons of the old settlers for asking the Saints to re- 
move from Clay county, this passage occurs: 

"In addition to all this, they are charged, as they have hitherto 
been, with keeping up a constant communication with our Indian tribes 
on the frcmtier.s; with declaring, even from the pulpit, that the Indians 
are a part of God's chosen people, and are destined by heaven to in- 
herit this land, in common with themselves. We do not vouch for the 
correctness of these statements; but whether they are true or false, 
their effect has been the same in exciting the community. In times of 
greater tranquility, such ridiculous remarks might well be regarded as 
the offspring of frenzied fanaticism; but at this tim6, our defenseless 
situation on the frontier, the bloody disasters of our fellow citizens in 
Florida and other parts of the South, all tend to make a portion of our 


citizens regard such sentiments with horror, if not alarm. These and 
many other causes have combined to raise a prejudice against them, 
and a feeling of hostility, that the first spark may, and we deeply fear 
will, ignite into all the horrors and desolations of a civil war, the worst 
evil that can befall any country." 

Governor Dunklin, shortly after this, in answer to appeals made to 
him by the Saints for protection, by tne execution of the law, on this 
charge of holding communication with the Indians, said:' 'Your neigh- 
bors accuse your people with holding illicit communication with the 
Indians, and of being opposed to slavery. You deny. Whether the 
charge or the denial is true, I cannot tell. The fact exists, and your 
neighbors seem to believe it true; and whether true or false, the con- 
sequences will be the same (if your opponents are not merely gascon- 
nading), unless you can, by your conduct and arguments, convince 
them of your innocence. If you cannot do this, all I can say to you is 
that in this Republic the vox populi is the vox DeV 

Of course this false accusation was emphatically denied by the 
Saints. In a public meeting held by the members of the Church to draw 
up a reply to the request of the people of Clay county, that the Saints 
remove from that county, they said: "We deny holding any communi- 
cation with the Indians, and mean to hold ourselves as ready to defend 
our country against their barbarous ravages as any other people. We 
believe that all men are bound to sustain and uphold the respective 
governments in which they reside, while protected in their inherent 
and inalienable rights by the laws of such governments; and that 
sedition and rebellion are unbecoming every citizen thus protected, 
and should be punished accordingly." 

In a communication signed by the Prophet Joseph and several other 
presiding ofilcers of the Church, and addressed to the leading men of 
€lay county, referring to the Indian charge, this was said: "Another 
charge of great magnitude is brought against our friends in the 
west, that of keeping up a constant communication with the In- 
dian tribes on the frontier; with declaring, even from the pulpit, 
that the Indians are a part of God's chosen people, and are destined 
by heaven to inherit this land, in common with themselves. We know 
of nothing under the present aspect of our Indian relations calculated to 
arouse the fears of the people of the Upper Missouri more than a com- 
bination of influences of this nature; and we cannot look upon it as 
being other than one of the most subtle purposes of those whose feel- 
ings are embittered against our friends, to turn the eye of suspicion 
upon them from every man who is acquainted with the barbarous cru- 
elty of rude savages. Since a rumor was afloat that the western In- 
dians were showing signs of war, we have received frequent private 


letters from our friends, who have not only expressed fears for their 
own safety, in case the Indians should break out, but a decided deter- 
mination to be among the first to repel any invasion and defend the 
frontier from all hostilities. We mention the last fact because it was 
wholly uncalled for on our part, and came previous to any excitement 
on the part of the people of Clay county against our friends, and must 
definitely show that this charge is untrue.'' 

But all these denials went for nothing. As remarked by Governor 
Dunklin, whether the denial or the charge was true, people at a dis- 
tance, at least, might not tell; quite generally, however, the charge 
was believed, and helped to swell the volume of prejudice — already too 
great — against the Saints. Indeed, so potent a factor was this charge 
of holding illicit communication with the Indians, in arousing prejudice 
against the Saints, that it was used against them with great effect after 
their settlement in Utah, It was one of the charges made against them 
at the time the general government of the United States was induced 
by their enemies to send out an army to suppress a rebellion in Utah 
that had no existence except in the hate-frenzied minds of the detrac- 
tors of the Saints. 

"It is charged," said Stephen A. Douglas in a speech at Springfield, 
Illinois, on the I2th of June, 1857*— "It is charged * * * * 
that the Mormon government, with Brigham Young at its head, is now 
forming alliances with Indian tribes in Utah and adjoining territories^ 
stimulating the Indians to acts of hostility, and organizing bands of 
his own followers, under the name of Danites or destroying angels, 
to prosecute a system of robbery and murders upon American citizens 
who support the authority of the United States, and denounce the in- 
famous and disgusting practices and institutions of the Mormon gov- 

The army came only to find the foregoing with other charges that had 
induced the general government to send it to Utah, untrue. But thi& 
is digression. 

Mormon communication with the American Indians for the purpose 
of despoiling the Gentiles and taking possession of their lands can 
never be set down as one of the causes of the Missouri persecution; for 
such communication never took place — the charge of it was untrue. It 
was, however, one of a number of pretexts, and became a factor in 
creating public prejudice, which alone made possible the expulsion of 
the Saints from Missouri. 

The Univisdom of the Saints. 

I come now to one of the most delicate subdivisions of this Introduc- 
* The speech appears in the Missouri Repuhlican of June 18th, 1857. 


tion; namely, the unwisdom of the Saints. To appreciate this as a 
factor in the Missouri persecutions one needs to take into account not 
only human nature, but also human nature under the stress of relie:ious 
impulse and influence. First, however, as to the facts involved. 

To the Saints of those times had been given a dispensation of the 
Gospel — a new revelation of it. They had been blessed with the spirit 
of faith to receive it. To them it was made known that God had again 
spoken from heaven; He had again conferred divine authority upon 
men to act in His name — many of the brethren, the majority of the 
male membership of the Church in fact, held that divine authority, the 
priesthood of God; the terms of man's salvation were restated; the 
spiritual powers and gifts of the Gospel were guaranteed anew and 
plenteously enjoyed by the Saints. To them was made known the truth 
of a new volume of scripture, the Book of Mormon. The knowledge 
imparted by that book was in itself, and especially to them, wonderful. 
From it they learned that the ancient inhabitants of the American con- 
tinents, the ruins of whose civilization challenged the curiosity of men 
and excited their wonder, were of the house of Israel; the American 
Indians were their fallen descendants and, of course, also of the house of 
Israel and heirs to the general promises made to that people, to say 
nothing of special promises made to them as direct descendants of the 
house of the patriarch Joseph, son of Jacob. Messiah in his resurrected 
and glorified state had visited America and its inhabitants shortly after 
His resurrection at Jerusalem, and established the Christian institution,— 
a Christian ministry, and a Christian Church, followed by a veritable 
golden age of peace, prosperity, and righteousness; and although the 
descendants of that ancient God-favored people were now fallen from 
the high estate of their fathers, yet were the promises and prophecies 
great concerning them. God would again visit them by His grace, they 
should be redeemed from their ignorance and barbarism, and they 
should yet be important factors in establishing a "New Jerusalem,'^ 
the Zion of God on this land of America, given to the descendants of 
the ancient patriarch Joseph, whose descendants principally the Indians 
are. The Saints had been even so far favored as to have the place for 
the chief city of refuge and safety pointed out to them by revelation ; 
as also the site of its temple — Independence, Missouri; and they were 
required by the commandments of God to bear witness to the world of 
these things. In view of all this — the fact that they were made at once 
the depository and witnesses of these great revelations, is it not likely 
that they would regard themselves as a people peculiarly favored of 
God? And is it matter of astonishment if some among them, not pos. 
sessed of the soundest judgment, should run into an excess of zeal and 
give expression to unwise, as also to unwarranted conclusions* 

C Vol III 



Moreover, the Lord had spoken of the future glory of Zion — of 
the city, the location of which the Elders were to testify; also of the 
glory of the temple, with its future cloud by day and pillar of fire by 
night; of the future union of this New- World Zion with the ancient 
Zion of Enoch, where the Lord will make His abode, "and for the space 
of a thousand years shall the earth rest ; " * also of his covenant with them 
concerning Zion, both as pertaining to time and eternity, wherein He 
said: "I have made the earth rich; and behold it ismy footstool, where- 
fore, again I will stand upon it; and I hold forth, and deign to give 
unto you greater riches, even a land of promise, a land flowing with 
milk and honey, upon which there shall be no curse when the Lord 
Cometh: and I will give it unto you for the land of your inheritance, if 
you seek it with all your hearts. And this shall be my covenant with 
you,you shall have it for the land of your inheritance, and for the inher- 
itance of your children forever, while the earth shall stand, and you shall 
possess it again in eternity, no more to pass away."t 

The Lord said again concerning Zion: "Wherefore I, the Lord, have 
said, gather ye out from the eastern lands, assemble yourselves to- 
gether ye elders of my Church; go ye forth into the western countries, 
call upon the inhabitants to repent, and inasmuch as they do repent, 
build up churches unto me; and with one heart and with one mind, 
gather up your riches that ye may purchase an inheritance which shall 
hereafter be appointed unto you, and it shall be called the New Jeru- 
salem, a land of peace, a city of refuge, a place of safety for the Saints 
of the Most High God; and the glory of the Lord shall be there, inso- 
much that the wicked will not come unto it, and it shall be called Zion. 
And it shall come to pass, among the wicked, that every man that will 
not take his sword against his neighbor, must needs flee unto Zion for 
safety. And there shall be gathered unto it out of every nation under 
heaven; and it shall be the only people that shall not be at war one 
with another. And it shall be said among the wicked, Let us not go up 
to battle against Zion, for the inhabitants of Zion are terrible; where- 
fore we cannot stand."! 

These promises to the Saints respecting Zion; these descriptions 
given to them of her future sanctified and glorified state; their con- 
nection with a work so exalted and far-reaching, was apt to fire their 
minds with a zeal not always tempered with wisdom. It was in vain 
that limitations of time and conditions were placed upon these general 
descriptions of the future greatness and glory of the city of God ; nor 
could they understand that their own relationship to these great things 

* Pearl of Great Price, pp. 44, 45. 1902 edition, 
t Doc. & Cov. Sec. 38. 
J Doc. and Cov. Sec. 45. 


was merely to lay the foundation of them, to locate the site of the 
future city and temple, and then bear witness of it to the world. Yet 
that their work in connection with the founding of Zion was chiefly 
this, is clearly to be seen in the revelations of God to them. 

The immediate and triumphant establishment of Zion, though ex- 
pected by many of the Saints, was nowhere contemplated in the revela- 
tions of God to the Church. That hope of immediate establishment and 
glorification of Zion was the result of faulty deductions from the revela- 
tions of God ; but the Lord was not blind respecting the events about 
to take place on the land of Zion, nor did He hold out any false hope to 
His people had they but read His revelations aright. A few days before 
the first conference held by the Elders on the land of Zion, the Lord 
said to them through His Prophet: 

"Hearken, ye elders of my Church, and give ear to my word, and 
learn of me what I will concerning you, and also concerning this land 
unto which I have sent you: For verily I say unto you, blessed is he 
that keepeth my commandments, whether in life or in death; and he 
that is faithful in tribulation, the reward of the same is greater in the 
kingdom of heaven. Ye cannot behold with your natural eyes, for the 
present time, the design of your God concerning those thines which 
shall come hereafter, and the glory which shall follow after much tribu- 
lation. For after much tribulation comes the blessings. Wherefore the 
day Cometh that ye shall be crowned with much glory; the hour is not 
yet, but is nigh at hand. Remember this, which I tell you before, that 
you may lay it to heart, and receive that which shall follow. Behold, 
verily I say unto you, for this cause I have sent you that you might be 
obedient, and that your hearts might be prepared to bear testimony of 
the things which are to come; and also that you might be honored of 
laying the foundation, and of bearing record of the land upon which 
the Zion of God shall stand; * * * * and that the testi- 
mony might go forth from Zion, yea, from the mouth of the city of the 
heritage of God. * * * * ^^^ now, verily, I say, con- 
cerning the residue of the elders of my Church, the time has not yet 
come, for many years, for them to receive their inheritance in this landi 
except they desire it through the prayer of faith, only as it shall be ap- 
pointed unto them of the Lord. For, behold, they shall push the peo- 
ple together from the ends of the earth."* 

These statements, when rightly considered, dispel all notion of the im- 
mediate establishment of Zion. The Lord distinctly warns His servants 
against any such supposition. He predicts"tribulation"before the glory 
shall come. It is only after "much tribulation" that the blessings are 

* Doc. & Cov. Sec. 58. 


promised. He reminds them that He has "told them before" of this, 
and asks them "to lay it to heart," and gives them to understand that 
it will be "'many years'''' before some of the Elders of His Church will 
receive their inheritance in the goodly land. 

The Lord still further foreshadowed the trouble which afterwards 
overtook His people by urging them to make arrangements for the pur- 
chase of the whole region that had been designated as the center place 
of Zion. "For, behold, verily I say unto you, the Lord willeth that 
the disciples, and the children of men should open their hearts, even to 
purchase this whole region of country, as soon as time will permit. Be- 
hold, here is wisdom. Let them do this lest they receive none inherit- 
ance, save it be by the shedding of blood."* 

In this same month of August the Lord again said: "Behold, the 
land of Zion, I, the Lord, hold it in mine own hands; nevertheless, I, 
the Lord, render unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's: wherefore, 
I, the Lord, will that you should purchase the lands that you may have 
advantage of the world, that you may have claim on the world, that 
they may not be stirred up unto anger; for Satan putteth it into their 
hearts to anger against you, and to the shedding of blood; wherefore 
the land of Zion shall not be obtained but by purchase or by blood, 
otherwise there is none inheritance for you. And if by purchase be- 
hold you are blessed; and if bj' blood, as you are forbidden to shed 
blood, lo, your enemies are upon you, and ye shall be scourged frotn city 
to city, and from synagogue to synagogue, and but feiv shall stand to receive 
an inheritance. ''^f 

About a month after this word, the Lord said: "Behold the Lord 
requireth the heart and a willing mind; and the willing and obedient 
shall eat the good of the land of Zion in these last days ; and the rebel- 
lious shall be cut off out of tne land of Zion, and shall be sent away, 
and shall not inherit the land; for, verily, I say that the rebellious are 
not of the blood of Ephraim, wherefore they shall be plucked out. "J 

All this makes it very clear that while great things were promised 
concerning the establishment of Zion and the glory that is to be hers, 
yet all was predicated upon the faithfulness of the Saints in keeping the 
commandments of the Lord — in purchasing the lands that constituted 
the center place of Zion, and living upon them in all righteousness. 

This they failed to do. In a revelation given in November, 1831, a 
few months after the land had been dedicated unto the Lord for the 
gathering of His people, He thus complained of those who had assem- 
bled in western Missouri: 

* Doc. and Gov., Sec. 58, verses 52-3. 
t Doc. and Gov., Sec. 63. verses 25-31. 
J Doc. and Gov., Sec. 64, verses 34-36. 


"And the inhabitants of Zion shall also observe the Sabbath day to 
keep it holy. And the inhabitans of Zion also shall remember their 
labors, inasmuch as they are appointed to labor, in all faithfulness; for 
the idler shall be had in remembrance before the Lord. Now, I, the 
Lord, am not well pleased with the inhabitants of Zion, for there are 
idlers among them; and their children are also growing up in wicked- 
ness; they also seek not earnestly the riches of eternity, but their eyes 
are full of greediness. These things ought not to be, and must be done 
away from among them: wherefore let my servant, Oliver Cowdery car- 
ry these sayings unto the land of Zion. And a commandment I give 
unto them, that he that observeth not his prayers before the Lord in the 
season thereof, let him be had in remembrance before the judge of my 
people. These sayings are true and faithful; wherefore transgress them 
not, neither take therefrom."* 

In addition to these evils there were jealousies and bickerings among 
some of the brethren in Zion, and also between some of the Elders in 
Zion, and leading Elders in Kirtland. In the spring of 1832 the Proph- 
et visited the Saints in Jackson county, and there were reconciliations 
among the brethren, and forgiveness of sins obtained from the Lord;t 
but shortly after the Prophet's departure for Kirtland these ill feelings 
broke out again with renewed bitterness; carelessness as to keeping the 
commandments of God characterized the conduct of the Saints in Zion, 
and there arose some confusion also in the government of the Church 
there, owing to conflicting claims of authority between traveling Elders 
and the standing ministry in the branches of the Church. This led to 
the following reproof from the Lord in a revelation given on the 22nd 
and 23rd of September, 1832: 

"And your minds in times past have been darkened because of un- 
belief, and because you have treated liglltly the things you have re- 
ceived, which vanity and unbelief hath brought the whole Church under 
condemnation. And this condemnation resteth upon the children of 
Zion, even all: and they shall remain under this condemnation until 
they'repent and remember the new covenant, even the Book .of Mor- 
mon, and the former commandments which I have given them,! not only 
to say, but to do according to that which I have written, that they may 
bring forth fruit meet for their Father's kingdom, otherwise there re- 
maineth a scourge and a judgment to be poured out upon the children of 
Zion: for shall the children of the kingdom pollute my holy land? Ver- 
ily, J say unto you, Nay."§ 

* Doc. and Gov., sec. 68, verses 29-34. 
t See "History of the Church," Vol. I, eh. 19. 

t Including of course, and I may say especially including, the commandment to 
purchase the lands of Jackson county. 
§ Doc. and Gov., sec. 84, verses 54-59. 


When this revelation, given early in January, 1833, was sent to the 
Holders in Zion, it was accompanied also by a letter from the Prophet 
sharply reproving the brethren and Saints in Zion, in which the follow- 
ing passage occurs: 

"Let me say unto you, seek to purify yourselves, and also the inhab 
itants of Zion, lest the Lord's anger be kindled to fierceness. Repent 
repent, it is the voice of God to Zion; and strange as it may appear yet 
It is true, mankind will persist in self-justification until all their iniquity 
IS exposed, and their character past being redeemed, and that which is 
treasured up in their hearts be exposed to the gaze of mankind I say 
to you (and what I say to you, I say to all), hear the warning voice of 
(rod, lest Zion jail, and the Lord swear in His wrath, 'Ihe inhabitants 
of Zion shall not enter into my rest.'' "* 

Hyrum Smith and Orson Hyde were appointed by a Council of the 
High Priests in Kirtland at this time, to write a letter of reproof and 
warning to the brethren in Zion. In this communication the conduct 
of the Saints in Zion was reviewed in great plainness. The whole 
spirit of the communication may be judged by the following para- 
graph: ^ 

"We feel more like weeping over Zion than rejoicing over her for 
we know that the judgments of God hang over her, and will fall upon her 
except she repent, and purify herself before the Lord, and nut away from 
her every foul spirit. We now say to Zion, this once, in the name of 
the Lord, Repent! repent! awake! awake! put on thy beautiful gar- 
ments, before you are made to feel the chastening rod of Him whose 
anger is kindled against you. Let not Satan tempt you to think we 
want to make you bow to us, to domineer over you, for God knows this 
IS not the case; our eyes are watered with tears, and our hearts are 
poured out to God in prayer for you, that He will spare you, and turn 
away His anger from you. * * * Therefore, with the 
feelings of inexpressible anxiety for your welfare, we say again Re- 
pent, repent, or Zion must suffer, for the scourge and judgment must\ome 
upon rte/-s"t 

All this reproof and warning, however, only produced a partial 
repentance, and in July following acts of violence began to be perpe- 
trated upon the Saints by the old settlers of Missouri, and in the month 
of November, under circumstances of great cruelty, all the Saints 
were driven from Jackson county, and later more than two hundred of 
their homes, together with their public improvements, were destroyed 

When the Lord revealed to the Prophet Joseph why this affliction had - 
befallen the people. He said: "Verily I say unto you concerning your 

* History of the Church, Vol. I p 316. 
t Ibid, pp 317-21. 


brethren who have been afflicted, and persecuted, and cast out from the 
land of their inheritance, I, the Lord, have suffered the affliction to 
come upon them wherewith they have been afflicted, in consequence of 
their transgressions; yet I will own them, and they shall be mine in 
that day when I shall come to make up my jewels. Therefore, they 
must needs be chastened and tried, even as Abraham, who was com- 
manded to offer up his only son; for all those who will not endure 
chastening, but deny me, cannot be sanctified. Behold, I say unto you, 
there were jarrings, and contentions, and envyings, and strifes and 
lustful and covetous desires among them; therefore, by these things 
they polluted their inheritances. They were slow to hearken -unto the 
voice of the Lord their God, therefore the Lord their God is slow to 
hearken unto their prayers, to answer them in the day of their trouble. 
In the day of their peace they esteemed lightly my counsel; but in the 
day of their trouble, of necessity they feel after me. Verily I say unto 
you, notwithstanding their sins my bowels are filled with compassion 
towards them; I will not utterly cast them off; and in the day of wrath 
I will remember mercy.* 

From this it is very clear that the reason why the Saints were pre- 
vailed against by their enemies and driven from the center place of 
Zion, was because of their failure to live up to the high requirements 
made of them by the Lord. In subsequent efforts to redeem Zion, by 
attempting to return the exiles to Jackson county, the Saints in all 
parts of the land again failed to respond with sufficient promptness 
and fulness to the requirements of the Lord, for He commanded them 
again to consecrate money to purchase lands in Jackson county and in 
the counties roundabout, saying to the Church: "There is even now 
already in store a sufficient, yea even abundance, to redeem Zion, and 
establish her waste places, no more to be thrown down, were the 
churches who call themselves after my name willing to hearken to my 

voice, "t „ , 

The Lord also commanded them to gather up their forces and to go 
in sufficient strength to possess the land, and maintain their inheritance 
against their enemies. This, however, they failed to do. Instead of 
raising five hundred men, as they were commanded to do,t they started 
from Kirtland in "Zion's Camp" with a company of only about one hun- 
dred and thirty men ,and twenty baggage wagons. This number was 
increased by additions en route to one hundred and eighty-two men, but 
even this number fell far short of the strength required to accomplisli 
the purpose for which the camp was organized. In the matter of rais- 

* Doc. and Cov., sec. 101, vereses 1-9. 
t Ibid, verse 75. 
t Ibid, sec. 103. 


ing money for the purchase of lands the failure was more conspicuous 
than in raising men to take possession of them, and hence this effort to 
redeem Zion failed. 

Here let me pause in pointing out the unwisdom of the Saints, to 
make an explanation, lest there should be a misunderstanding of what 
is thus far set down respecting their transgressions, by reason of 
which they were prevailed against by their enemies. These transgres- 
sions, be it understood, were no violations of the laws of the land, nor 
did they consist in any acts of aggression or of trespass upon their Mis- 
souri neighbors. The old settlers of Missouri themselves are our wit- 
nesses here; for in all their procedure in this Jackson county persecution 
there is no accusation made against the Saints of violations of the law. 
On the contrary, in their public utterances against the Saints and in 
justification of their own course, the old settlers declare — after express- 
ing their determination to rid their society of the Saints, peacefully if 
they could, but forcibly if they must — '''that the arm oj the civil laxo 
does not afford us a guarantee, or at least a sufficient one, against the 
evils tvhich are now inflicted upon us, and seem to be inreasing hy the 
said religious sect.''''* A more emphatic acknowledgement that the 
alleged offenses of the Saints were not cognizable by the laws, that the 
/Saints had not violated the laws of the land, could not be made. 

In their second manifesto the mob said: ^''Ihe evil is one that no one 
•could have foreseen, and is therefore unprovided for by the laws; and the 
delays incident to legislation would put the mischief beyond remedy.'' ''f 
Another admission that amounts to a declaration, that the Saints, 
whatever the nature of the complaints made against them were, 
had not violated any of the laws of the state, that their offending was 
not cognizable by the laws of the land. 

The ti'ansgressions and sinfulness referred to in the revelations and 
letters of reproof and warning quoted, and for which transgressions 
the Saints were left in the hands of their enemies, were sins against 
•each other and the Lord — unbelief in the word of God, hardness of 
heart towai'ds each other, rejection of the servants of God, fault-finding, 
bickerings, jealousies, covetousness, pride, idleness, boastfulness, 
levity of thought and conduct, disregard of the scriptures, especially of 
the Book of Mormon, neglecting to instruct their children in sacred 
things and to bring them up in the fear and admonition of the Lord; 
all of which were displeasing to the Lord, contrary to His command- 
ments, and a violation of the conditions upon which He had promised 
to redeem Zion and preserve His people from their enemies. '*Ye call 

* First Manifesto of the Mob, Historj- of the Church, Vol, I, p. 374. 
t History of the Church, Vol. I, p. 396. 


upon my name for revelations;" said the Lord to the Elders in Zion, 
"and I give them unto you; and inasmuch as ye keep not my sayings, 
which I give unto you, ye become transgressors, and justice and judg- 
ment are the penalty which is affixed to my law. * * * I, the 
Lord, am bound when ye do what I say; but when ye do not what I 
say, ye have no promise."* 

This, then, was the nature of their offenses; they sinned against the 
Lord in the particulars named; they sinned against each other in the 
manner described; they did not trespass against their non-Mormon 
neighbors, nor break the laws of the land ; but they failed to live in 
accordance with the high moral and spiritual law of the Gospel ; they 
failed to meet the conditions on which God was pledged to their main- 
tenance upon the land of Zion, and hence were left in the hands of 
their enemies. 

At thie commencement of this subdivision of the Introduction I called 
attention to the great things which God had revealed to the Saints, the 
greatness of the dispensation committed unto them, accompanied by the 
promise to establish Zion and give unto the Saints the land thereof 
as an everlasting inheritance. It would be marvelous indeed, and past 
all human experience, if these great things did not turn the heads of 
some of the weak-minded, and make them vain-glorious and boastful. 
I doubt not for a moment that many vain and foolish things were said 
by such characters in the presence of, and perhaps directly to, the old 
settlers of Jackson county, about the Saints taking possession of the 
land, and the wicked being driven away. There was doubtless enough of 
this kind of talk to give color to what the Missourians charged on this 
head, viz., "They [the Saints] declare openly that their God hath given 
them this county of land, and that sooner or later they must and will 
take possession of our lands for an inheritance." 

The Missourians made much of, and attached a sinister meaning to 
the following expression in one of the revelations to the Saints: "'The 
land of Zion shall not be obtained but by purchase or by blood, othenvise 
there is none inheritance for 7/0M."t This the Missourians pretended to 
regard as a threat to take possession of their land by armed conquest. 
Had they i-ead the context of the passage they would have known how 
entirely groundless were their fears, if indeed they had any fears, for 
I am convinced that all their expressed apprehensions on this head 
were mere pretense. The passage and its context are: "Wherefore the 
land of Zion shall not be obtained but by purchase or by blood, other- 
wise there is none inheritance for you. And if by purchase, behold you 

* Doc. and Gov., sec. 83. 
t Doc. and Gov., sec. 63. 


are blessed; and ij by blood, as you are Jorbidden to shed blood, lo, your : 
enemies are upon you, and ye shall be scourged Jrom city to city, and jrom 
synagogue to synagogue and but feiv shall stand to receive an inheritance.^''^ 

Clearly this is a warning to the Saints, not a threat to the Missour- 
ians. If the Saints obtained the land by purchase they were blessed. 
If by blood — since the Saints were forbidden to shed blood, lo their 
enemies would be upon them and they would be driven from city to city 
— not the Missourians, but the Saints. In consequence of the agitation 
of this matter by the foolish, the following passage occurred in 2he Even- 
ing and Morning Star for July, 1833, addressed to the churches scattered 
abroad : "To suppose that we can come up here and take possession of this 
land by the shedding of blood, would be setting at nought the law of the 
glorious Gospel, and also the word of our great Redeemer. And to sup- 
pose that we can take possession of this country without making regu- 
lar purchases of the same according to the laws of our nation, would be 
reproaching this great Republic, in which the most of us were born, and 
under whose auspices we all have protection."! 

Of this the Missourians said that whether they were to be dispos- 
sessed of their lands "by the hand of the destroying angel, the judgments 
of God, or the arm of power, they [the Saints] are not fully agreed 
among themselves. Some recent remarks in the Evening and Morning 
Star, their organ in this place, by their tendency to moderate such 
hopes, and repress such desires, show plainly that many of this deluded 
and infatuated people have been taught to believe that our lands were 
to be won from us by the sword! "t 

Thus the very efforts of the Church to correct the misconceptions and 
silence the utterances of the over-zealous and foolish members, were 
made to contribute as proof that the Saints contemplated the very armed 
conquest of the land which they disclaimed. History, however, will 
do the Saints justice, and it will say, and now says, that neither their 
general principles, nor the special commandments under which they 
moved into the land of Zion, nor any act of theirs warranted the least 
suspicion that they at any time contemplated taking possession of the 
land by force, or in any other manner whatsoever except by purchase 
and possession under the laws of the state of Missouri and the United 
States. And while history will do them this justice it will at the same 
time say that the "fears" of the Missourians on this head were simu- 
lated; that to the foolish boasts of a few ignorant persons they attached 
an undue importance because it happened to give a coloring to their 
pretended fears in the eyes of those at a distance who had no oppoi'- 

* Doc. and Cov.. sec. 63: 29-31. 

t Evening and Morning Star, p. 220. 

t "History of the Church," Vol. 1, p. 39<i. 


tunity to learn the truth, and tended to prejudice the public mind 
against the Saints, and thus served the purpose of their enemies. 

In like manner there may have been some talk among the same class 
of people — the ignorant and over-zealous Church members — respecting 
the Indians, and their future union with the Saints in redeeming the 
land of Zion; a circumstance which led the good people of Clay county 
and Governor DuBklin,to refer to the charge of the Saints holding illicit 
communication with the Indians, designing to employ them in taking 
possession of the land of Zion. Of this charge also history will and 
does vindicate the Saints. It will, and does say, that they disclaimed 
holding any such communication; that neither their general principles 
nor any special commandment from God, and particularly that no action 
of theirs warranted any suspicion on the subject, much less justified the 
charge of such a diabolical purpose. 

After the Saints withdrew from Clay county and at the suggestion of 
her citizens — including some of the most influential men in western Mis- 
souri, some of whom afterwards attained national reputations — lo- 
cated in the sparsely settled counties of Caldwell and Daviess, the situ- 
ation became somewhat changed. For two years the work of purchas- 
ing lands, locating settlements, opening farms, establishing merchantile 
houses, and preparing for manufacturing and commercial enterprises 
went steadily on. In Caldwell and adjoining counties, by the autumn 
of 1838, the Saints had opened two thousand farms, and paid to the 
general government three hundred and eighteen thousand dollars for 
land, which at the minimum price for government land would give them 
over two hundred and fifty thousand acres.* One hundred and fifty 
houses had been erected in Far West; there were four dry goods stores, 
three family groceries, half a dozen blacksmith's shops, and two hotels.f 
The excavation for a temple 120 by 80 feet had been made, and a large 
commodious schoolhouse had been erected on the public square.! The 
town of Adam-Ondi-Ahman was also making rapid progress. 

* These estimates are by the late President George A. Smith, Church Historian, 
and hence are entirely reliable. They are quoted by Lucien Carr in his History of 
Missouri, "American Commonwealths," p. 181, and are also to be found in an Histori 
cal Address by George A. Smith, Journal of Discourses, Vol. XIII, pp. 103, et seq. 

t "History of Caldwell county" (National Historical Company, 1886) p. 121. 

1 "In the fall of 1836, a large and comfortable schoolhouse was built and here 
courts were held after the location of the county seat until its removal to Kingston. 
The Mormons very early gave attention to educational matters. There were many 
teachers among them and schoolhouses were among their first buildings. The 
schoolhouse in Far West was used as a Church, as a town hall and as a court 
house, as well as for a schoolhouse. It first stood in the southwest quarter of 
town, but upon the establishment of the county seat it was removed to the center 
of the square." ("History of Caldwell County," p. 121. — National Historical Com- 
pany, 1886). 


By this time the Prophet Joseph and other leading men of the Church 
had left Kirtland and located with the Saints in Missouri, and everything 
looked propitious for the permanent establishment of the Saints in the 
borders of Zion. The Saints had now been driven bodily from Jackson 
<;ounty; and their homes, store houses and printing establishment had 
been destroyed. The courts of Missouri had proven powerless to restore to 
them their homes, their lands and other property. The executive of the 
state confessed himself powerless to return them to their possessions in 
Jackson county, and maintain them there against the wishes of the 
people of that county. Indeed, Governor Dunklin had weakly given up 
the vindication of the outraged laws of the state, as we have seen, say- 
ing that whether the charges of their enemies or the denials by the 
Saints were true he could not tell; their neighbors seemed to believe 
them true, and whether true or false the consequences would be the 
same, unless the Saints by their conduct and argument could convince 
the Missourians of their innocence. "If you cannot do this," said the 
governor, "all I can say to you is that in this Republic the vox pox>uli 
is the vox Dei!'''' The Saints at some considerable sacrifice had with- 
drawn from Clay county at the request of her citizens, in the interests 
of peace, and had settled in the new counties of Caldwell and Daviess, 
where settlers were few and the country less desirable than in Jackson 
and Clay counties. In doing these things they had repeatedly sacri- 
ficed their rights as citizens, both of Missouri and of the United States. 
Smitten on the one cheek — speaking figuratively — they had turned the 
other; sued at the law for their coat, they had given their cloak also; 
compelled to go one mile with their enemy, they had gone with him 
twain. After doing all this for the sake of peace and the friendship of 
the Missourians, when the Saints saw forming again those elements 
which threatened their peace; when old enemies appeared upon the 
new scene of the Saints' activities, and openly threatened their peace 
and boasted that they would again prosper by despoiling them of their 
new possessions; when they saw the red right hand of a relentless per- 
secution arming again to plague them, it is small wonder if righteous 
anger flushed their cheek, made bright their eyes with indignation and 
led them instinctively to form the resolution that they would submit no 
more to such acts of despoliation, injustice and outrage. 

It was this sense of outraged justice and humanity which led to the 
deliverance of a very noted "Oration" by Sidney Rigdon at Far West, 
on the Fourth of July, 1838, in the course of which there was expressed 
a strong determination to no more submit quietly to mob violence, and 
acts of pillage. At this distance of time from that occasion, and bal- 
ancing against the heated utterances of the speaker the subsequent 
uses made of them to incite the public mind to that series of acts which 


culminated in the expulsion of the Saints from the state, we say those 
utterances were untimely, extreme, and unwise. So indeed thej' were. 
The speaker seems to have thrown discretion to the winds, and in the 
fervor of his rhetoric made threats of retaliation on behalf of the Saints, 
if assailed, that went beyond all bounds of reason and humanity, and 
proved a very damaging as also a very potent factor against the Saints 
in the subsequent movements of their enemies against them. 

But while this oratorical outburst against injustice was unwise, it 
was a very natural thing. The marvel is not that it came at the time 
it did, but that it did not come earlier, more vehemently, and that some 
of the things it threatened were not effectively carried out. What the 
Prophet thought, and how he felt respecting the repeated acts of in- 
justice heaped upon himself and the Saints in Missouri; how he felt 
and what he proposed for the future is made clear in his journal entry 
for September 1st, 1838; and, fortunately, is more temperately expressed 
than in the oration of July the fourth. He said : 

"There is great excitement at present among the Missourians, who 
are seeking if possible an occasion against us. They are continually 
chafing us, and provoking us to anger if possible, one sign of threaten- 
ing after another, but we do not fear them, for the Lord God, the 
Eternal Father is our God, and Jesus the Mediator is our Savior, and 
in the great I Am is our strength and confidence. 

"We have been driven time after time, and that without cause; and 
smitten again and again , and that without provocation ; until we have 
proved the world with kindness, and the world has proved us, that we 
have no designs against any man or set of men, that we injure no man, 
that we are peaceable with all men, minding our own business, and our 
business only. We have suffered our rights and our liberties to be 
taken from us; we have not avenged ourselves of those wrongs; we 
have appealed to magistrates, to sheriffs, to judges, to government and 
to the President of the United States, all in vain; yet we have yielded 
peaceably to all these things. We have not complained at the great 
God, we murmured not, but peaceably left ail, and retired into the back 
country, in the broad and wild prairies, in the barren and desolate 
plains, and there commenced anew; we made the desolate places to 
bud and blossom as the rose; and now the fiend-like race is disposed 
to give us no rest. Their father the devil, is hourly calling upon them 
to be up and doing, and they, like willing and obedient children, need 
not the second admonition; but in the name of Jesus Christ, the Son of 
the living God, we will endure it no longer, if the great God will arm 
us with courage, with strength and with power, to resist them in their 
persecutions. We will not act on the offensive, but always on the de- 
fensive; our rights and our liberties shall not be taken from us, and we 


peaceably submit to it as we have done heretofore, but we will avenge 
ourselves of our enemies, inasmuch as they will not let us alone." 

No one can marvel at the conclusion here arrived at if he will but 
pay attention to and give due weight to the enumerated wrongs which 
precede it. It would be asking the Saints to be more than human if we 
say they ought not to have indulged, much less to have expressed, such 
feelings of resentment. 

Meantime, however, we may not close our eyes to the fact that there 
was unwisdom manifested on the part of a few of the Saints, which 
gave advantage to their enemies, by affording pretexts for some of their 
accusations. That unwisdom, as we have seen, consisted of boasting 
as to what the Lord would do in the immediate future in giving them 
possession of western Missouri as an inheritance; perhaps some unwise 
allusions to the supposed part the Lamanites would take in the establish- 
ment and redemption of Zion; and the vehement threats of retaliation 
in the event of their being further assailed. These unwise utterances, 
however, were made, for the most part, by the overzealous and ignorant. 
Men who had no grasp of the real genius of the great work whose 
foundations were then being laid; men who, in common with men of 
like nature in all ages and in all great movements, have been trouble- 
breeders; who, in their contemplation of ultimate results to be achieved, 
overleaped the intervening space through which the movement must pass, 
the difficulties it must encounter and overcome, the experiences its 
adherents must gain, the great and varied labors they must perform. 
They seem not to undestand that great movements require time for the 
achievement of their ends; that time with God is one thing, with man 
quite another thing; that the thing which is ''nigh at hand" with the 
Lord may be to men afar off; and overlooking these important facts 
leads such men into many errors of thought and action. It was wholly 
reprehensible, unwarranted, and cowardly, however, on the part of the 
Missourians to take advantage of the unwise utterances of such charac- 
ters and charge their sentiments and folly to the whole body religious, 
that never entertained such sentiments nor contemplated the actions 
such sentiments suggest. And this is to be said even of those who 
were unwise enough to give the advantage here noted to the enemies 
of the Saints, they at no time or place were ever guilty of attempting 
in any manner to carry into effect by any action of their own the unwise 
and unwan-anted opinions they entertained and expressed. Their boast- 
ings and vain speculations were in relation to what the Lord was going to 
do, not what they themselves purposed doing. These utterances were 
merely the effervescence of overwrought minds, of overzealous, foolish, 
but well meaning and harmless people. Unhappily, however, what 
they said gave the enemy an advantage that he was not slow to avail 


himself of, and the unwisdom of some of the Saints is a factor that 
must be reckoned with in dealing with the causes of the persecutions 
of the Saints in Missouri. 

The Beal Cause of the Missouri Persecutions. 

Having considered those facts and circumstances which may be re- 
garded as the minor causes and pretexts of the Missouri persecutions, 
let us now come to the heart of the matter, to the real cause of the 
persecution of the Saints. 

It was against the Saints as a religious sect that the Missourians first 
complained. It was "in consequence of a pretended religious sect of 
people" that had settled, and was still settling in their country, "styling 
themselves Mormons, "that led the Missourians of Jackson county to pre- 
tend to believe that an important crisis regarding their civil society was 
at hand. "It is more thant wo years," they said, "since the first of these 
fanatics, or knaves (for one or other they undoubtedly are), made their 
first appearance amongst us, and pretended as they did, and do now, 
to hold personal communication and converse face to face with the 
Most High; to receive communications and revelations direct from 
heaven; to heal the sick hy laying on hands; and, in short, to perform 
all the wonder-working miracles wrought by the inspired apostles and 
prophets of old. We believed them deluded fanatics, or weak and de- 
signing knaves, and that they and their pretensions would soon pass 
away ; but in this we were deceived. * * * Xhey openly blas- 
pheme the Most High God, and cast contempt on His holy religion, by 
pretending to receive revelations direct from heaven, by pretending to 
speak unknown tongues by direct inspiration, and by divers pretenses 
derogatory to God and religion, and to the Titter subversion of human 

The foregoing is quoted from the first "Manifesto," or "Secret Con- 
stitution" of the mob. Somewhat later, in a second manifesto issued 
to the public in justification of their contemplated acts of violence 
against the Saints, they say: "What would be the fate of our lives 
and property, in the hands of jurors and witnesses, who do not blush to 
declare, and would not upon occasion hesitate to swear, that they have 
wrought miracles, and have been the subjects of miraculous and super- 
natural cures, have conversed with God and His angels, and possess 
and exercise the gifts of divination and of unknown tongues, and fired 
with the prospect of obtaining inheritances without money and without 
price — may be better imagined than described. * * * Of 
their pretended revelations from heaven — their personal intercourse 

* "History of the Chiirch," Vol., 1, pp. 375-6. 


with God and His angels — the maladies they pretend to heal by the 
laying on of hands — and the contemptible gibberish with which they 
habitually profane the Sabbath, and which they dignify with the appel- 
lation of unknown tongues, we have nothing to say: vengeance be- 
longs to God alone."* 

Yet it was because the Saints entertained these religious beliefs that 
the mob of Jackson county issuing this "manifesto," proceeded to take 
"vengeance'' into their own hands, and wreak it upon the Saints. All 
their other accusations against them, — namely, idleness, ignorance, in- 
viting "free negroes" into the state, inciting the slaves to insubordina- 
tion to their masters, claiming Jackson county as their inheritance to 
be obtained by force if not bloodshed, and poverty — all these charges, 
except, perhaps the last (for some of the Saints were very poor, though 
I have yet to learn that that is a crime), were absolutely untrue. The 
Saints, however, did claim the existence of spiritual power in their 
religion; that the channel of communication between God and men by 
means of revelation, the visitation of angels, and the inspiration of the 
Holy Ghost, had been opened anew; that gifts of the Gospel — tongues, 
interpretations, visions, inspired dreams, healings — that all the spirit- 
ual powers and graces of the Gospel, in fact, were manifested in the 
religion they had accepted. By this religion, also, they were admon- 
ished to righteousness of life; to the strict observance of the Sabbath; 
to respect for the name of Deity; to temperance; to industry; to true 
speaking and true acting; to patience — in a word, to godliness; all of 
which but to live was to place themselves in marked contrast to those 
about them, and their righteous lives were a great rebuke to the gen- 
eral dissolute conduct of the Missourians. It was this effort at a godly 
walk and conversation, and the religion which commanded it, that was 
offensive in the eyes of the Missourians, and which led them to form 
their strong determination to be rid of a people and a religion which 
made their own lives a reproach. 

That this was regarded as the chief, if not the sole cause of their per- 
secution, appears in the subsequent discussion of the Jackson county 
difficulties, both pro et con. All other questions, all the minor causes 
and pretexts were lost sight of in that discussion. Governor Dunklin, 
in a communication to Colonel J. Thornton, in answer to a letter writ- 
ten by that gentleman proposing a compromise between the Saints and 
their enemies in Jackson county, recognizes what he calls "the eccen- 
tricity of the religious opinions of the Mormons" as being the cause of 
their persecution. "I am fully persuaded," he remarks, "that the ec- 
centricity of the religious opinions and practices of the Mormons is at 
the bottom of the outrages committed against them.'' 

* "History of the Church," Vol. I, p. 397. 


In this important communication he no where considers anything 
else as the cause of their persecution, but arp:ues at length in favor of 
their right to the entertainment of their religious views, eccentric 
howsoever they might be, so long as they did not interfere with the 
rights of others. "They have the right constitutionally guaranteed to 
them," he remarks, "and it is indefeasible, to worship Joe Smith as a 
man, an angel, or even as the only true and living God, and to call their 
habitation Zion, the Holy Land, or even heaven itself. Indeed, there 
is nothing so absurd or ridiculous that they have not a right to adopt as 
their religion, so that in its exercise they do not interfere with the 
rights of others."* 

The people of Clay county when they called upon the Saints to 
peaceably remove from their borders and seek a locality where they 
could form a community that should be largely, if not exclusively, 
made up of their own Church membership, indicated very clearly that 
it was the religion of the Saints that was the chief cause of complaint 
against them. In a document they published setting forth the reasons 
why they suggested such removal, they said; "The religious tenets of 
this people are so different from the present churches of the age, that 
they always have, and always will, excite deep prejudices against them 
in any populous country where they may locate. We, therefore, in a 
spirit of frank ar:d friendly kindness, do advise them to seek a home 
where they may obtain large and separate bodies of land, and have 
a community of their own."* 

Again, after the surrender at Far West, when the Church leaders 
had been betrayed into bondage; after the Saints had delivered up their 
arms; after they had signed over their properties to defray the expenses 
of the "war;" and when the whole body of the Church was making 
hasty preparations to depart from the state, a number of the brethren 
were assembled on the temple square at Far West, ^nd in the course 
of a long speech, which he readf to them, General John B. Clark 

"I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently in- 
telligent men found in the situation you are; and oh! that I could in- 
voke that Great Spirit, the Unknown God, to rest upon you, and make 
you sufficiently intelligent to break that chain of superstition, and liber- 
ate you from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound — 
that you no longer worship a man! I would advise you to scatter 
abroad, and never again organize yourselves with Bishops, Presidents, 

* "History of the Church," Vol. II, p. 85. 

* "History of the Church," Vol. II, p. 450. 

t "History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties," compiled by the St. Louis 
National and Historical Company, 188fc' , p. 140. 

d vol III 


etc., lest you excite the jealousies of the people, and subject yourselves 
to the same calamities that have now come upon you.'' 

This to a people whose leaders had been betrayed into the hands of 
their enemies; who themselves had been disarmed, though acting: only 
in defense of their homes and families; who had been compelled at the 
muzzle of the musket to sign awaj' their propertj' to defray the ex- 
penses of the militia mobs that had brought their calamities upon them; 
who were then under an order of expulsion from the state and making 
hurried preparations for their enforced departure — this to men who had 
sacrificed or had been robbed of the most sacred rights of American 
citizenship! And he who thus addressed the brethren impudently told 
them in the very speech from which I quote, that he approved of all that 
had been done to them ! But the foregoing quotation is not made in order 
to point out the mockery of the speech; or the mixture of hypocrisy and 
blasphemj- in it; or the utter contemptibility of him who delivered it. 
I quote the passage merely to point out the fact that it was hatred of 
their alleged "superstition" and "fanaticism," in other words the re- 
ligion of the Saints that was the cause of their persecution. The crimes 
against which the Saints are warned for the future — under penalty of 
having their present troubles revisited upon them — is gathering together 
in large bodies, and organizing themselves with Bishops, Presidents, 
etc. In other words it was the religion of the people and the organiz- 
ation which was both the depository of its doctrines, and the instru- 
mentality by which they were promulgated — the Church — which was 
the object of the Missourians' animosity, the thing they were deter- 
mined to destroy. 

Later, when the Prophet Joseph and other leading brethren were 
under examination before Judge Austin A. King at Richmond, Ray 
county, special inquiry was made as to the belief of the witnesses in the 
declaration of the Prophet Daniel: "And in the daj's of these kings 
shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be de- 
stroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall 
break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for 

The judge on being answered that the Saints believed the prophecy, 
turned to the clerk and told him to write the answer down as it was "a 
strong point Jor treasonl"'f I call it another evidence that it was the 
religious beliefs of the Saints that constituted their offense. True the 
Prophet and several other brethren were technically held for trial on 

« Daniel 2: 44. 

t Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 230, also History of the Church, Vol. Ill 
p. 212. 


the charge of "treason, murder, arson, burglarly, robberj', larceny and 
perjury," but no one in Missouri ever seriously believed the charges 
since they were wholly untrue or grew out of those acts of self defense, 
and defense of their families against the aggressions of mob violence — 
a course which all men have a right to take in the protection of their own 
lives and the preservation of their homes from the hand of the despoiler. 

The meeting of discordant elements of society — New England people 
and people from the Southern States, descendants of Puritans and des- 
cendants of Cavaliers — may have been a cause of dislike, and, on the 
part of the Missourians, a cause of irritation against the Saints; the 
suspected existence of anti- slavery sentiments among the Saints may 
have been to the Missourians a cause of distrust; the interest of the 
Saints in the Indians and the beliefs of the former in the future rehabili- 
ation of the latter as a people favored of God, may have been, under all 
the circumstances, a cause of uneasiness to the Missourians; and the 
desire to plunder the Saints and to profit by dispossessing them of their 
lands and homes might have been, and doubtless was, an incentive to 
many of the mob who participated in the events which culminated in 
the expulsion of the Saints from the state; but, at bottom, I repeat, it 
was the destruction of the religion of the Saints, and of the organiza- 
tion that taught its doctrines, and controlled its membership in eccles- 
iastical affairs, that were the objectives of all that agitation, violence 
and injustice, which make up the persecution of the Latter-day Saints 
in Missouri. But how shall the truth of this be established beyond 
reasonable doubt? Listen: — 

The author of the "'Decline and Fall of the Eoman Empire'''' gives the 
following pen-picture of conditions with reference to religious toleration 
which obtained in the empire under the reign of the Antonines, 
Adrian and Marcus Aurelius, second century, A. D, "The firm 
edifice of Roman power was raised and preserved by the wisdom 
of ages. The obedient provinces of Trajan and the Antonines 
were united by laws, and adorned by arts. They might occasionally 
suffer from the partial abuse of delegated authority; but the general 
principle of government was wise, simple, and beneficent. They en- 
joyed the religion of their ancestors, whilst in civil honors and advan- 
tages they were exalted, by just degrees, to an equality with their con- 
querors. The policy of the emperors and the senate, as far as it con- 
cerned religion, was happily seconded by the reflections of the enlight- 
ened, and the habits of the superstitious, part of their subjects. The 
various modes of worship, which prevailed in the Roman world, were 
all considered by the people as equally true; by the philosopher, as 
equally false; and by the magistrate, as equally useful. And thus tol- 
eration produced not only mutual indulgence, but even religious con- 


cord. The superstition of the people was not embittered by any mix- 
ture of theologfical rancor; nor was it confined by the chains of any 
speculative sj'stem. The devout polytheist, though fondly attached to 
his national rites, admitted with implicit faith the different religions of 
the earth. Fear, gratitude, and curiosity, a dream or an omen, a sing- 
ular disorder, or a distant journey, perpetually disposed him to multi- 
ply the articles of his belief, and to enlarge the list of his protectors. 
The thin texture of the Pagan mythology was interwoven with various 
but not discordant materials. As soon as it was allowed that sages and 
heroes, who had lived or who had died for the benefit of their country, 
were exalted to a state of power and immortality, it was universally con- 
fessed that they deserved, if not the adoration, at least the reverence, 
of all mankind. The deities of a thousand groves and a thousand 
streams possessed in peace their local and respective influence: nor 
could the Roman who deprecated the wrath of the Tiber, deride the 
Egyptian who presented his offering to the beneficent genius of the 
Nile. The visible powers of nature, the planets, and the elements, 
were the same throughout the universe. The invisible governors of the 
moral world were inevitably cast in a similar mould of fiction and alle- 
gory. Every virtue, and even vice, acquired its divine representative; 
every art and profession its patron, whose attributes, in the most dis- 
tant ages and countries, were uniformly derived from the character of 
their peculiar votaries. A republic of gods of such opposite tempers 
and interests required, in every system, the moderating hand of a su- 
preme magistrate, who, by the progress of knowledge and flattery, was 
gradually invested with the sublime perfections of an eternal parent, 
and an omnipotent monarch. Such was the mild spirit of antiquity, 
that the nations were less attentive to the difference, than to the resem- 
blance, of their religious worship. The Greek, the Roman, and the 
Barbarian, as they met before their respective altars, easily persuaded 
themselves, that under various names, and with various ceremonies, 
they adored the same deities. * * * * Rome, the cap- 
ital of a great monarchy, was incessantly filled with subjects and 
strangers from every part of the world, who all introduced and enjoyed 
the favorite superstitions of their native country. Every city in the 
empire was justified in maintaining the puritj' of its ancient ceremon- 
ies; and the Roman senate, using the common privilege, sometimes in- 
terposed to check this inundation of foreign rites. The Egyptian sup- 
erstition, of all the most contemptible and abject, was frequently pro- 
hibited; the temples of Serapis and Isis demolished, and their worship- 
ers banished from Rome and Italy. But the zeal of fanaticism pre- 
vailed over the cold and feeble efforts of policy. The exiles returned, 
the proselytes multiplied, the temples were restored with increasing 


splendor, and Isis and Serapis at length assumed their place amonp: the 
Roman deities. * * * * Rome gradually became the 
common temple of her subjects; and the freedom of the city was be- 
stowed on all the gods of mankind."* 

Some Christian editors of Gibbon's great work, in their annotations, 
hold that the author of the "Decline and Fall" gives in the foregoing a 
too favorable view of pagan- religious toleration; but after giving due 
weight to the instances of intolerance they cite in evidence of their con- 
tention, and viewing them in connection with the extent of the empire 
and the period of time covered by Gibbon's description, I do not regard 
them as of sufficient importance to warrant any change in the repre- 
sentation made by our author of conditions as to religious toleration in 
the Roman empire at the time of which he writes. Especially, since 
Gibbon himself in a foot note admits that "some obscure traces of an 
intolerant spirit appears in the conduct of the Egyptians," the case 
chiefly relied upon by his critics to disprove his description of univer- 
sal religious toleration in the empire ; and in the same note he refers to 
the Christians and the Jews as forming an important exception; so im- 
portant an exception indeed that he promises, and subsequently gives, a 
distinct chapter to the discussion of the subject. f 

It is to Christianity as the chief exception to the Roman policy of 
universal religious toleration that I wish now to direct attention. Let 
it be borne in mind that the spirit of universal religious toleration within 
the Roman empire claimed for the second century of our era, largely 
obtained also in the first century. It was in this reign of universal re- 
ligious toleration that the Christian religion was brought forth and de- 
veloped. Christ was born in the eighteenth year of the reign of Tiberius 
CaBsar, in the Roman province of Palestine, in which, also, His personal 
labors as religious teacher and reformer were chiefly confined. In the 
villages of Galilee, and subsequently in Samaria and Judea and in the 
ancient city of Jerusalem, He went about doing good; speaking words 
of encouragement to the oppressed and the poor; healing the sick; open- 
ing the eyes of the blind; cleansing the lepers; teaching, as no one ever 
taught before, the fatherhood of God, the brotherhood of men, and pro- 
claiming Himself the Son of God and the Redeemer of the world. He 
gathered about Him a few devout followers, and from their number He 
established a priesthood and organized a Church to perpetuate the 
gentle doctrines He Himself taught. Strangely enough, notwithstanding 
the beauty and purity of His moral precepts, and the gentleness of His 
own deportment, proclamation of His doctrines everywhere incited hos- 
tility. The people of the village in which He was reared rejected Him. 

• "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," Vol. I, Chapter II. 
t "This is Chapter XVI of the "Decline and Fall." 


His own people, the Jews, were so hostile that they at last clamored 
for His execution; and so deep was their hatred that they were willing 
that responsibility for the shedding of His blood should be upon their 
heads and upon the heads of their children after them, if only the 
Roman authorities would sanction His execution ! He was finally cruci- 
fied amid the rejoicings of His enemies. 

After His resurrection He appeared among His disciples and commis- 
sioned them to evangelize the world. As they went about this work 
they encountered the same spirit of opposition that had met their Mas- 
ter. Whippings, imprisonment, and martyrdom confronted them on 
every hand, and when they extended their labors beyond the borders 
of Palestine, notwithstanding the general religious tolerance that ob- 
tained in the Roman empire, the Christians were everywhere spoken 
against, and their ministers everywhere opposed and persecuted. 

Passing by the persecutions inflicted upon the Christians by the Jews 
— the whipping of Peter and John, under the order of the Jewish San- 
hedrim, the martyrdom of Stephen, the execution of Saint James, the 
repeated mobbing and whippings of Paul — I call attention to the first 
great pagan persecution under the cruel edict of the Emperor Nero, in 
the second half of the first Christian century. The emperor having set 
on fire the city of Rome in order that he might view a great conflagra- 
tion, aid wishing to divert suspicion from himself, he first accused and 
then tried to compel the Christians to confess the crime. At this point 
I summon Tacitus, the renowned Roman annalist, to tell the remainder 
of the story: 

"With this view he inflicted the most exquisite tortures on those men 
who, under the vulgar appellation of Christians, were already branded 
with deserved infamj'. They derived their name and origin from 
Christ, who, in the reign of Tiberius, had suffered death by the sen- 
tence of the procurator Pontius Pilate. For awhile this dire super- 
stition was checked, but it again burst forth, and not only spread itself 
over Judea, the first seat of this mischievous sect, but was even intro- 
duced into Rome, the common asylum, which receives and protects 
whatever is impure, whatever is atrocious. The confessions of those 
that were seized discovered a great multitude of their accomplices, 
and they were all convicted not so much for the crime of setting fire to 
the city, as for their hatred of human kind. They died in torments, 
and their torments were embittered by insults and derision. Some 
were nailed on crosses; others sewn up in the skins of wild beasts and 
exposed to the fury of dogs; others, again, smeared over with combus- 
tible materials, were used as torches to illuminate the darkness of the 
night. The gardens of Nero were destined for the melancholy speetr 
cle, which was accompanied with a horse race, and honored with f 



presence of the emperor, who mingled with the populace in the dress 
and attitude of a charioteer. The guilt of the Christians deserved in- 
deed the most exemplary punishments, but the public abhorrence was 
changed into commiseration from the opinion that those unhappy 
wretches were sacrificed, not so much to the public welfare as to the 
cruelty of a jealous tyrant."* 

This first great persecution of the Christians under the authority of 
the Roman emperor, is sufficiently characteristic to describe the other 
persecutions which were intermittingly perpetrated upon the Christians 
through the two succeeding centuries. What seems to be the most 
incongruous circumstance connected with these persecutions is, that 
they occurred not only under such wretches as Nero and Domitian, but 
under such virtuous emperors as Trajan, Adrian, Marcus Aurelius and 
Diocletian. Intermittingly, then, through three troubled centuries, 
and imder circumstances of the utmost cruelty, persecution raged 
against the Christians. As the highest authority on Roman history re- 
marks: "If the empire had been afflicted by any recent calamity, by a 
plague, a famine, or an unsuccessful war; if the Tiber had, or the Nile 
had not risen above its banks; if the earth had shaken, or if the tem- 
perate order of the seasons had been interrupted, the superstitious 
pagans were convinced that the crimes and impurities of the Chris- 
tians, who were spared by the excessive lenity of the government, 
had at length provoked the divine justice. "f And however virtuous 
the emperors were, or however mild and equitable in character the gov- 
ernors of the provinces, it is certain that they did not hesitate to ap- 
pease the rage of the people by sacrificing the obnoxious Christian 
victims. All this at a time, too, when religious tolerance and in large 
measure even religious freedom were enjoyed by those of all other re- 
ligions within the empire, and in fact we may say that the pex'secution 
of the Christians was the only circumstance which broke in upon the 
religious concord of the world. From the apologies of the early church 
fathers, addressed to some of the emperors of the second and third cen- 
turies, we find them making the most pathetic complaints to the effect, 
"that the Christians who obeyed the dictates, and solicited the liberty of 
conscience, were alone, among all the subjects of the Roman empire, 
excluded from the common benefits of their auspicious government." 

Why was this? Surely it did not arise from any vicious principle in- 
herent in the Christian religion itself. "If we seriously consider the 
purity of the Christian religion," remarks Gibbon, in the opening para- 
graph of his great treatise on the ^'Conduct o,f the Roman Government 
Toward the Christians,'''' "the sanctity of its moral precepts, and the 

• Tacitus Annal.. lib. XV, ch. 44. 
t "Decline and Fall," Vol. I, ch. 15. 


innocence as well as the austere lives of the greater number of those 
who, durine: the first ages, embraced the faith of the gospel, we should 
naturally suppose that so benevolent a doctrine would have been re- 
ceived with due reverence even by the unbelieving world; that the 
learned and polite, however they might deride the miracles, would 
have esteemed the virtues of the new seci; and that the magistrates, 
instead of persecuting, would have protected an order of men who 
yielded the most passive obedience to the laws, though they declined 
the active cares of war and government. If, on the other hand, we 
recollect the universal tolerance of polytheism, as it was invariably 
maintained by the faith of the people, the incredulity of philosophers, 
and the policy of the Roman senate and emperors, we are at a loss to 
discover what new offense the Christians had committed, what new 
provocation could exasperate the mild indifference of antiquity, and 
what new motives could urge the Roman princes, who beheld without 
concern a thousand forms of religion subsisting in peace under their 
gentle sway, to inflict a severe punishment upon any part of their sub- 
jects who had chosen for themselves a singular but an inoffensive mode 
of faith and worship."* 

What, then, I again ask, was the cause of the singular departure 
from the enlightened policy of the empire in granting religious toler- 
ation and even large religious freedom to its subjects? I am sure 
that modern Christians will scarcelj' be satisfied with the various 
causes assigned for this strange conduct on the part of the Roman 
emperors who persecuted the Christians. These causes, or at least 
the principal ones, are conceded by both infidel and Christian author- 
ities to be: 

First, the Christians were a sect and not a nation, and were open to 
the charge that they had deserted the faith of their forefathers, a 
thing inexplicable to the Roman mind. It could be claimed on the 
part of the Christians, of course, that this was not true; that so far 
were ihey from deserting the faith of their fathers, that their present 
Christian faith was but the complement of their fathers' faith, the ful- 
fillment alike of its prophecies and symbols — in a word, the gospel 
was the fulfillment of the law. This, however, was a refinement of 
explanation to which the haughty Romans could not be expected to give 

Second, the Christians condemned and abhorred the public religion 
of the state, so closely connected with the affairs of the government, 
and hence they were judged to be enemies of the state, a circumstance 
which made them objects of detestation to those intrusted with the ad- 
ministration of the laws. 

* "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," ch. 16. 


Third, the Christians in their worship employed no images, nor tem- 
ples, nor incense, nor sacrifices; neither did they represent their God 
by any corporeal fig'ure or symbol, therefore they were adjudged to be 
atheists, and accordingly detested. 

Fourth, the gloom and austere aspect of the Christians, and their 
thorough abhorrence of the common business and pleasures of life, 
their denunciation of war, together with their frequent predictions of 
impending divine judgments, caused them to be regarded as the ene- 
mies of mankind. 

Fifth, the secrecy in which they conducted their religious services 
(a policy first born of necessity, because of the fear of their adversar- 
ie:>, and afterwards continued under the false notion that it would 
render their sacred institutions more respectable) drew upon them the 
suspicion that they only "concealed what they would have blushed to 
disclose; " and this left them open to the misrepresentation and calum- 
ny of their enemies, by which the fury of the multitude was aroused 
against them. 

Sixth, the severe simplicity of the Christian mode of worship, em- 
ploying as it did neither sacrifices nor an elaborate priesthood — ex- 
cited the animosity of the pagan priests and their servitors, in exact 
proportion as the Christians became a menace to their occupation; for it 
was painfully apparent to them that if Christianity was successful there 
would be no need of the pagan priesthood — its occupation would be 

All these alleged causes for the persecution of the Christians within 
the Roman empire may be allowed, though some of them may be 
more properly regarded as pretexts for, than causes of the persecu- 
tion. But back of all the assigned causes — which are at best but sec- 
ondary in their nature — one may see moving a force, the primary cause 
of the persecution, of which the apprehensions of magistrates, the 
hatred of the pagan priesthood, and the clamor of the multitude were 
but the outward manifestations. That primary cause of the persecu- 
tion of the Christians is to be found in the bitter hatred of that dark 
spirit who in heaven, before he fell from his high estate, was known 
under the splendid appellation of "The Light Bearer," "Lucifer," 
"Son of the Morning,'' as high in favor as in station, before his sin of 
rebellion against the Father-God.* 

Beyond the mere fact that he impiously did rebel in heaven against 
God, and that he was impelled thereto by a vaulting ambition which 
overleaped itself, the Hebrew scriptures give us little information con- 
cerning Lucifer. No cause for the rebellion is assigned, though evidence 

* Isaiah 14: 12-15. Doc. and Cov., sec. 76: 25-9. 


of the fact and reality of the rebellion is abundant.* In some ancient scrip- 
ture revealed to Joseph Smith, however, the cause of that Lucifer-led 
rebellion is stated. It was immediately connected with man's earth- 
life, and the means and conditions of his salvation. 

In order that the reader may appreciate the force of the truth to be 
presented, it is necessary to remind him that the spiric of man had an 
existence before he dwelt in his body of flesh and bones — a self-con- 
scious existence, in which he possessed all the faculties and attributes 
that the spirit or mind of man now possesses; that the time had come 
when the present earth-life became necessary to his continued progress; 
that all that would take place in that earth- life was known to God — the 
fall of man, the wickedness of the human race, the redemption througfh 
the atonement of a sinless sacrifice — all was known, and for all these 
events ample provisions were to be made; one chosen to open the ser- 
ies of dispensations that should make up the history of man's earth-life; 
one chosen to redeem man from his fallen state. It was at this point 
that Lucifer came before the grand council in heaven saying: Behold — 
here am I, send me, I will be Thy son, and I will redeem all mankind, 
that one soul shall not be lost, and surely / will do it; wherefore give 
me Thine honor. "But, behold," said the Lord, "My Beloved Son, 
which was My Beloved and Chosen from the beginning, said unto Me 
— Father, Thy will be done, and the glory be Thine forever. Where- 
fore, because that Satan rebelled against Me, and sought to destroy the 
agency of man, which I, the Lord God, had given him; and also that I 
should give unto him Mine own power; by the power of Mine Only 
Begotten, I caused that he should be cast down; and he became Satan, 
yea, even the devil, the father of all lies, to deceive and to blind men, 
and to lead them captive at his will, even as many as would not hearken 
unto My voice."! 

This discloses the reason of Lucifer's rebellion — opposition to the 
plan of man's redemption — a counter plan that involved the destruction 
of the agency of man. Then what? 

"I beheld Satan," says Jesus, "as lightning fall from heaven."! 

"And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own 
habitation. He hath reserved in everlasting chains, under darkness, 
unto the judgment of the great day."§ 

"And there was war in heaven: Michael and his angels fought 

• See Luke 10: 17, 18. John 8: 44. Rev. 12. In the light of these refereuces 
jonwider also Isaiah 14: 12-5, and Doc. and Cov. section "6: 25-9. 

t Pearl of Great Price, chapter 4: 1-4, 

J Luke 10: 18. 

I Juae 1 : 6 


against the dragon; and the dragon fought and his angels, and pre- 
vailed not; neither was their place found any more in heaven. And 
the great dragon was east out, that old serpent, called the devil, and 
Satan, which deeeiveth the whole world; he was cast out into the earth, 
and his angels were cast out with him. And I heard a loud voice say- 
ing in heaven. Now is come salvation, and strength, and the kingdom 
of our God, and the power of His Christ: for the accuser of our breth- 
ren is cast down, which accused them before our God day and night. 
And they overcame him hj the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of 
their testimony; and they loved not their lives unto the death. There- 
fore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhab- 
iters of the earth, and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, 
having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short 

Lucifer, then, becomes a factor to be reckoned with in the persecu- 
tion of the Saints. In heaven he opposed the gospel of Jesus Christ; 
cast out into the earth will he not oppose it there? Herein lies the real 
cause of the persecution of the Christians within the Roman empire. 
So long as the inhabitants of the earth were content with the pagan 
superstitions, wheiein there was no power of God unto salvation; so 
long as they were content with conflicting pagan philosophies, wherein 
was no power of God unto salvation, it was a matter of indifference to 
Lucifer whether they worshiped Jupiter Olympus, or Isis; Apollo, or 
Minerva; or bowed at the philosopher's shrine of the L^nknown God — 
all were equally barren of saving power and left the kingdom of Luci- 
fer undiminished in its strength and numbers; left all nations in his 
thraldom. But when the Christ and His apostles came preaching re- 
pentance and the coming of the kingdom of heaven; making known 
the origin of man and his relationship to Deity; making known the pur- 
pose of God to redeem him from his fallen state; establishing His 
Church as the depository of divine truth, and the instrumentality for 
conveying to man divine instruction — then Lucifer saw cause for alarm, 
for it was evident that the days of his dominion were numbered; his 
kingdom must decline if Christianity prevailed; his sway over the king- 
doms of the earlh must be broken if Christ was preached: and hence 
in all the bitterness of hatred, with all the strength of his cunning, with 
all the power of his resourcefulness, and using every instrumentality he 
could command — corrupted human nature over which he had influence; 
the apprehension of magistrates; the jealousy of pagan priesthoods — 
all were employed to destroy that institution wrought out in the wisdom 
of God to bring to pass the salvation of man; and hence the fire, the 

• Rsv. 12: 7-12. 


sword and the rack; the lions, the dungeons, — in a word, the pagan per- 
eseutions of the Saints of God; Lucifer and his hatred of the truth the 
primary cause of all, all other causes and pretexts but secondary, mere 
instrumentalities used bv him to impede the progress of and destroy, if 
possible, the truth, the gospel, wherein lies the power of man's salvation. 

It is said that history repeats itself; and this in matters of religion as 
in other things. In the introduction to the first volume of the Church 
History, the paganization of Christianity was discussed at some length, 
and when the Lord would again prepare the way for ihe incoming of the 
last dispensation of the Gospel — the dispensation of the fullness of times 
— as part of that prepai'ation, He established a great republic in the New 
World, the chief corner stone of whose temple of liberty was religious 
freedom. The Congress of the L^nited States, by express provision of 
the Constitution, is prohibited from making any law respecting an es- 
tablishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof.* Simi- 
lar guarantees of religious freedom ai'e provided for in the constitutions 
of all the states. The clause in Missouri's constitution on the subject 
was as follows: 

"All men have a natural and indefeasible right to worship Almighty 
God according to the dictates of their own consciences; that no man 
can be compelled to erect, support or attend any place of worship, or to 
maintain any minister of the gospel or teacher of religion; that no 
human authority can control or interfere with the rights of conscience; 
that no person can ever be hurt, molested or restrained in his religious 
professions or sentiments, if he do not disturb others in their religious 
worship: that no person, on account of his religious opinions, can be 
rendered ineligible to any office of trust or profit under this state; that 
no preference can ever be given by law to any sect or mode of worship; 
and that no religious corporation can ever be established in this state." 

Under these guarantees of religious libertj', in both state and na- 
tional constitutions, infidels, Jews, and all sects of the Christian religion 
lived in unbroken peace. In the colonial history of the country there 
had been some intolerance and acts of violence practiced by the sects of 
Christians on one another, but in the main, and especially since the estab- 
lishment of the republic of the United States, under its present Constitu- 
tion, there had been absolute religious freedom. But now a strange thing 
occurred. A youth, yet in his early teens, startled the neighborhood 
in which he resided with the announcement that he had received a 
revelation from God: a new dispensation of the Gospel of Christ had 
been committed to him; he is authorized to found again the very 

* First Amendment, Constitution of the United States. 


Church of Christ; men are to teach once more by divine authority; and 
the world is to be made ready for the incoming of the glorious kingdom, 
whose king shall be the resurrected, glorified Christ; and peace and 
truth and righteousness are to abound. Strangely enough, notwith- 
standing all the guarantees of religious freedom in the state and 
national constitutions, this proclamation is resented by the people, and 
those who advocate it are persecuted in various ways, until at the last, 
as set forth in the three volumes of the Church History now published, 
it culminated in the death and misery of many souls, and the final 
expulsion of from twelve to fifteen thousand Saints from the state of 
Missouri, under all the circumstances of cruelty detailed in this history. 
Why is this violence done to the principle of religious freedom, a prin- 
ciple that is both the pride and boast of the American people? Why are 
constitutions and institutions violated in efforts made by the authorities of 
the sovereign state of Missouri to destroy this religion and this Church of 
Christ? What is the cause of these Missouri persecutions^ In view of 
the principles already set forth in these pages, the primary cause of 
these persecutions in Missouri will not be difficult to find. In them, as 
in the Roman persecutions of the Christians, the cunning and power of 
Lucifer will be apparent. So long as only apostate forms of Christianty 
obtained; so long as men adhered to mere forms of godliness and de- 
nied the power thereof, so long Lucifer cared not with what devotion 
they clung to these lifeless forms of religion. He laughed; his kingdom 
was undiminished; the nations were held in his thraldom. But when 
the Prophet of the dispensation of the fulness of times announced his 
revelation; when God again stood revealed once more before a witness; 
when the divine plan of life and salvation was again communicated to 
men through an inspired prophet; when the Church of Christ in all its 
completeness and power was restored to the earth, then it behoved Luc- 
ifer to look to his dominions, to strengthen his forces, and to prepare for 
the final conflict for possession of this world; for now God had taken it 
in hand to complete His work of redeeming the earth, of saving men, 
and overthrowing Lucifer and his power so far as this earth is con- 
cerned; and hence when Joseph Smith announced his new revelation, 
the incoming of the dispensation of the fulness of times, Lucifer with 
all the cunning and power at his command, and setting in motion every 
force— the fears and jealousies of men, misrepresentation and cahimny, 
hatred of righteousness and truth, in a word, every force that he could 
summons, every pretext that he could suggest to men of evil disposed 
minds was employed to destroy the inauguration of that work which was 
to subdue his power, conquer his dominions, and render men free from 
his influence. Lucifer's bitterness, then, his hatred, his cunning, hi* 


devisements were the cause of the Missouri persecutions. All else was 
secondary, pretext, his instrumentalities, nothing more. 


But what of Missouri? Missouri, who had violated her constitution 
which guaranteed religious freedom to all who came within her borders! 
Missouri, whose officers from the Governor down entered into a wicked 
conspiracy, contrary to all law and righteousness, and drove the Saints 
from the state! Missouri, who had violated not only her own consti- 
tution by becoming a party to a religious persecution, but had also vio- 
lated the spirit of our times, and outraged the civilization of the nine- 
teenth century — what of Missouri'? Did she pay any penalty for her 
wrong-doing? Are states such entities as may be held to an accounting 
for breaches of public faith and public morals — constitutional immorali- 
ties? Is there within the state a public conscience to which an appeal 
can be made; and in the event of the public conscience being outraged 
is there retribution? 

I answer these questions in the affiimative; and hold that Missouri paid 
dearly for the violations of her guarantees of religious freedom, and her 
lawlessness and her cruelties practiced towards the Latter-day Saints. 

I have already referred to the relationship which the state of Missouri 
sustained to the great question of slavery. By the political compromise 
which bore her name, Missouri became a "cape of slavery thrust into 
free territory." Except for the state of Missouri alone, her southern 
boundary line was to mark the furthermost point northward beyond 
which slavery must not be extended into the territory of the United 
States. In 1854, however, the Missouri compromise was practically 
overthrown by the introduction into Congress of the "Kansas-Nebraska 
Act," bj' Stephen A. Douglas, United States senator from Illinois. This 
act provided for the organization of two new territories from the Louisi- 
ana purchase, west of Missouri and Iowa. The act proposed that the 
new territories should be open to slavery, if their inhabitants desired 
it. This left the question of slavery in the status it occupied previous 
to the Missouri Compromise, and left the people in the prospective 
states to determine for themselves whether slavery should or should 
not prevail in their state. This opened again the slavery question, and 
there was begun that agitation which finally resulted in the great Amer- 
ican Civil War. 

As soon as it became apparent that the people of new territories were 
to determine for themselves the question of slavery, very naturally each 
party began a struggle for possession of the new territory according as 
its sentiments or interests dictated. The struggle began by the aboli- 


tion party of the north organizing: "Emigrrant Aid Societies," and 
sending emigrants of their own faith into Kansas. The slave holders 
of Missouri also sent settlers representing their faith and interests into 
the new territory in the hope of bringing it into the Union as a slave 
state. This brought on a border warfare in which the settlements of 
western Missouri and eastern Kansas alternately suffered from the raids 
and counter raids of the respective parties through some six years be- 
fore the outbreak of the Civil War. As to which were the more law- 
less or cruel, the fanatical abolitionists or the pro- slavery party, the 
"jayhawkers," as the organized bands of ruffians of the former party 
were called, or the "bushwhackers," as the similarly organized bands 
of the pro-slavery men were called, is not a question necessary for me 
to discuss here. Both held the laws in contempt, and vied with each 
other in committing atrocities. The western counties of Missouri, where 
the Latter-day Saints had suffered so cruelly at the hands of people 
of those counties some eighteen or twenty years before, were in this 
border warfare laid desolate, and all the hardships the Missourians had 
inflicted upon the Saints were now visited upon their heads, only more 

Speaking of the situation in Missouri in 1861,the out-going Governor, 
Robert M. Stewart, in his address to the legislature, and referring 
to Missouri and her right to be heard on the slavery question, said: 

''Missouri has a right to speak on this subject, because she has suf- 
fered. Bounded on three sides by free territory, her border counties 
have been the frequent scenes of kidnapping and violence, and this 
«tate has probably lost as much, in the last two years, in the abduction 
of slaves, as all the rest of the Southern States. At this moment sev- 
^ral of the ivestern counties are desolated, and almost depopulated, from 
fear of a bandit horde, who have been committing dei)redations— arson, 
theft, and foul murder— upon the adjacent border''''* 

Brigadier-General Daniel M. Frost, who had been employed in re- 
pressing lawlessness in the western counties of Missouri, in reporting 
conditions prevailing there in November, 1860, said: 

"The deserted and charred remains of once happy homes, combined 
with the general terror that prevailed amongst the citizens who still 
clung to their possessions, gave but too certain proof of the persecu- 
tion to which they had all been subjected, and which they would again 
have to endure, with renewed violence, so soon as armed protection 
should be withdrawn."* "In view of this condition of affairs," con- 
tinues the historian of Missouri I am quoting, "and in order to carry 
out fully Governor Stewart's order to repel invasions and restore peace 
to the border, General Frost determined to leave a considerable force in 
* "The Fight for Missouri," (Snead) p. 14. 


the threatened district. Accordingly, a battalion of volunteers, con- 
sisting of three companies of rangers and one of artillery, was enlisted, 
and Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Bowen, who afterwards rose to high 
rank in the Confederate service, was chosen to the command."* 

"With the organization of this force, and perhaps owing also, in some 
degree, to the inclemency of the season, 'jayhawking,' as such, came 
to an end, though the thing itself, during the first two or three years of 
the Civil War, and, in fact, as long as there was anything left on the 
Missouri side of the border worth taking, flourished more vigorously 
than ever. The old jayhawking leaders, however, now came with United 
States commissions in their pockets and at the head of regularly en- 
listed troops, in which guise they carried on a system of robbery and 
murder that left a good portion of the frontier south of the Missouri 
river as perfect a waste as Germany was at the end of the Thirty 
Years' War."t 

While this description confines the scenes of violence and rapine to 
the border counties south of the Missouri river, — it included Jackson 
county, however, which was one of the heaviest sufferers both in this 
border warfare and subsequently during the Civil War — still, the coun- 
ties north of that stream also suffered from lawlessness and violence. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War Missouri was peculiarly situated. 
She was surrounded on three sides by free states. The great majority 
of her own people were for the Union, but her government, with Clair- 
borne Jackson as the state executive, was in sympathy with the South. 
As the extreme Southern States one after another seceded from the 
Union, Missouri was confronted with the question: What position she 
ought to assume in the impending conflict. The question was referred 
to a state convention in which appeared no secessionists. Indeed, the 
people of Missouri in this election by a majority of eighty thousand de- 
cided against secession. The convention, in setting forth the attitude 
of the state on the subject, said that Missouri's position was, "Evi- 
dently that of a state whose interests are bound up in the maintenance 
of the Union, and whose kind feelings and strong sympathies are with 
the people of the Southern States, with whom we are connected by ties 
of friendship and blood. We want the peace and harmony of the coun- 
try restored, and we want them with us. To go with them as they are 
now * * * * is to ruin ourselves without 

doing them any good. "J 

While this doubtless voiced the sentiment of a great majority of Mis- 

* "American Commonwealths, i\]issouri," p. 258. 
t "American Commonwealths, Missouri," p. 259. 
J "American Commonwealths, Missouri," (Carr) p. 288. 


souri's people, the government of the state and many thousands of its 
inhabitants sympathized with the South. The general assembly of the 
state authorized the raising and equipment of large military forces held 
subject, of course, to the orders of the governor, under the pretense of 
being prepared to repel invasion from any quarter whatsoever, and en- 
able the state to maintain a neutral attitude. The governor refused to 
raise Missouri's quota of four regiments under President Lincoln's first 
call for seventy-five thousand men to suppress the rebellion, on the 
ground that these regiments were intended to form "part of the Pre- 
sident's army, to make war upon the people of the seceded states." 
This he declared to be illegal, unconstitutional, and therefore could not 
be complied with. This precipitated a conflict between the state and 
national forces that resulted in a civil war within the state since some of 
her citizens sided with the general government and some with the 

On the 20th of April, 1801, the state militia under the governor's 
orders captured the Federal arsenal at Liberty, Clay county, and in the 
nineteen months following that event "over three hundred battles and 
skirmishes were fought within the limits of the state," and it is assumed 
that in the last two years of the war, there were half as many more; 
and it may be said of them," continues our historian, "that they were 
relatively more destructive of life, as by this time the contest had de- 
generated into a disgraceful internecine struggle."* 

In the fall of 1864, General Sterling Price penetrated the state at the 
head of twelve thousand men; captured Lexington, in Ray county, and 
Independence, in Jackson county, and thence made his escape into Ar- 
kansas. "In the course of this raid he marched 1,434 miles, fought 
forty-three battles and skirmishes, and according to his own calculation 
destroyed upwards of 'ten million dollars' worth of property,' a fair 
share of which belonged to his own friends. "f 

In August, 1863, the celebrated Military Order No. 11 was issued 
from Kansas City, by General Thomas Ewing, by which "all persons 
living in Cass, Jackson, and Bates counties, Missouri, and in that part 
of Vernon included in this district, except those living within one mile 
of the limits of Independence, Hickman's Mills, Pleasant Hill, and 
Harrisonville, and except those in that part of Kaw township, 
Jackson county, north of Brush creek and west of the Big Blue, em- 
bracing Kansas City and Westport, are hereby ordered to remove from 
their present places of residence within fifteen days from the date hereof. 

* "American Commonwealths, Missouri." p. 342. 

t History of Missouri, Carr, p. 360. General Price was the Colonel Sterling Price, 
who held the Prophet Joseph in custody at Richmond in 18.38, who shackled the 
brethren and whose scurrilous guards were so severely rebuked by the Prophet. — 
History of the Church, Vol. Ill, p. 208, Note. 
e vol III 


Those who, within that time, establish their loyalty to the satisfaction 
of the cominandin^ officer of the military station nearest their present 
place of residence, will receive from him certificates stati;i;ig the fact 
of their loyalty, and the names of the witnesses by whom it can be 
shown. All who receive such certificates will be permitted to remove 
to any military station in this district, or to any part of the state of 
Kansas, except the counties on tire eastern borders of the state. All 
others shall remove out of this district. Officers commanding companies 
and detachments serving in the counties named will see that this para- 
graph is promptly obeyed."* 

The admonition in the last clause to commanding officers was rigidly 
followed; and within the district named scenes of violence and cruelty 
were appalling. This order with its cruel execution has been more 
severely criticized than any other act during the entire Civil War. The 
justification for it has been urged on the ground that Jackson county 
afforded a field of operations for Confederates; that here the bush- 
whacking marauders recruited their forces, and found the means of 
support; that the policy was necessary on the ground of putting an 
end to that kind of warfare. On the other hand, it is contended that 
"tried by an 5' known standard," the people in that section of Missouri 
were as loyal to the Union as were their neighbors in Kansas. "They 
had voted against secession; they had not only, thus far, kept their 
quota in the Union army full, and that without draft or bounty, but 
they continued to do so; and if they did not protect themselves 
against the outrages alike of Confederate bushwhackers and Union 
jayhawkers, it was because early in the war they had been disarmed 
bj' Federal authority and were consequently without the means of 

By the execution of the order, however, the people in the districts 
named "were driven from their homes, their dwellings burned, their 
farms laid waste, and the great bulk of their movable property handed 
over, without let or hindrance, to the Kansas 'jayhawkers.' It was a 
brutal order, ruthlessly enforced, but so far from expelling or exter- 
minating the gi:errillas, it simply handed the whole district over to 
them." "Indeed," continues Lucien Carr, "we are assured by one who 
was on the ground, that from this time until the end of the war, no one 
wearing the Federal uniform dared risk his life within the devatasted 
region. The only people whom the enforcement of the order did in- 
jure were some thousands of those whom it was E wing's duty to pro- 
tect, "t 

* "History of Caldwell and Livingston Counties,"' p. 51. 
t "American Commonwealths, Missouri," p. H51. 
t Ibid. p. 351. 


Whether justified or not by the attitude of the Jackson county people 
in the Civil War, the execution of Order No. 11 certainly was but a re- 
enactment, though upon a larger scale, of those scenes which the in- 
habitants of that section of the country thirty years before had perpe- 
trated upon the Latter-day Saints in expelling them from Jackson county. 
The awful scenes then enacted inspired the now celebrated painting by G . 
C. Bingham, bearing the title "Civil War," and dedicated by the art- 
ist "to all who cherish the principles of civil liberty.'' 

Connected with the scenes of civil strife in Missouri, is a prophecy 
uttered by Joseph Smith many years before they began, and recently 
published in a very able paper by Elder Junius F. Wells, in the Novem- 
ber number of the Improvement Era for 1902. Elder Wells, it appears, 
had the pleasure of an interview with the Hon. Leonidas M. Lawson, 
of New York city, formerly a resident of Clay county, Missouri, and a 
brother-in-law of General Alexander W. Doniphan, whose name so 
frequently occurs in our pages, dealing with events in the history of the 
Church while in Missouri. 

In the course of the interview, which took place at the University 
Club, New York city, Mr. Lawson referred to an incident connected 
with a visit to General Doniphan in 1863. General Doniphan, it will 
be remembered by those acquainted with his history, took no part in 
the Civil War beyond that of a sorrowful spectator. On the occasion 
of Mr. Lawson's visit to him, just referred to, they rode through Jack- 
son county together, and in a letter to Elder Wells, under date of Feb- 
ruary 7, 1902, Mr. Lawson relates the following incident, which is part 
of a biographical sketch of General Doniphan, prepared by Mr. Law- 

"In the year 1863, I visited General A. W. Doniphan at his home in 
Liberty, Clay county, Missouri. This was soon after the devastation 
of Jackson county, Missouri, under what is known as 'Order No. 11.' 
This devastation was complete. Farms were everywhere destroyed, 
and the farmhouses were burned. During this visit General Doniphan 
related the following historical facts and personal incidents: 

"About the year 1831-2, the Mormons settled in Jackson county. 
Mo., under the leadership of Joseph Smith. The people of Jackson 
county became dissatisfied with their presence, and forced them to 
leave; and they crossed the Missouri river and settled in the counties 
of De Kalb, Caldwell and Ray. They founded the town of Far West, 
and began to prepare the foundation of a temple. It was here that the 
troubles arose which culminated in the expulsion of the Mormons from 
the state of Missouri according to the command of Governor Lilburn 
W. Boggs. This was known in Missouri annals as the Mormon War. 
There were many among those who obeyed the order of the governor, in 
the state militia, who believed that the movement against the Mormons 


was unjust and cruel, and that the excitement was kept up by those 
who coveted the homes, the barns and the fields of the Mormon peo- 
ple. The latter, during their residence in the state of Missouri, paid, 
in entry fees for the land they claimed, to the United States government 
land office, more than $300,000, which, for that period represented a 
tremendous interest. During their sojourn in Missouri the Mormons 
did not practice or teach polygamy, s-o that question did not enter into it. 

"Following the early excitemcit, Joseph Smith was indicted for trea- 
son against the state of Missouri, and General Doniphan was one of 
the counsel employed to defend him, he having shown a friendly inter- 
est in Smith, whom he considered very badly treated. Joseph Smith 
was placed in prison in Liberty, Missouri, to await his trial. This place 
was the residence of General Doniphan. His partner in the practice 
of law was James H. Baldwin. 

"On one occasion General Doniphan caused the sheriff of the county 
to bring Joseph Smith from the prison to his law office, for the purpose 
of consultation about his defense. During Smith's presence in the of- 
fice, a citizen of Jackson county, Missouri, came in for the purpose of 
paying a fee which was due by him to the firm of Doniphan and Bald- 
win, and offered in payment a tract of land in Jackson county. 

'"Doniphan told him that his partner, Mr. Baldwin, was absent at the 
moment, but as soon as he had an opportunity he would consult him 
and decide about the matter. When the Jackson county man retired, 
Joseph S nith, who had overheard the conversation, addressed General 
Doniphan about as follows: 

" '^D^niphan, I advise i/ou not to taJie that Jackson county land inpay- 
ment of the debt, God's wrath hangs over Jackson county. God''s people 
have been ruthlessly driven from it, and you will live to see the day when 
it will be visited by fire and sword. The Lord of Hosts will sweep it with 
the besom of destruction. The fields and farms and houses will be destroyed, 
and only the chimneys ivill be left to mark the desolation.'' " 

"General Doniphan said to me that the devastation of Jackson 
county forcibly reminded him of this remarkable prediction of the 
Mormon prophet." (signed) L. M. Lawson. 

"There is a prediction of the Prophet Joseph," remarks Elder Wells, 
in commenting upon Mr. Lawson's story, "not before put into print, 
and history has recorded its complete fulfillment." 

That a just retribution overtook the entire state, as well as the in- 
habitants of Jackson county, and other western counties, I think must 
be conceded by all who are familiar with the events of her history in 
the Civil War. That which she did to an inoffensive people was done 
to her inhabitants, especially to those living within the districts form- 
erly oooupied by the Latter-day Saints; only the measure meted oat to 


the Missourians was heaped up, pressed down, and made to run over. 

The Missourians had complained that the Latter- day Saints were 
eastern men, whose manners, habits, customs, and even dialect were 
different from their own;* but the Missourians lived to see great 
throngs of those same eastern men flock into an adjoining territory and 
infest their border, so that the settlers of western Missouri became ac- 
customed to, and learned to endure the strange manners, customs and 
dialect so different from their own. 

The Missourians complained of the rapidity with which the Saints 
were gathering into the state to establish their Zion; but the Missour- 
ians lived to see hordes of the detested easterners gather into their 
region of country by continuous streams of emigrant trains, sent 
there by "Emigrant Aid Companies'' of New England. 

The Missourians falsely charged that the coming of "Zion's Camp" 
into western Missouri to aid their brethren to repossess their homes in 
Jackson county, was an armed invasion of the state; but the Missour- 
ians lived to see formidable hosts of eastern and northern men gather 
upon their frontiers and frequently invade the state. "The character 
of much of this emigration may be gathered," says one historian, 
"from the fact that the Kansas Emigration Societies, Leagues and Com- 
mittees * * * sent out men only; ^^ and tha^t in some oi 
their bands Sharp's rifles were more numerous than agricultural imple- 
ments."! Of course the "Blue Lodges" of Missouri were organized 
largely on the same principle as the "Emigrant Aid Companies" of 
New England, and adopted practically the same methods, expecting to 
add Kansas to the list of slave states. But "certainly,'' remarks Lucien 
Carr, "if a company of so-called northern emigrants, in which there 
were two hundred and twenty-five men and only five women, whose 
wagons contained no visible furniture, agricultural implements or 
mechanical tools, but abounded in all the requisite articles for camping 
and campaigning purposes, were considered as bona fide settlers and 
permitted to vote, there could not have been a sufficient reason for 
ruling out any band of Missourians who ever crossed the border and 
declared their intention of remaining, even though they left the next 

Among the men sent to the borders of Missouri by the "Emigrant 
Aid Companies'' of New England were some of the most desperate ad- 
venturers; and the Missourians who had pretended to be alarmed at the 
coming of "Zion's Camp," and feigned to regard it as an armed invasion 

* Minutes of Citizen Meeting, Liberty, Clay county, Church History Vol. Ill 
p. 450. 
t History of Missouri, Carr, p. 343, Note. 
t History of Missouri, Carr, 245. 


of the state, saw their state repeatedly invaded — especially Jackson 
county— by the bands of Union "jayhawkers" organized from among 
these desperate eastern and northern men, who ruthlessly laid waste 
their homes and farms. 

The Missourians had falsely charged the Saints with abolition mad- 
ness, with tampering with their slaves, with inviting free negroes into 
the state to corrupt their blacks, whose very presence would render 
their institution of slave labor insecure; but they lived to see their sys- 
tem of slave labor abolished by the setting free of some one hundred 
and fifteen thousand slaves, valued at $40,000,000, eight thousand of 
whom were "martialed and disciplined for war'' in the Federal armies, 
and many of them marched to war against their former masters. 

Governor Dunklin and his advisors in the government of Missouri 
claimed that there was no warrant of authority under the laws and con- 
stitution of the state for calling out a permanent military force to pro- 
tect the Saints in the peaceful possession of their homes until the civil 
authority proved itself competent to keep the peace and protect the 
citizens in the enjoyment of their guaranteed rights; but the people in 
the western part of Missouri saw the time come when they themselves 
prayed for the same protection; and Governor Stewart, unlike Gover- 
nor Dunklin, approved the appointment of a battalion of volunteers 
consisting of three companies of rangers and one of artillery, all of 
which were placed under command of Lieutenant- Colonel John L. 
Bowen, to do the very thing the Saints had prayed might be done in their 
case.* But even this provision for their protection did not avail; 
for their old jayhawking enemies soon reappeared under new conditions 
— which will be stated in the next paragraph — under which they re- 
newed their incursions of rapine and murder. 

The state authorities of Missouri converted the mobs which had 
plundered the Saints, burned their homes and laid waste their lands, 
into the state militia, which gave the former mob a legal status, under 
which guise they plundered the Saints, compelled them to sign away 
their property and agree to leave the state. To resist this mob-militia 
was to be guilty of treason; but the people of western Missouri lived to 
see a like policy pursued towards them. They suffered much in Jack- 
son and other western counties in the border war, previous to the open- 
ing of the Civil War, from the inroads of abolition "jayhawkers" in 
the interest of anti-slavery. For a time this was in part suppressed 
by the state militia under General Frost and by the permanent force 
stationed on the border under Lieutenant-Colonel Bowen. But later, 
and when the Civil War broke out, these old "jayhawking" leaders 
"now came with United States commissions in their pockets, and at the 
head of regularly enlisted troops, in which guise they carried on a sys- 

* History of Missouri, Carr, p. 158. 


tem of robbery and murder that left a good portion of the frontier 
south of the Missouri river as perfect a waste as Germany was at the 
end of the Thirty Years' War."* 

Such wretches as Generals Lane and Jennison, though Union officers, 
and denounced alike by Governor Robinson of Kansas— of course a 
strong Union man— and General Halleck,t commander-in-chief of the 
western armies of the Union, were permitted to disgrace alike the Union 
cause and our human nature by their unspeakable atrocities. But they 
were retained in office, nevertheless. It was the outrages committed 
by these men and their commands, and the Kansas "Red Legs" that 
led to the equally savage reprisals on the people of Kansas. In revenge 
for what western Missouri had suffered, outlawed Missourians sacked 
Lawrence, Kansas, a Union city, massacred one hundred and eighty- 
three of its inhabitants, and left it in flames. In justification of their 
act of savagery, they declared: "Jennison has laid waste our homes, 
and the 'Red Legs' have perpetrated unheard of crimes. Houses have 
been plundered and burned, defenseless men shot down, and women 
outraged. We are here for revenge — and we have got it. "J How 
nearly this language of the Missourians — and there can be no question 
that it describes what had been done in Missouri by Lane, Jennison, 
and their commands, and the Kansas "Red Legs"? — follows the com- 
plaint justly made by the Latter-day Saints years before against the 
Missourians! But thank God, there is recorded against the Saints no 
such horrible deeds of reprisal. 

The Missourians falsely charged that the Saints held illicit communi- 
cation with the Indian tribes then assembled near the frontiers of the 
state, and pretended to an alarm that their state might be invaded by 
the savages, prompted thereto by "Mormon" fanaticism; but these 
same Missourians lived to see cause for real fear of such an invasion 
when the Governor of an adjoining state — Arkansas — authorize Briga- 
dier General Albert Pike to raise two mounted regiments of Choctaw 
and Chickasaw Indians to actually invade the state. These regiments 
of savages were engaged in the battle of Pea Ridge, on the southwest 

* History of Missouri, Carr, p. 259. 

t General Halleck when he learned that the "jayhawking" leader, Lane, had 
been promoted to the command of a brigade, declared that such an appointment 
was "offering a premium for rascality and robbing generally;" and that it would 
"take twenty thousand men to counteract its effect in the state." History of Mis- 
souri, Carr, p. 348. 

t Spring's Kansas, p. 287. 

§ These were bands of Kansas robbers, whose custom it was at intervals to dash 
into Missouri, seize horses and cattle — not omitting other and worse crimes on occa- 
•ion— then to repair with their booty to Lawrence, where it was defiantly sold at 
auction." History of Missouri, Carr, p. 348. 


borders of Missouri. General Pike, who led them in that battle, dressed 
himself in gaudy, savas^e costume, and wore a large plume on his head 
— a la Niel Gilliam at Far West — to please the Indians. It is also 
charged that before the battle of Pea Ridge, he maddened his Indians 
with liquor "that they might allow the savage nature of their race to 
have unchecked development. In their fury they respected none of the 
usages of civilized warfare, but scalped the helpless wounded, and 
committed atrocities too horrible to mention."* The'"fear" expressed 
by the Missourians respecting the alleged illicit communication of the 
Saints with the Indians was mere feigning, but with this example 
before them, and knowing that there were many thousands of Indians 
on their frontiers that might be similarly induced to take up arms, their 
former feigned fears became real ones. 

The Missourians instead of demanding the execution of the law in 
support of the liberties of the Saints, expressed the fear that the pre- 
sence of the Saints would give rise to "Civil War," in which none could 
be neutrals, since their homes must be the theatre on which it would be 
f ought, t so they drove the Saints away; but the Missourians lived to 
see the outbreak of a civil war in their state that was one of the most 
appalling men ever witnessed; and Missouri, when all things are con- 
sidered, and especially western Missouri, suffered more than any other 
state of the Union. In other states the war lasted at most but four 
yearri; but counting her western border warfare in the struggle for 
Kansas, the war was waged in western Missouri from 1855 to 1865, ten 
years: and for many years after the close of the Civil War, a guerrilla 
warfare was intermittently carried on by bands of outlaws harbored in 
western Missouri — especially in Jackson, Ray, Caldwell and Clay coun- 
ties — that terrorized the community and shocked the world by the 
daring and atrocity of their crimes — including bank robberies in 
open day, express train wrecking and robberies, and murders. Not 
until 1881 was this effectually stopped by the betrayal and murder of 
the outlaw chief of these bands. 

Missouri sent into the Union Armies one hundred and nine thousand 
of her sons, including eight thousand negroes. About thirty thousand 
enlisted in the confederate army. According to official reports the per- 
centage of troops to population in the western states and territories 
was 13.6 per cent, and in the New England states 12 per cent; whilst 
in Missouri, if thei'e be added to her quota sent to the northern army 
the thirty thousand sent to the confederate army, her percentage was 
fourteen per cent, or sixty per cent of those who were subject to militarj/ 
duty. Of the deaths among these enlisted men, only approximate esti- 

* History of the United States, Lossing, p. 592 — note. 
t History of the Church, Vol. II, p. 450-1. 


mates may be made, since of the mortality among the Confedei'ates no 
official records were kept. But of those who entered the Union service, 
thirteen thousand eight hundred and eighty-five deaths are officially re- 
ported. The rate of mortality in the Confederate forces, owing to the 
greater hardships they endured, and the lack of medical attendants to 
care for the wounded, was much higher, and is generally estimated at 
twelve thousand, (most of whom were from western Missouri), which 
added to the deaths of those in the Union army would aggregate the 
loss among the troops from Missouri to twenty-five thousand eight hun- 
dred and eighty-five. "This estimate," says Lucien Carr, "does not 
cover those who were killed in the skirmishes that took place between 
the home guards and the guerrillas; nor does it include those who were 
not in either army, but who were shot down by "bushwhackers" and 
"bushwhacking" Federal soldiers. Of these latter there is no record, 
though there were but few sections of the state in which such scenes 
were not more or less frequent. Assuming the deaths from these two 
sources to have been 1,200, and summing up the results, it will be found 
that the number of Missourians who were killed in the war and died 
from disease during their term of service amounted to not less than 
27,000 men."* 

The loss in treasure was in full proportion to the loss in blood. The 
state expended $7,000,000 in fitting out and maintaining her Union 
troops in the field. f She lost $40,000,000 in slave property; and four 
years after the close of the war — two of which, 1867-8, were remai'kably 
prosperous — the taxable wealth of the state was $46,000,000 less than 
it was in 1860. "In many portions of the state," says the historian to 
whom I am indebted for so many of the facts relating to Missouri in 
these pages, "especially in the southern and western borders, whole 
counties had been devastated. The houses were burned, the fences de- 
stroyed, and the farms laid waste. Much of the live stock of the state 
had disappeared; and everywhere, even in those sections that were com- 
paratively quiet and peaceful, the quantity of land in cultivation was 
much less than it had been at the outbreak of the war. Added to these 
sources of decline, and in some measure a cause of them, was the con- 
siderable emigration from the state which now took place, and particu- 
larly from those regions that lay in the pathway of the armies, or from 
those neighborhoods that were given over to the "bushwhackers." The 
amount of loss from these different sources cannot be accui'ately gauged, 
but some idea may be formed of it, and of the unsettled condition of 
affairs, from the fact that only 41 out of the 113 counties in the state 

* History of Missouri, Carr, p. 358. 

t It is but proper, however, to say that the state was afterwards reimbunsed for 
this amount by the general government. 


receipted for the tax books for 1861; and in these counties, only 
$250,000 out of the $600,000 charged against them were collected."* 

This only in a general way indicates the losses in property sustained 
by the state during the period under consideration, but it assists one to 
understand somewhat the enormity of those losses. 

It is in no spirit of gloating exultation that these facts in Missoiiri's 
history are referred to here. It gives no gratification to the writer to re- 
count the woes of Missouri, and his hope is that it will give none to 
the reader. These facts of history are set down only because they are 
valuable for the lesson they teach. It may be that visible retribution 
does not always follow in the wake of state or national wrong-doing; 
but it is well that it should sometimes do so, lest men should come to 
think that Eternal Justice sleeps, or may be thwarted, or, what would 
be worst of all, that she does not exist. I say it is well, therefore, 
that sometimes visible retribution should follow state and national as 
well as individual transgressions, that the truth of the great principle 
that "as men sow, so shall they reap," may be vindicated. Missouri 
in her treatment of the Latter-day Saints during the years 1^^33-9, 
sowed the wind; in the disastrous events which overtook her during the 
years 1855-65, she reaped the whirlwind. Let us hope that in those 
events Justice was fully vindicated so far as the state of Missouri is 
concerned; and that the lessons of her sad experience may not be lost 
to the world. May the awful and visible retribution visited upon Mis- 
souri teach all states and nations that when they feel power they must 
not forget Justice; may it teach all peoples that states and nations in 
their corporate capacity are such entities as may be held accountable 
before God and the world for their actions; that righteousness exalteth 
a nation, while injustice is a reproach to any people. May the retribution 
that was so palpably visited upon the state of Missouri satisfy and en- 
courage the Latter-day Saints; not that I would see them rejoice in the 
suffering of the wicked; but rejoice rather in the evidence that Justice 
slumbereth not; that their wrongs are not hidden from the AH seeing 
eye of God; that they are within the circle of His love; that they can- 
not be unjustly assailed with impunity, however humble and weak 
they may be. From all these considerations may they be established 
in peace, hope, confidence and charity; knowing that God is their 
friend; that His arm is strong to protect; or, if in the course of God's 
economy in the management of the affairs of the world it must needs be 
that for a time they suffer at the hands of oppressors, that He will 
avenge them of their enemies; and amply reward them for their suffer- 
ings in His cause. 

* History of Missouri, Carr, p. 359. 



•Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints. 











January^ 1838. — A new year dawned upon the Church 
in Kirtland in all the bitterness of the spirit of apostate 
mobocracy: which continued to ra2:e and errow 

•^ ' ?? & Flight of the 

hotter and hotter, until Elder Rigdon and my- Prophet and 
self were obliged to flee from its deadly influ- don from 
ence, as did the Apostles and Prophets of old, 
and as Jesus said, "when they persecute you in one city, 
flee to another." On the evening of the 12th of January, 
about ten o'clock, we left Kirtland, on horseback, to escape 
mob violence, which was about to burst upon us under 
the color of legal process to cover the hellish designs of 
our enemies, and to save themselves from the just judg- 
ment ot the law. 

1 A/ol. Ill 


We continued our travels during the night, and at eight 
o'clock on the morning of the 13th, arrived among the 
brothren in Norton Township, Medina county, Ohio, a 
distance of sixty miles from Kirtlaud. Here we tarried 
about thirty-six hours, when our families arrived; and on 
the 16th we pursued our journey with our families, in cov- 
ered wagons towards the city of Far West, in Missouri. 
We passed through Dayton and Eaton, in Ohio, and Dub- 
lin, Indiana; in the latter place we tarried nine days, and 
refreshed ourselves. 

About January 16, 1838, b^ing destitute of money to 
pursue my journey, I said to Brother Brigham Young: 
"You are one of the Twelve who have charge 
Yoifng"to the ^^ ^^^^ Idugdom iu all the world ; I believe I 
Kescur ' shall throw myself upon you, and look to you 

for counsel in this case." Brother Young 
thought I was not earnest, but I told him I was. Brother 
Brigham then said, "If you will take my counsel it will be 
that you rest yourself, and be assured you shall have 
money in plenty to pursue your journey." 

There was a brother living in the place who had tried 
for some time to sell his farm but could not; he asked 
counsel of Brother Young concerning his property; 
Brother Young told him that if he would do right, and 
obey counsel, he should have an opportunity to sell. In 
about three days Brother Tomlinson came to Brother Brig- 
ham and said he had an offer for his place; Brother 
Brigham told him that this was the manifestation of the 
hand of the Lord to deliver Brother Joseph Smith from 
his present necessities. Brother Brigham 's promise was 
soon verified, and I got three hundred dollars from Brother 
Tomlinson, which enabled me to pursue my journe5^* 

The weather was extremely cold, we were obliged to 
secrete ourselves in our wagons, sometimes, to elude the 

* This incident occurred at Dublin, Indiana, where, and after, the Prophet had 
souffht for a job at cutting and sawing wood to relieve his necessities. — '"Life of 
Brigham Young, (Tullidge), p. 85. 


grasp of our pursuers, who continued their pursuit of us 
more than two hundred miles from Kirtland, armed with 
pistols and guns, seeking our lives. They fre- 
quently crossed our track, twice they were in ue\Vof"th'e' 
the houses where we stopped, once we tarried {"ropbet's 

. . t Enemies. 

all night m the same house with them, with 
only a partition between us and them; and heard their 
oaths and imprecations, and threats concerning us, if they 
could catch us; and late m the evening they came in to our 
room and examined us. but decided we were not the men. 
At other times we passed them in the streets, and gazed 
upon them, and they on us, but they knew us not. One 
Lyons was one of our pursuers. 

I parted with Brother Rigdon at Dublin, and traveling 
different routes we met at Terre Haute, where, 

n. .■ ^ 1 . 1 T The Prophet's 

atter restmg, we separated agam, and I pur- Arrival in 
sued my journey, crossing the Mississippi 
river at Quincy, Illinois. 


Minutes of the Proceedings of the Committee of the whole Church in Zion, 
in General Assembly, at the following places, to-ivit: At Far West, 
February 5, 1S3 8; Carter'' s Settlement on the 6th; Durphy^s Settle- 
ment, on the 7th; Curtis Dwelling-house on the 8th; and Haunts 
Mills on the 0th. Thomas B. Marsh, Moderator, John Cleminson, 

After prayer, the Moderator stated the object of the meeting, giving 
a relation of the recent organization of the Church here and in Kirt- 
land. He also read a certain revelatioa given in Kirtland, September 
3, 1837, which made known that John Whitmer and W. W. Phelps, 
were in transgression, and if they repented not, they should be removed 
out of their places;* also read a certain clause contained in the appeal 
published in the old Star, on the 183rd page as follows: 

"And to sell our lauds would amount to a denial of our faith, as that 
is the place where the Zion of God shall stand, according to our faith 
and belief in the revelations of God." 

Elder John Murdock then took the stand and showed to the congre- 
gation, why the High Council proceeded thus was that the Church 

*See Vol. II, p. 511. 


might have a voice in the matter; and that he considered it per- 
fectly legal acijording to the instructions of President Joseph 
Smith, Jun. 

Elder George M. Hinkle then set forth the way in which the Presi- 
dency of Far West had been labored with, that a committee of three, 
of whom he was one, had labored with them. He then read a written 
document, containing a number of accusations against the three presi- 
dents. He spoke many things against them, setting forth in a plain 
and energetic manner the iniquity of Elders Phelps and Whitmer, in 
using the monies which were loaned to the Church. Also David Whit- 
mer's wrong-doing in persisting in the use of tea, coffee, and tobacco. 

Bishop Partridge then arose and endeavored to rectify some mistakes 
of minor importance, made by Elder Hinkle; also the Bishop spoke 
against the proceedings of the meeting, as being hasty and illegal, for 
he thought they ought to be had before the Common Council, and said 
that he could not lift his hand against the Presidency at present. He 
then read a letter from President Joseph Smith, Jun. 

A letter from William Smith was then read by Thomas B. Marsh, 
who made some comments on the same, and also on the letter read by 
Bishop Partridge. 

Elder George Morey, who was one of the committee sent to labor 
with the Missouri Presidency, spoke, setting forth in a very energetic 
manner, the proceedings of that Presidency, as being iniquitous. 

Elder Thomas Grover, also, being one of the committee, spoke 
against the conduct of the Presidency, and of Oliver Cowdery, on their 
visit to labor with them. 

Elder David W. Patten spoke with much zeal against the Presidency, 
and in favor of Joseph Smith, Jun., and that the wolves alluded to, in 
his letter, were the dissenters in Kirtland. 

Elder Lyman Wight stated that he considered all other accusations 
of minor-importance compared to Brothers Phelps and Whitmer selling 
their lands in Jackson county; that they had set an example which all 
the Saints were liable to follow. He said that it was a hellish principle 
on which they had acted, and that they had flatly denied the faith in so 

Elder Elias Higbee sanctioned what had been done by the Council, 
speaking against the Presidency. 

Elder Murdock stated that sufficient had been said to substantiate the 
accusations against them. 

Elder Solomon Hancock pleaded in favor of the Presidency, stating 
that he could not raise his hand against them. 

Elder John Corrill then spoke against the proceedings of the High 
Council and labored hard to show that the meeting was illegal, and that 


the Presidency ought to be arraigned before a proper tribunal, which 
he considered to be a Bishop and twelve High Priests. He labored in 
favor of the Presidency, and said that he should not raise his hands 
against them at present, although he did not uphold the Presidents in 
their iniquity. 

Simeon Carter spoke against the meeting as being hasty. 

Elder Groves followed Brother Carter in like observations. 

Elder Patten again took the 3tand in vindication of the cause of the 

Elder Morley spoke against the Presidency, at the same time plead- 
ing mercy. 

Titus Billings said he could not vote until they had a hearing in the 
Common Council.* 

Elder Marsh said that the meeting was according to the direction of 
Brother Joseph, he therefore considered it legal. 

Elder Moses Martin spoke in favor of the legality of the meeting, 
and against the conduct of the Presidency, with great energy, alleging 
that the present corruptions of the Church here, were owing to the 
wickedness and mismanagement of her leaders. 

The Moderator then called the vote in favor of the Missouri Px-esi- 
dency; the negative was then called, and the vote against David Whit- 
mer, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps was unanimous, excepting 
eight or ten, and this minority only wished them to continue in oifice a 
little longer, or until Joseph Smith, Jun., arrived. 

Thomas B. Marsh, Moderator, 
John Cleminson, Clerk. 

Minutes of Proceedings in Other Settlements than Far West. 

In Simeon Carter's settlement the Saints assembled on the 6th instant, 
when they unanimously rejected the three above-named Presidents. On 

* The question raised here several times by the brethren, and hereafter alluded 
to by the defendants in the case, concerning the illegality of the Coimcil attempt- 
ing then to try David Whitmer, John Whitmer, and William W. Phelps, constitut- 
ing the local Presidency of the Church in Missouri, grew out of a misapprehen- 
sion of a council provided for in the revelations of God for the trial of a Presi- 
dent of the High Priesthood, who is also of the Presidency of the whole Church. 
The said revelation provides that if a President of the High Priesthood, shall 
transgress, he shall be brought before the Presiding Bishop, or bishopric, 
of the Church, who are to be assisted by twelve counselors chosen from the 
High Priesthood. Here the President's conduct may be investigated, and the 
decision of that council upon his head is to be the end of controversy concerning 
him. (See Doc. and Cov., sec. 107: 76, 81, 82,83). But the Presidency of the 
Church In Missouri was a local presidency, hence they could not plead the illegal- 
ity of a local council of the Church to try them. 


the 7th, the Saints assembled at Edmond Durphy's, agreeable to ap- 
pointment, where the above-named Presidents were unanimously re- 
jected; also on the 8th at Nahum Curtis' dwelling-house, they 
were unanimously rejected by the assembly; also at Haun's Mills, on 
the 9th, the Saints unanimously rejected them. 

At a meeting of the High Council the Bishop and his counsel, Feb- 
ruary 10, 1838, it was moved, seconded, and carried, that Oliver Cow- 
dery, William W. Phelps, and John Whitmer, stand no longer as chair- 
man and clerks to sign and record licenses. 

Voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be authorized to 
attend to such business for the time being. 

Also voted that Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten be presidents, 
pro tempoi'e, of the Church of Latter-day Saints in Missouri, until 
Piesidents Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidney Rigdon, arrive in the land 
of Zion. 

J. Murdoch, Moderator, 
T. B. Marsh, Clerk. 

High Council Meeting at Far West. 

The High Council of Zion met in Far West, on Saturday, March 10, 
1838, agreeable to adjourameut; when after discussion it was re- 

First — That the High Council recommend by writing to the various 
branches of this Church, that all those who wish to receive ordination, 
procure recommends from the branches to which they belong, and have 
such recommends pass through the hands of the different quorums 
for inspection, previous to the applicants' ordination. 

Second — Resolved that the High Council recommend to all those who 
hold licenses, between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and do not 
officiate in their respective offices, be subject to military duty.* 

A charge was then preferred against William W. Phelps and John 
Whitmer, for persisting in unchristian-like conduct. 

Six councilors were appointed to speak, viz., Simeon Carter, Isaac 
Higbee, and Levi Jackman. on the part of the accuser; and Jared 
Carter, Thomas Grover, and Samuel Bent, on the part of the accused; 
when the following letter, belonging to Thomas B. Marsh, was read by 

•The law of Missouri excused from military duty all licensed ministers of the 
Gospel, and as nearly all the adult members of the Church who were worthy had 
received ordination to the Priesthood, it left the community in Far West, then a 
frontier country and liable to be raidedby warlike tribes of Indians, without militia 
companies and state arms for its protection; hence the recommendation of the 
Council that the brethren within the ages specified, and not actively emplo3'ed in 
the ministry, place themselves in a position to accept militia service. 


Brother Marcellus F. Cowdery, bearer of the same, previous to giving 
it to its rightful owner: 

"Far West, March 10, 1838. 
"Sir — It is contrary to the principles of the revelations of Jesus 
Christ and His gospel, and the laws of the land, to try a person for an 
offense by an illegal tribunal, or by men prejudiced against him, or by 
authority that has given an opinion or decision beforehand, or in his. 

"Very respectfully we have the honor to be, 
"David Whitmer, 
"William W. Phelps, 
"John Whitmer, 
"Presidents of the Church of Christ in Missouri. 

"To Thomas B. Marsh, one of the [Twelve] Traveling Councilors." 

Attested: Oliver Cowdery, 

Clerk of the High Council of the Church of Christ in Missouri. 

1 certify the foregoing to be a true copy from the original. 

Oliver Cowdery, 

Clerk of the High Council. 

All the effect the above letter had upon the Council, was to con- 
vince them still more of the wickedness of those men, by endeavoring 
to palm themselves off upon the Church, as her Presidents, after the 
Church had by a united voice, removed them fi'om their presidential 
office, for their ungodly conduct; and the letter was considered no 
more nor less than a direct insult or contempt cast upon the authorities 
of God, and the Church of Jesus Christ; therefore the Council pro- 
ceeded to business. 

A number of charges were sustained against these men, the princi- 
pal of which was claiming $2,000 Church funds, which they had sub- 
scribed for building a house to the Lord in this place, when thej' held 
in their possession the city plat, and were sitting in the presidential chair; 
which subscription they were intending to pay from the avails of the 
town lots; but when the town plat was transferred into the hands of 
the Bishop for the benefit of the Church, it was agreed that the Church 
should take this subscription off the hands of W. W. Phelps and John 
Whitmer: but in the transaction of the business, they bound the 
Bishop in a heavy mortgage, to pay them the above $2,000, in two 
years from the date thereof, a pai't of which they had already received, 
and claimed the remainder. 

The six councilors made a few appropriate remarks, but none felt to 


plead for mercy, as it had not been asked on the part of the accused, 
and all with one consent declared that justice ought to have her de- 

After some remarks by Presidents Marsh and Patten, setting forth 
the iniquity of those men in claiming the .t2,000 spoken of, which did 
not belong to them, any more than to any other person in the Church, 
it was decided that William W. Phelps and John Witmer be no longer 
members of the Church of Christ of Latter-day Saints, and be given 
over to the buffetings of Satan, until they learn to blaspheme no more 
against the authorities of God, nor fleece the flock of Christ. 

The Council was then asked if they concurred with the decision, if 
so, to manifest it by rising; they all arose. 

The vote was then put to the congregation, and was carried unani- 

The negative was called, but no one voted. 

Brother Marcellus F. Cowdery arose and said he wit-hed to have it 
understood that he did not vote either way, because he did not con- 
sider it a legal tribunal. He also offered insult to the High Council, 
and to the Church, by reading a letter belonging to Thomas B. Marsh, 
before giving it to him, and in speaking against the authorities of the 

A motion was then made by President Patten, that fellowship be 
withdrawn from Marcellus F. Cowdery, until he make satisfaction, 
which was seconded and carried unanimously. 

Thomas B. Marsh, 
David W. Patten, 

Ebenezer Eobinson, 

Clerk of High Council. 

When I had arrived within one hundred and twenty- 
miles of Far West, the brethren met me with teams and 
money to help me forward: and when eiarht 

The Prophet's ., ^, , • , 

Reception in miles from the City, we were met by an escort, 
viz., Thomas B. Marsh and others, who re- 
ceived us with open arms; and on the 13th of March, 
with my family and some others I put up at Brother 
Barnard's for the night. Here we were met by another 
escort of the brethren from the town, who came to make 
us welcome to their little Zion. 

On the 14:th of March, as we were about entering Far 
West, many of the brethren came out to meet us, who 


also with open arms welcomed us to their bosoms. We 
were immediately received under the hospitable roof of 
Brother George W. Harris, who treated us with all possi- 
ble kindness, and we refreshed ourselves with much satis- 
faction, after our lono^ and tedious journey, the brethren 
bringing in such things as we had need of for our comfort 
and convenience. 

After being here two or three days, my brother Samuel 
arrived with his family . 

Shortly after his arrival, while walking with him and 
certain other brethren, the following sentiments occurred 
to my mind: 

The Political Motto oj the Church of Latter-day Saints. 

The Constitution of our country formed by the Fathers of liberty. 
Peace and good order in society. Love to God, and good will to man. 
All good and wholesome laws, virtue and truth above all things, and 
aristarchy, live for ever! But woe to tyrants, mobs, aristocracy, anar- 
chy, and toryism, and all those who invent or seek out unrighteous and 
vexatious law suits, under the pretest and color of law, or office, either 
religious or political. Exalt the standard of Democracy! Down with 
that of priestcraft, and let all the people saj^ Amen! that the blood of 
our fathers may not cry from the ground against us. Sacred is the 
memory of that blood which bought for us our liberty. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., 
Thomas B. Marsh, 
David W. Patten, 
Brigham Young, 
Samues H. Smith, 
George M. Hinkle, 
John Corrill, 
George W. Eobinson. 

The PropheVs Answers to Questions on Scripture.* 

Who is the Stem of Jesse spoken of in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 
5th verses of the ILth chapter of Isaiah? 

Verily thus saith the Lord, it is Christ. 

What is the rod spoken of in the first verse of the 11th chapter of 
Isaiah that should come of the Stem of Jesse? 

* Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxiii. 


Behold, thus saith the Lord, it is a servant in the hands of Christ, 
who is partlj' a descendant of Jesse as -well as of Ephraim, or of the 
House of Joseph, on whom there is laid much power. 

What is the root of Jesse spoken of in the 10th verse of the 11th 

Behold, thus saith the Lord, it is a descendant of Jesse, as well as of 
Joseph, unto whom rightv belongs the Priesthood, and the keys of the 
Kingdom, for an ensign, and for the gathering of my people in the last 

Questions by Elias Higbee: 

"What is meant by the command in Isaiah, 52nd chapter, 1st verse, 
which saith, put on thy strength Zion? And what people had Isaiah 
reference to?" 

He had reference to those whom God should call in the last days, 
who should hold the power of Priesthood to bring again Zion, and the 
redemption of Israel; and to put on her strength is to put on the au- 
thority of the Priesthood, which she (Zion) has a right to by lineage; 
also to return to that power which she had lost. 

"What are we to understand bj' Zion loosing herself from the bands 
of her neck; 2nd verse?" 

We are to understand that the scattered remnants are exhorted to re- 
turn to the Lord from whence they have fallen, which if they do, 
the promise of the Lord is that He will speak to them, or give them 
revelation. See the (Jth, 7th and 8th verses. The bands of her neck 
are the curses of God upon her, or the remnants of Israel in their 
scattered condition among the Gentiles. 

Ihe Prophet'' s Letter to the Presidency o_f the Church oj Jesus Christ oj 
Latter-day Saints in Kirtland. 

Far West, March 29, 1838. 

Dear and Well Beloved Brethren — Through the grace and mei'cy of 
our God, after a long and tedious journey of two months and one day, 
my family and I arrived safe in the citj' of Far West, having been met 
at Huntsviils, one hundred and twenty miles from this place, by my 
brethren with teams and money, to forward us on our journey. When 
within eight miles of the city of Far West, we were met by an escort 
of brethren from the city, viz.: Thomas B. Marsh, John Corrill, Elias 
Higbee, and several others of the faithful of the West, who received 
us with open arms and warm hearts, and welcomed us to the bosom of 
their society. On our arrival in the city we were greeted on every 
hand by the Saints, who bid us welcome to the land of their inherit- 


Dear brethren, you may be assured that so friendly a meeting and re- 
ception paid us well for our long seven years of servitude, persecution, 
and affliction in the midst of our enemies, in the land of Kirtland; yea, 
verily our hearts were full; and we feel grateful to Almighty God for 
His kindness unto us. The particulars of our journey, brethren, can- 
not well be written, but we trust that the same God who has protected 
us will protect you also, and will, sooner or later, grant us the privi- 
lege of seeing each other face to face, and of rehearsing all our 

We have heard of the destruction of the printing oflflee, which we 
presume to believe must have been occasioned by the Parrish party, or 
more pi'operly the aristocrats or anarchists. 

The Saints here have provided a room for us, and daily necessaries, 
which are brouofht in from all parts of the country to make us comfort- 
able; so that I have nothing to do but to attend to my spiritual concerns, 
or the spiritual affairs of the Church. 

The diflflculties of the Church had been adjusted before my arrival 
here, by a judicious High Council, with Thomas B. Marsh and David 
W. Patten, who acted as presidents pro tempore of the Church of Zion, 
being appointed by the voice of the Council and Church, William W. 
Phelps and John Whitmer having been cut off from the Chuch, David 
Whitmer remaining as yet. The Saints at this time are in union ; and 
peace and love prevail throughout; in a word, heaven smiles upon the 
Saints in Caldwell. Various and many have been the falsehoods writ- 
ten from Kirtland to this place, but [they] have availed nothing. 
We have no uneasiness about the power of our enemies in this place 
to do us harm. 

Brother Samuel H. Smith and family arrived here soon after we did, 
in good health. Brothers Brigham Young, Daniel S. Miles, and Levi 
Richards arrived here when we did. They were with us on the last 
part of our journey, which ended much to our satisfaction. They also 
are well. They have provided places for their families, and are now 
about to break the ground for seed. 

Having been under the hands of [men who urged against me] wicked 
and vexatious law suits for seven years past, my business [in Kirtland] 
was so deranged that I was not aole to leave it in so good a situation 
as I had anticipated; but if there are any wrongs, they shall all be 
noticed, .«o far as the Lord gives me ability and power to do so. 

Say to all the brethren, that I have not forgotten them, but remember 
them in my prayers. Say to Mother Beaman that I remember her, also 
Brother Daniel Carter, Brother Strong and family, Brother Granger 
and family; finally I cannot enumerate them all for want of room, I 
will just name Brother Knight, the Bishop, etc.; my best respects to 


them all, and I commeDd them and the Church of God in Kirtlaud to 
oui' Heavenlj' Father, and the word of His grace, which is able to make 
you wise unto salvation. 

I would just say to Brother Marks, that I saw in a vision while on 
the road, th?t whereas he was closely pursued by an innumerable con- 
course of enemies, and as they pressed upon him hard, as if they were 
about to devour him, and had seemingly obtained some degree of advan- 
tage over him, but about this time a chariot of fire came, and near the 
place, even the angel of the Lord put forth his hand unto Brother 
Marks and said unto him, "Thou art my son, come here," and immedi- 
ately he was caught up in the chariot, and rode away triumphantly out 
of their midst. And again the Lord said, I will raise thee up for a 
blessing unto many people." Now the particulars of this whole mat- 
ter cannot be written at this time, but the vision was evidently given to 
me that I might know that the hand of the Lord would be on his be- 

I transmit to you the Motto of the Church of Latter-day Saints. 

We left President Rigdon thirty miles this side of Paris, Illinois, in 
consequence of the sickness of Brother George W. Robinson's wife. 

On yesterday Brother Robinson arrived here, who informed us that 
his father-in-law (Sidney Rigdon) was at Huntsville, detained on ac- 
count of the ill health of his wife. They will probably be here soon. 

Choice seeds of all kinds of fruit, also choice breeds of cattle, would 
be in much demand; and best blood of horses, garden seeds of every 
description, and hay seeds of all sorts, are much needed in this place. 

Very respectfully I subscribe myself your servant in Christ, our Lord 
and Savior. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., 
President of the Church of Christ of Latter dav Saints. 

A U. 18381 HISTOrlY OF THE CHURCH. 13 



President Rigdon arrived at Far West with his family, 
Wednesday, April 4th, having had a tedi- , .^ , 

•^ ' -"^ . ' ^ Arrival of Sid- 

ous journey, and his family having suffered ney Rigdon at 

,^. ,. Far West. 

many amictions. 

Minutes of a General Conference of the Church at Far West. 

Far West, April 6, 1838. 

Agreeable to a resolution passed by the High Council of Zion. March 
3, 1838, the Saints in Missouri assembled in this place to celebrate the 
anniversary of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and 
to transact Church business, Joseph Smith, Jun., and Sidnej' Rigdon, 

The meeting was opened by singing, and prayer by David W. Pat- 
ten, after which President Joseph Smith, Jun., read the order of the 
day as follows: Doors will be opened at 9 o'clock a. m., aud the meet- 
ing will commence by singing and prayer. A sexton will then be ap- 
pointed as a door keeper, and other services in the House of the Lord. 
Two historians will then be appointed to write and keep the Church 
history; also a general recorder to keep the records of the whole 
Church, and to be the clerk of the First Presidency. And a clerk will 
be appoiated for the High Council, and to keep the Chareh records of 
this Stake. Three presidents will be appointed to preside over this 
Church of Zion, after which an address will be delivered by the Presi- 
dency. Then an intermission of one hour, when the meeting will 
again convene, and open by singing and prayer. The Sacrament will 
then be administered, and the blessing of infants attended to. 

The meeting proceeded to business. George Morey was appointed 
sexton, and Dimick Huntington assistant; John Corrill and Elias Hig- 
bee, historians; George W. Robinson, general Church recorder and 

14 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. (A. 1). 18:w 

clerk to the First Presidency; Ebenezer Itobinson, Church clerk and 
recorder for Far West and clerk of the High Council; Thomas B. 
Marsh, President jm) tempore of the Church in Zion, and Brigham 
Young and David W. Patten, his assistant Presidents. 

After one hour's adjournment, meeting again opened by David W. 
Patten. The bread and wine were administered, and ninety-five in- 
fants were blessed. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., President. 
EuENEZLR lloiUNsON, Clerk. 

Minutes of the First Qwn-terly Corijerence at Var West. 

Agreeable to a resolution of the High Council, March 3, 1838, the 
general authorities of the Church met, to hold the Quarterly Confer- 
ence of the Church of Latter-day Saiuts, at P'ar West, on the 7th of 
April. 1838. 

President Jcseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Thomas B. Marsh, 
David W. Patten, and Brigham Young, took the stand, after which the 
several quorums, the High Council, the High Priests, the Seventies, the 
Elders, the Bishops, the Priests, Teachers and Deacons, were organ- 
ized by their Presidents. 

President Joseph Smith, Jun., made some remarks and also gave 
some instructions respecting the order of the day. After singing, 
prayer by Brigham Young, and singing again. President Smith then 
addressed the congregation at considerable length, followed by Presi- 
dent Rigdon. 

Adjourned twenty minutes. 

Opened by David W. Patten, who also made some remarks respect- 
ing tlie Twelve Apostles. He spoke of Thomas B. Marsh, Brigham 
Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde, Parley P. Pratt, and Orson 
Pratt, as being men of God, whom he could recommend with cheerful- 
ness and confidence. He spoke somewhat doubtful of William Smith, 
for something he had heard respecting his faith in the work. He also 
spoke of William E. McLellin, Luke S. Johnson, Lyman E. Johnson, 
and John F. Boynton, as being men whom he could not recommend to 
the conference. 

President John Murdock represented the High Council. The report 
was favorable. The seats of Elisha H. Groves, Calvin Bebee, and Ly- 
man Wight were vacant in consequence of their having moved so far 
away they could not attend the Council. 

Thomas B. Marsh nominated Jared Carter, to fill the seat of Elisha 
H. Groves; John P. Greene that of Calvin Bebee. and George W. 
Harris that of Lyman Wight; which nominations were severally and 
unanimously sanctioned. 


George W. Harris was ordained a High Priest. 

On motion, conference adjourned to the 8th, 9 o'clock a. m. 

Sunday, April 8th, 9 o'clock a. m., conference convened and opened 
as usual, prayer by Brigham Young. 

President Joseph Smith, Jun., made a few remarks respecting the 
Kirtland Bank. He was followed by Brigham Young, who gave a 
short history of his travels to Massachusetts and New York. 

President Charles C. Rich represented his quorum of High Priests, 
and read their names. The principal part were in good standing. 

President Daniel S. Miles and Levi W. Hancock represented the 

The quorum of Elders were represented by their President, Harvey 
Green, numbering one hundred and twenty-four in good standing. 

President Joseph Smith, Jun., madp a few remarks on the Word of 
Wisdom, giving the reason of its coming forth, saying it should be ob- 

Adjourned for one hour. 

Conference convened agreeable to adjournment, and opened as usual, 
after which Bishop Partridge represented his Council and the Lesser 
Priesthood, and made a report of receipts and expenditures of Church 
funds which had passed through his hands. 

It was then moved, seconded and carried, that the First Presidency 
be appointed to sign the licenses of the official members of the Chui'ch. 
Conference adjourned until the first Friday in July next. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., President. 
Ebenezer Robinson, Clerk. 

The followiDg letter was sent to John Whitmer, in 
conseqnence of his withholding the records demand on 
of the Churoh in the city of Far West, 'Jott°hrchS 
when called for by the clerk. Records. 

Mr. John Whitmer, Sir: We were desirous of honoring you by giv- 
ing publicity to your notes on the history of the Church of Latter-day 
Saints, after making such corrections as we thought would be neces- 
sary, knowing your incompetency as a historian, and that writings 
coming from your pen, could not be put to press without our correct- 
ing them, or else the Church must suffer reproach. Indeed, sir, we 
never supposed you capable of writing a history, but were willing to 
let it come out under your name, notwithstanding it would really not 
be yours but ours. We are still willing to honor you, if you can be 
made to know your own interest, and give up your notes, so that they 


can be corrected and made fit for the press; but if not, we have all 
the materials for another, which we shall commence this week to 

Your humble servants, 

Joseph Smith, Jun. , 


Presidents of the whole Church of Latter-day Saints. 
Attest: Eben'ezer Robinson, Clerk. 

Wednesday, April 11, Elder Sej'inour Brunson pre- 
charges A- feiTed the following charges against Oliver 
Cowde?y!'" Cowdery, to the High Council at Far West:* 

To the Bishop and Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
dij" Saints, I prefer the following charges against President Oliver 

"First — For persecuting the brethren by urging on vexatious law 
suits against them, and thus distressing the innocent. 

"Second — For seeking to destroy the character of President Joseph 
Smith, Jun., by falsely insinuating that he was guilty of adultery. 

"Third — For treating the Church with contempt by not attending 

"Fourth — For virtually denying the faith by declaring that he would 
not be governed by any ecclesiastical authority or revelations what- 
ever, in his temporal affairs. 

"Fifth — For selling his lands in Jackson county, contrary to the 

"Sixth — For writing and sending an insulting letter to President 
Thomas B. Marsh, while the latter was on the High Council, attending 
to the duties of his office as President of the Council, and by insulting 
the High Council with the contents of said letter. 

"Seventh — For leaving his calling to which God had appointed him 
by revelation, for the sake of filthy lucre, and turning to the practice 
of law. 

Eighth — For disgracing the Church by being connected in the bogus 
business, as common report says. 

"Ninth — For dishonestly retaining notes after they had been paid; 
and finally, for leaving and forsaking the cause of God, and returning 
to the beggarly elements of the world, and neglecting his high and 
holy calling, according to his profession." 

The Bishop and High Council assembled at the Bishop's 

* The charges were drawn up and dated the 7th of April, and handed to Bishop 


office, April 12, 1838. After the organization of the 
Council, the above charges of the 11th instant were read, 
also a letter from Oliver Cowdery, as will be 
found recorded in the Church record of the vei^'cowSrv 
city of Far West, Book A. The 1st, 2nd, 
3rd, 7th, 8th, and 9th charges were sustained. The 4th 
and 5th charges were rejected, and the 6th was withdrawn. 
Consequently he (Oliver Cowdery) was considered no 
longer a member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints.* Also voted by the High Council that 

* The following letter from Oliver Cowdery respecting bis difficulties at this time 
in the Church, is copied from the Far West Kecord of the High Council, and is an 
iaterestiag document for several reasons: First, it shows the spirit of Oliver 
Cowdery at that time, also his misapprehensions of the policy of the authorities 
in the government of the Church, for it is to be noted that the two principal points 
covered in this letter, numbers four and five of Elder Branson's charges, were re- 
jected by the Council as not being proper to be considered, and the sixth charge 
also is withdrawn, so that Oliver Cowdery was not disfellowshiped from the 
Church on the points raised in his letter at all, but on the first, second, third, 
seventh, eighth and ninth charges in Elder Brunson's formal accusation, and 
since these charges were sustained upon testimony of witnesses, as the minutes of 
the High Council proceedings in the Far West Record clearly show, it is to be 
believed that the Church had sufiicient cause for rejecting him. 

Elder Cowdery' s Letter. 

Far West, Missouri, April 12, 1838. 

Dear Sir: — I received your note of the 9th inst., on the day of its date, con- 
taining a copy of nine charges preferred before yourself and Council against me, 
by Elder Seymour Brunson. 

I could have wished that those charges might have been deferred until after ray 
interview with President Smith; out as they are not, I must waive the anticipated 
pleasure with which I had flattered myself of an understanding on those points 
which are grounds of different opinions on some Church regulations, and others 
which personally interest myself. 

The fifth charge reads as follows: "For selling his lauds in Jackson County 
contrary to the revelations." So much of this charge, "for selling his lands in 
Jackson County," 1 acknowledge to be true, and believe that a large majority of 
this Church have already spent their judgment on that act, and pronounced it suf- 
ficient to warrant a disfellowship; and also that you have concurred in its correct- 
ness, consequently, have no good reason for supposing you would give anv de- 
cision contrary. 

Now, sir, the lands in our country are allodial in the strictest construction of 
that term, and have not the least shadow of feudal tenures attached to them, con- 
sequently, they may be disposed of by deeds of conveyance without the consent 
or even approbation of a superior. 

The fourth charge is in the following words, "For virtually denying the faith 


Oliver Cowdery be no longer a committee to select loca- 
tions for the gathering of the Saints. 
April IS. — The following charges were preferred 
against David Whitmer, before the High 

Charges " .^ . 

against David Council at Far West, in council assem- 

Whitmer. , - , 


"First — For not observing the Word of Wisdom. 

"Second — For unchristian-like conduct in neglecting to attend meet- 
by declaring that he would not be governed by any ecclesiastical authority nor 
revelation whatever in his temporal affairs." 

With regard to this, 1 think I am warranted in saying, the judgment is also 
passed as on the matter of the fifth charge, consequently, I have no disposition to 
contend with the Council; this charge covers simply the doctrine of the fifth, and 
if I were to be controlled by other than my own judgment, in a compulsory man- 
ner, in my temporal interests, of course, could not buy or sell without the consent 
of some real or supposed authority. Whether that clause contains the precise 
words, I am not certain — 1 think however they were these, •'! will not be influenced, 
governed, or controlled, in my temporal interests by any ecclesiastical authority 
or pretended revelation whatever, 'contrary to my own judgment. " Such being 
still my opinion shall only remark that the three great principles of English 
liberty, as laid down in the books, are "the rightjof personal security, the right of 
personal liberty, and the right of private property." Mv venerable ancestor was 
among the little band, who landed on the rocks of Plymouth in 1620 — with him he 
brought those maxims, and a body of those laws which were the result and ex- 
perience of many centuries, on the basis of which now stands our great and happy 
government; and they are so interwoven in my nature, have so long been incul- 
cated into my mind by a liberal and intelligent ancestry that I am wholly unwilling 
to exchange them for anything less liberal, less benevolent, or less free. 

The very principle of which I conceive to be couched in an attempt to set up a 
kind of petty government, controlled and dictated by ecclesiastical influence, in 
the midst of this national and state government You will, no doubt, say this is not 
correct; but the bare notice of these charges, over which j^ou assume a right to 
decide, is, in my opinion, a direct attempt to make the secular power subservient 
to Church direction — to the correctness of which I cannot in conscience subscribe — 
I believe tha^. principle never did fail to produce anarchy and confusion. 

This attempt to control me in my temporal interests, I conceive to be a disposi- 
tion to take from me a portion of my Constitutional privileges and inherent right — 
1 only, respectfully, ask leave, therefore, to withdraw from a society assuming 
they have such right. 

So far as relates to the other seven charges, I shall lay them carefully away, and 
take such a course with regard to them, as I may feel bound by my honor, to an- 
swer to my rising posterity. 

I beg you, sir, to take no view of the foregoing remarks, other than my belief 
in the outward government of this Church. 1 do not charge you, or any other per- 
son who differs with me on these points, of not being sincere, but such difference 
does exist, whieh I sincerely regret. 

With considerations of the highest respect, I am, your obedient servant, 

[Signed.] Oliver Cowdert. 

Rev. Edward Partridge, Bishop of the Church of Latter-day Saints. 


ings, in uniting with and possessing the same spirit as the dissenters. 

"Third — In writing letters to the dissenters in Kirtland unfavorable 
to the cause, and to the character of Joseph Smith, Jun. 

"Fourth — In neglecting the duties of his calling, and separating 
himself from the Church, while he had a name among us. 

"Fifth — For signing himself President of the Church of Christ in 
an insulting letter to the High Council after he had been cut off from 
the Presidency." 

After reading the above charges, together with a letter 
sent to the President of said Council,* the Council held 
that the charges were sustained, and consequently con- 
sidered David Whitmer no longer a member of the Church 
of Latter-day Saints. 

* The letter referred to is to be found in the Far West Record. It is as follows 

"Fab West, Mo., April 13, 1838. 
"John Murdook: 

"Sir: — I received a line from you bearing date the 9th inst., requesting me as a 
High Priest to appear before the High Council and answer to five several charges 
on this day at 12 o'clock. 

"You, sir, with a majority of this Church have decided that certain councils were 
legal by which it is said I have been deprived of my office as one of the Presidents 
of this Church. I have thought, and still think, they were not agreeable to the 
revelations of God, which I believe; and by now attending this Council, and an- 
swering to charges, as a High Priest, would be acknowledging the correctness and 
legality of those former assumed councils, which I shall not do. 

"Believing as 1 verily do, that you and the leaders of the councils have a deter- 
mination to pursue your unlawful course at all hazards, and bring others to your 
standard in violation of the revelations, to spare you any further trouble I hereby 
withdraw from your fellowship and communion — choosing to seek a place among 
the meek and humble, where the revelations of heaven will be observed and the 

rights of men regarded. 

"David Whitmer." 

In the minutes of the council in which this letter was read appear also the fol- 
lowing paragraphs: 

"After the reading of the above letter it was not considered necessary to investi- 
gate the case, as he [David Whitmer] had offered contempt to the Council by writ- 
ing the above letter, but it was decided to let the councilors speak what they had 
to say upon the case, and pass decision. 

"The councilors then made a few remarks in which they spoke warmly of the 
contempt offered to the Council in the above letter, therefore, thought he [David 
Whitmer] was not worthy a membership in the Church. 

"Whereupon President Marsh made a few remarks, and decided thatDavid Whitmer 
be no longer considered a member of the Church of JesusChrist of Latter-day Saints. ' ' 

The Council sustained the decision of President Marsh and David Whitmer was 
excommunicated. The letters of both Oliver Cowdery and David Whitmer to the 
High Council, setting forth their position respecting matters involved, are here 


The same day three charges were preferred against 
Lyman E. Johnson, which were read, together with a 
Charges letter fi'om him, in answer to the one re- 

rnHn^E* John- cordcd in Far West Record.* The charges 
^o°- were sustained, and he was cut off from 

the Church. 

The work continued, to prosper in England, and Elders 
The Work in Kichards and Russell having previously been 
England— called. toPreston,to prepare for their return to 

Conference in i ± ± 

Preston. America, a general conference was held in the 

Temperance Hall, (Cock Pit) Preston, on Sundaj", April 1st, 
for the purpose of setting in order the churches, etc. Broth- 
er Joseph Fielding was chosen President over the whole 
Church in England, and Willard Richards and William 
Clayton t were chosen his Counselors, and were ordained 
to the High Priesthood and to the Presidency. This was 
the first notice given Elder Richards that he would be 
required to continue in England. At this conference 
eight Elders were ordained, among whom was Thomas 
Webster, and several Priests, Teachers and Deacons; 
about forty were confirmed, who had previously Ijeen 
baptized; about sixty children were blessed, and twenty 
baptized that day. Conference continued without inter- 
mission from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. About fifty official mem- 
bers met in council in the evening. 

presented that I might call attention to this fact: neither of them deny or even 
slight the great facts in which Mormonism had its origin — tbe coming forth of the 
Book of Mormon, and the ministration of the angels of heaven to both Joseph 
Smith and themselves. Had there been any fraud or collusion entered into between 
Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowder}' and David Whitmer. I take it that it would have 
been a very natural thing for men smarting under what they regarded as injus- 
tice, to have manifested that fact in one way or another in these communications. 
Their silence at this critical time of their experience, and in the experience of the 
Church, constitutes verj- strong presumptive evidence of the reality of those facts 
which brought Mormonism into existence. 

* A copy of which may be found in Far West Record, Book A, p. 128. 

t William Clayton was born in Penworthan, Lancashire, England, July 17, 1814. 
He was ba.jtized soon after the arrival of the Mormon Elders in England in 1837. 
Soon after his ordination to the Holy Priesthood and Presidency of the British 
mission he abandoned all other business and gave himself to the ministry, ir, which 
he was remarkably successful. 


From the 1st to the 8th of April Presidents Kimball and 
Hjxle visited the churches a short distance from Preston, 
and on the 8th attended meetinsr in the "Cock 


Pit. ' ' After preaching by Elder Richards, they Meetings with 
bore their farewell testimony to the truth of 
the work. After they had closed, and while Elder Eussell 
was speaking, the enemy severed the gas pipes which light- 
ed the house, and threw the assembly into darkness in an 
instant. The damage was soon repaired, and the design 
of breaking up the meeting frustrated. * 

On Tuesday, the 10th of April, at 12 o'clock. Elders 
Kimball and Hyde left Preston by coach for Liverpool. 

While the Elders were in Liverpool they wrote as 

A Prophecy. 

Liverpool, Good Friday, April 13, 1838. 

Dear Brothers and Sisters in Preston: — Itseemethp:oodimtous, 
and also to the Holy Spirit, to wi-ite you a few words which cause paia 
iu our heai'ts, and will also pain vou when they are fulfilled before you, 
yet you shall have joy in the end. Brother Thomas Webster will not 
abide in the Spirit of the Lord, but will reject the truth, and become 
the enemy of the people of God, and expose the mysteries that have 
been committed to him, that a righteous judgment may be executed 
upon him, unless he speedily repent. When this sorrowful prediction 
shall be fulfilled, this letter shall be read to the Charch, and it shall 
prove a solemn warning to all to beware. 

Farewell in the Lord, 

Heber C. Kimball, 
Orson Hyde. 

The foregoing letter was written and sealed in the pres- 
ence of Presidents Joseph Fielding and Willard Richards, 
who had gone to Liverpool to witness the brethren sail, 
and, by the writers, committed to their special charge, 
that no one should know the contents until the fulfillment 

Previous to this period, very few of the foolish and 
wicked stories which filled the weekly journals and pam- 
phlets in America concerning the' 'Mormons, "as the Saints 


were termed, had found their way into the En^2:lish prints; 
but immediately after Elders Kimball and Hyde left Pres- 
American ^^^5 ^^ ^^' about the 15th of April, one Livesey 

ReTchTEn-- (^ Methodist priest, who had previously 
land. spent some years in America, and said he 

heard nothing about the Saints in America) came out with 
a pamphlet, made up of forged letters, apostate lies, and 
"walk on the water" stories, he found in old American 
papers, which he had picked up while in America. But 
he stopped the circulation of his own pamphlet by stating 
to a public congregation, that he had accidentally found 
the contents of his pamphlet in old papers in his trunk, 
which was quite providential, to stop such abominable 
work as the Saints were engaged in; and in the same 
lecture said he "wished the people to purchase his pam- 
phlet, as he had been at a great expense to procure the 
materials for writing it! " His hearers retired. 

On the 20th of April Elders Kimball and Hyde sailed 
from Liverpool on the ship Gar rick. 




April 17. — I received the following: 

Bevelation Given at Far West.* 

1. Verily thus saith the Lord, it is wisdom in my servant David W. 
Patten, that he settle up all his business as soon as he possibly can, and 
make a disposition of his merchandise, that he may perform a mission 
nnto me next spring, in company with others, even twelve, including' 
himself, to testify of my name, and bear glad tidings unto all the world; 

2. For verily thus saith the Lord, that inasmuch as there are those 
among you who deny my name, others shall be planted in their stead, 
and receive their bishopric. Amen. 

I also received the following: 

Revelation Given to Brigham Young at Far West. 

Verily thus saith the Lord, let my servant Brigham Young go unto 
the place which he has bought, on Mill Creek, and there provide for his 
family until an effectual door is opened for the support of his family, 
until I shall command him to go hence, and not to leave his family until 
they are amply provided for. Amen. 

April 26. — I received the following: 

Revelation Given at Far West malting known the tvill oj God concerning 
the building up of that place, and oj the Lordh House.f 

1. Verily thus saith the Lord unto you, my servant Joseph Smith, 
.Tun., and also my servant Sidney Rigdon, and also my servant Hyrum 
Smith, and your counselors who are and shall be appointed hereafter; 

2. And also unto you my servant Edward Partridge, and his coun- 
selors ; 

* Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxiv. 

+ Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxv. It will be observed that in verses three and 


3. And also unto my faithful servants, who are of tlie High Council 
of my Church in Zion (for thus it shall be called), and unto all the 
Elders and people of my Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints, scattered abroad in all the world; 

4. For thus shall my Church be called in the last days, even the 
Church of Jesus Christ of liatter-day Saints. 

5. Verily I saj' unto you all, Arise and shine forth, that thy light 
may be a standard for the nations, 

6. And that the gathering together upon the laud of Zion, and upon 
her stakes, may be for a defense, and for a refuge from the storm, and 
from wrath when it shall be poured out without mixture upon the whole 

7. Let the city. Far West, be a holy and consecrated land unto me, 
and it shall be called most holy, for the ground upon which thou standest 
is hoi J'; 

8. Therefore I command you to build an house unto me, for the 
gathering together of my Saints, that they may worship me; 

9. And let there be a beginning of this work, and a foundation, and 
a preparatory work, this following summer; 

10. And let the beginning be made on the 4th day of July next, and 
from that time forth let mj' people labor diligently to build an house 
unto my name, 

11. And in one j'ear from this day let them re- commence laying the 
foundation of my house: 

12. Thus let them from that time forth labor diligently until it shall 

four of this revelation the Lord gives to the Church its oflSeial name, "The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints." Previous to this the Church bad been 
<^alled "The Church of Christ," "The Church of .Jesus Christ," "The Church of 
God, "and by a conference of Elders hel<l at Kirtland in May, 18:54, (see Church His- 
tory, vol. 2, pp. 62-3), it was given the name"The Church of the Latter-day Saints." 
All these names, however, were by this revelation brushed aside, and since then 
the official name given in this revelation has been recoguized as the true title of the 
Chureh,though often spoken of as"The Mormon Church," the "Church of Christ," 
etc. The appropriateness of this title is self evident, and in it there is a beautiful 
recognition of- the relationship both of the Lord .Jesus Christ and of the Saints 
to the organization. It is "The Church of Jesus Christ." It is the Lord's; He 
owns it. He organized it. It is the Sacred Depository of His truth. It is His in- 
strumentality for promulgating all those spiritual truths with which He would have 
mankind acquainted. It is also His instrumentality for the perfecting of the Saints, 
as well as for the work of the ministry. It is His in all these respects; but it is an 
institution which also belongs to the Saints. It is their refuge from the confusion 
and religious doubt of the world. It is their instnictor in principle, doctrine, and 
righteousness. It is their guide in matters of faith and morals. They have a con- 
joint ownership in it with Jesus Christ, which ownership is beautifully recognized 
in the latter part of the title. "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints," 
is equivalent to "The Church of Jesus Christ," and "The Church of the 
Latter-day Saints." 


be finished, from the corner stone thereof unto the top thereof, until 
there shall not any thing remain that is not finished. 

13. Verily I say unto you, let not my servant Joseph, neither my 
servant Sidnej^ neither my servant Hyrum, get in debt any more for 
the building of an house unto my name; 

14. But let an house be built unto my name according to the pattern 
which 1 will show unto them. 

15. And if my people shall build it not according to the pattern 
which I shall show un^o their Presidency, I will not accept it at their 

10. But if my people do build it according to the pattern which I 
shall show unto their Presidency, even my servant Joseph and his 
counselors, then I will accept it at the hands of my people. 

17. And again, verily I say unto you, it is my will that the city of 
Far West should be built up speedily by the gathering of my Saints, 

18. And also that other places should be appointed for stakes in the 
region round about, as they shall be manifested unto my servant 
Joseph, from time to time; 

19. For behold, I will be with him, and I will sanctify him before 
the people, for unto him have I given the keys of this kingdom and 
ministiy. Even so. Amen. 

The Teachers' qtiorum voted today [April 26th] not to 
hold any member of the quorum in fellowship, who would 
not settle his own difficulties in the Church, and show 
himself approved in all things; and that they would not 
hold any member of the quorum in fellowship who would 
take unlawful interest. 

April 27. — This day I chiefly spent in writing a history 
of the Church from the earliest period of its existence, 
up to this date. 

Minutes of the High Council. 

Saturday, April 28, 1838. This morning Presidents Joseph Smith, 
Jun., a-_id Sidney Rigdon attended the High Council, by invitation. 

The business before the Council was an appeal case, from the branch 
of the Church near Guymon's Mill. A Brother Jackson was accuser, 
and Aaron Lyon accused. Thomas B. Marsh and David W. Patten 

It appeared, in calling the Council to order, that some of the seats 
were vacant, which the Council proceeded to fill, but as there were not a 
sufficient number present who were eligible for the station. Presidents 


Smith and Eigdon were strongly solicited to act as Councilors, or to 
preside and let the presiding officers act as Councilors. 

They accepted the former proposal, and President Smith was chosen 
to act on the part of the defense, and to speak upon the case, together 
with George W. Harris. 

President Rigdonwas chosen to speak on the part of the prosecution, 
together with George M. Hinkle. 

After some discussion as to whether witnesses should be admitted to 
testify against Aaron Lyon, or whether he should have the privilege of 
confessing his own sins, it was decided that witnesses should be ad 
mitted, and also the written testimony of the wife of a brother of the 
name of Jackson. 

[This trial is written up at great length in the minutes of the Far 
West Record, and also in G. W. Robinson's summary of the proceed- 
ings heretofore printed. Condensed, the account of the fault of Brother 
Aaron Lyon was this: He claimed to have had a revelation that a Sister 
Jackson, who was a married woman, and whose husband was still living, 
was to become his wife. Lyon claimed that it had been revealed to him 
that the woman's husband was dead. He exerted undue influence in per- 
suading her of these things, and she consented to be his wife; but before 
they were married the woman's husband appeared on the scene, with the 
result, of course, that the prospective marriage did not take place. 
The witnesses were permitted to testify, although Brother Lyon con- 
fessed the facts and admitted his error. The conclusion of the matter 
follows as stated by G. W. Robinson, clerk of the Council]. 

Council decided that, inasmuch as this man had confessed his sins, and 
asked forgiveness, and promised to make well the paths of his feet, and 
do, as much as lies in his power, what God should require at his hands, 
he should give up his license as High Priest, and stand as a member in 
the Church; and this in consequence of his being considered incapable 
of magnifying that office. 

G. W. Robinson. 

Sunday, 29. — I spent the day chiefly in meeting with 
the Saints, ministering the words of Ufe. 

Sundry Em- ' rm • t-. • n 

pioymentsof Monday, 30. — The Fn-st Presidency were 
^°'^ ^ ' engaged in writing the Church history and in 
recitation of grammar lessons, which recitations at this 
period were usually attended each morning before writing. 
May 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th. — The First Presidency were 
engaged in writing Church history and administering to 
the sick. Received a letter from John E. Page on the 4th. 


Saturday^ 5. — The Presidency wrote for the Elders^ 
Journal; also received intelligence from Canada by 
Brother Bailey, that two hundred wagons, with families, 
would probably be here in three weeks ; also listened to 
an address on political matters delivered by General Wil- 
son, Federal candidate for Congress. 

Sunday, May 6.— I preached to the Saints, setting forth 
the evils that existed, and that would exist, The Prophet's 
by reason of hasty judgment, or decisions E^fii^ofHa^^y 
upon any subject given by any people, or in Judgment. 
judging before they had heard both sides of a question. 
I also cautioned the Saints against men who came amongst 
them whining and growling about their money, because they 
had kept the Saints, and borne some of the burden witn 
others, and thus thinking that others, who are still poorer, 
and have borne greater burdens than they themselves, ought 
to make up their losses. I cautioned the Saints to beware 
of such, for they were throwing out insinuations here and 
there, to level a dart at the best interests of the Church, 
and if possible destroy the character of its Presidency. I 
also gave some instructions in the mysteries of the king- 
dom of God; such as the history of the planets, Abra- 
ham's writings upon the planetary systems, etc. 

In the afternoon I spoke again on different subjects: 
the principle of wisdom, and the Word of Wisdom. 

The Teachers' quorum at Far West numbered twenty- 
four members. 

Monday, 7.—1 spent the day in company with Judge 
Morain, one of our neighboring county judges, and Demo- 
cratic candidate for the state senate. 

I also visited with Elders Reynolds Cahoon and Parley 
P. Pratt, who had this day arrived in Far West, the 
former from Kirtland, the latter from New Arrival of 
York City, where he had been preaching for p'^^prau^J^i®^ 
some time; and our hearts were made glad Far west, 
with the pleasing intelligence of the gatering of the 
Saints from all parts of the earth to this place, to avoid 


the destructions wbrch are coming upon this generation, 
<is spoken b}' all the holy prophets since the world began. 

James G. Marsh, son of Thomas B. Marsh, aged four- 
Death of jas ^^^^^ vears, elcven months, and seven da^'s, 
(.4. Marsh. (jjgjj ^]^{^ dsLj , in the full triumph of the ever- 
lasting Gospel. 

Tuesday, 8. — I spent the day with Elder Rigdonin visit- 
ing Elder Cahoon at the place he had selected for his 
The Prophet's vesidcuce, and in attending to some of our pri- 
Answersto yatc, persoual affairs: also in the afternoon I 

iMindr}- Ques- ^ ^ _ ' 

tions answered the questions which were frequently 

asked me, while on my last journey but one from Kirtland 
to Missouri, as printed in the Elders'' Journal, vol. I, 
Number II, pages 28 and 29, as follows: 

- First — "Do 3'ou believe the Bible?'' 

If we do, we are the only people under heaven that does, for there 
are none of the religious sects of the day that do. 

Second — "Wherein do you differ from other sects?" 

In that we believe the Bible, and all other sects profess to believe 
their interpretations of the Bible, and their creeds. 

Third — "Will everybody be damned, but Mormons?" 

Yes, and a great portion of them, unless they repent, and work 

Fourth — "How and where did you obtain the Book of Mormon?"' 

Moroni, who deposited the plates in a hill in Manchester, Ontario 
county, New York, being dead and raised again therefrom, appeared 
\into me, and told me where they wei'e, and gave me directions how to 
obtain them. I obtained them, and the Urim and Thummim with them, 
by the means of which I translated the plates; and thus came the Book 
of Mormon. 

Fifth — "Do you believe Joseph Smith, Juu , to be a Prophet?"' 

Yes, and every other man who has the testimony of Jesus. For the 
testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy. — Revelation, xix: 10th 

Sixth — "Do the Mormons believe in having all things in common?" 


Seventh — "Do the Mormons believe in having more wives than 

"No, not at the same time. But they believe that if their companion 
dies, they have a right to marr}' again. But we do disapprove of the 



custom, which has gained in the world, and has been practiced among 
us, to our gi'eat mortification, inmai'rying in five or six weeks, or even 
in two or three months, after the death of their companion. We be- 
lieve that due respect ought to be had to the memory of the dead, and 
the feelings of both friends and children. 

Eighth — ''Can they [the Mormons] raise the dead?" 

No, nor can any other people that now lives, or ever did live. But 
God can raise the dead, through man as an instrument. 

Ninth — "What signs does Joseph Smith give of his divine mission?" 

The signs which God is pleased to let him give, according as His 
wisdom thinks best, in order that He may judge the world agreeably to 
His own plan. 

Tenth — ''Was not Joseph Smith a money digger?" 

Yes, but it was never a very profitable job for him, as he only got 
fourteen dollars a month for it. 

Eleventh —"Did not Joseph Snith steal his wife?" 

Ask her, she was of age, she can answer for herself. 

Twelfth — "Do the people have to give up their money when they join 
his Church?" 

No other requirement than to bear their proportion of the ex- 
penses of the Church, and support the poor. 

Thirteenth — "Are the Mormons abolitionists?" 

No, unless delivering the people from priestcraft, and the priests 
from the power of Satan, should be considered abolition. But we do 
not believe in setting the negroes free. 

Fourteenth — "Do they not stir up the Indians to war, and to commit 

No, and they who reported the story knew it was false when they put 
it in circulation. These and similar reports are palmed upon the people 
by the priests, and this is the only reason why we ever thought of an- 
swering them. 

Fifteenth — "Do the Mormons baptize in the name of 'Joe' Smith?" 

No, but if they did, it would be as valid as the baptism administered 
by the sectarian priests. 

Sixteenth — "If the Mormon doctrine is true, what has become of 
all those who died since the days of the Apostles?" 

All those who have not had an opportunity of hearing the Gospel, 
and being administered unto by an inspired man in the flesh, must have 
it hereafter, before they can be finally judged. 

Seventeenth — "Does not 'Joe' Smith profess to be Jesus Christ?" 

No, but he professes to be His brother, as all other Saints have done 
and now do: Matt., xii: 49, 50, "And He stretched forth His hand 
toward His disciples and said, Behold my mother and my brothreu; for 


whosoever shall do the will of my Father, which is in heaven, the same 
is my brother, and sister, and mother." 

Eighteenth — "Is there anything in the Bible which licenses you to 
believe in revelation now-a-days?" 

Is there anything that does not authorize us to believe so? If there 
is, we have, as j'et, not been able to find it. 

Nineteenth — "Is not the canon of the Scriptures full?" 
If it is, there is a great defect in the book, or else it would have 
said so. 

Twentieth — "What are the fundamental principles of your religion?" 
The fundamental principles of our religion are the testimony of the 
Apostles and Prophets, concerning Jesus Christ, that He died, was 
buried, and rose again the third day, and ascended into heaven; and all 
other things which pertain to our religion are only appendages to it. 
But in connection with these, we believe in the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
the power of faith, the enjoyment of the spiritual gifts according to the 
will of God, the restoration of the house of Israel, and the final triumph 
of truth. 

I published the foregoing answers to save myself the 
trouble of repeating the same a thousand times over and 
over again. 

Wednesday, 9. — I attended the funeral of James Gr. 
Marsh, and complied with the request that I should preach 
on the occasion. 

Thursday, 10. — I listened to an address on the political 
policv of our nation, delivered by President 

Elder Rig:- i- J "> J 

don's Poiiti- Rigdon, at the school house, m the south- 
west quarter of the city, to a large concourse 
of people from all sections of the county, and from 
other counties also. Although President Rigdon was suf- 
fering under a severe cold and great hoarseness, yet 
being assisted by the Spirit of God, he was enabled clearly 
to elucidate the policy of the Federal and Democratic 
parties from their rise in our country to the present time, 
to the understanding of all present, giving an impartial 
review to both sides of the question. This address was 
delivered in consequence of a partial electioneering 
Federal speech of General Wilson at the same place a 
short time previously, and the politics of the Church of 


Latter-clay Saints, generally being Democratic,* it 
seemed desirable to hear an elucidation of the principles 
of both parties, with which I was highly edified. 

Friday, 11.— I attended the trial of William E. Mc- 
Lellin and Dr. McCord, for transgression, Trial of wm. 
before the Bishop's court. and Dr. mc- 

McCord said he was sorry to trouble the 
■Council on his account, for he had intended to withdraw 
from the Church before he left the place; that he had 
no confidence in the work of God, or His Prophet, and 
should go his way. He gave up his license and departed. 

William E. McLellin stated about the same as McCord, 
•and that he had no confidence in the heads of the Church, 
believing they had transgressed, and had got out of the 
way, consequently he quit praying and keeping the com- 
mandments of God, and indulged himself in his lustful 
desires, but when he heard that the First Presidency had 
made a general settlement, and acknowledged their sins, 
he began to pray again. When I interrogated him, he 
said he had seen nothing out of the way himself, but he 
judged from hearsay.f 

Saturday, 12. — President Rigdon and myself attended 
the High Council for the purpose of presenting 
for their cosideration some business relating tion of the 

Prophet and 

to our pecuniary concerns. Sidney Rig- 

We stated to the Council our situation, as porai Labors 
to maintaining our families, and the relation 1°*^^ church, 
we now stand in to the Church, spending as we have 
for eight years, our time, talents, and property, 
in the service of the Church: and being reduced as it were 
to beggary, and being still detained in the business and 

* Of course what is meant by this statement is that the individuals composing 
the Church were quite generally Democrats, not that the Church as an organization 
was democratic or had any politics. 

tit will be observed that the text is silent in relation to what action was taken 
respecting William E. McLellin, and the Far West Record is silent upon the sub- 
ject also. In fact the minutes of the trial before the Bishop are not written in 
that record at all. It is known, however, from other sources that William E. 
McLellin was finally excommunicated from the Church at Far West. Thence for- 


service of the Church, it appears necessary that some- 
thing should be done for the support of our families by 
the Church, or else we must do it by our own labors; and 
if the Church say to us, "Help yourselves," we will thank 
them and immediately do so; but if the Church say^ 
"Serve us," some provision must be made for our sus- 

The Council investigated the matter, and instructed the 
Bishop to make over to President Joseph Smith, Jun., 
and Sidney Rigdon, each an eighty-acre lot of land from 
the property of the Church, situated adjacent to the city 
corporation; also appointed three of their numl)er, viz., 
George W. Harris, Elias Higbee and Simeon Carter, a 
committee to confer with said Presidency, and satisfy 
them for their services the present year; not for preach- 
ing, or for receiving the word of God by revelation, 
neither for instructing the Saints iu righteousness, but for 
services rendered in the printing establishment, in trans- 
lating the ancient records, etc., etc. Said committee 
agreed that Presidents Smith and Rigdon should receive 
$1,100 each as a just remuneration for their services 
this year. 

Sunday^ 13. — Elder Reynolds Cahoon preached in the 
forenoon. In the afternoon President Rigdon preached a 

ward he took an active part in the p.irsecution of the Saints in Missouri, and at 
one time expressed the desire to do violence to the person of Joseph Smith, while 
tlie latter was confined in LiVjerty prison. Subsequently he attempted what he 
called a reorganization of the Church, and called upon David Whitmer to take the 
presidency thereof, claiming that he was ordained by Joseph Smith on the 8ih of 
•luly, 1834, as his (the Prophet Joseph's) successor. The Prophet himself, accord, 
ing to the minutes of the High Council held in Far West, on the 1.5th of March, 
1838, referred to his ordaining of David Whitmer in July, 1834, and this is the 
account of what he said: 

"President Joseph Smith, Jun., gave a history of the ordination of David Whit- 
mer which took place in July, 1834, to be a leader or a Prophet to this Church, 
which (ordination) was on conditions that he (Joseph Smith, Jun..) did not live to 
God himself. President Joseph Smith, Jun., approved of the proceedings of the 
High Council after hearing the minutes of the former councils." — Far West Record, 
page 108. 

The minutes of the councils l)ere referred to, and which the Prophet approved, 
gave the account of deposing David Whitmer from the local Presidency of the 
Church in Missouri. 


funeral sermon on the death of Swain Williams, son of 
Frederick G. Williams. 

Monday, 14. — I spent in plowing my garden, while 
Elder Rigdon was preparing and correcting some matter 
for the press. Elder Harlow Redfield arrived from Kirt- 
land, Ohio. 

3 vol III. 




Friday, May 18. — I left Far West, in company with Sid- 
„, ^ , ney Eiardon, Thomas B. Marsh, David W. 

The Prophet j o 7 7 

Leaves Far Patten, BishoD PartridsTe, Elias Hi^bee, 

West to Lo- n ^ M -D- 1 1 

cate Settle- bimeon Carter, Aianson Jxipley, and many 
others, for the purpose of visiting the north 
country, and laying off a stake of Zion; making locations, 
and laying claim to lands to facilitate the gathering of the 
Saints, and for the benefit of the poor, in upholding the 
Church of God. We traveled to the mouth of Honey 
Creek, which is a tributary of Grand river, where we 
camped for the night. We passed through a beautiful 
country the greater part of which is prairie, and thickly 
covered with grass and weeds, among which is plenty of 
game, such as deer, turkey, and prairie hen. We dis- 
covered a large, black wolf, and my dog gave him chase, 
but he outran us. We have nothing to fear in camping 
out, except the rattlesnake, which is native to this coun- 
try, though not very numprous. We turned our horses 
loose, and let them feed on the prairie. 

Saturday, 19. — This morning we struck our tents and 
The Prophet formcd a line of march, crossing Grand River 
and Party ^t the luouth of Houcy Crcek and Nelson's 

Reach Tower •' 

Hill. Ferry. Grand River is a large, beautiful, 

deep and rapid stream, during the high waters of Spring, 
and will undoubtedly admit of navigation by steamboat 
and other water craft. At the mouth of Honey Creek is 
a good landing. We pursued our course up the river, 


mostly through timber, for about eighteen miles, when we 
arrived at Colonel Lyman Wight's home. He lives at the 
foot of Tower Hill (a name I gave the place in consequence 
of the remains of an old Nephite altar or tower that stood 
there), where w^e camped for the Sabbath. 

In the afternoon 1 went up the river about half a mile 
to Wight's Ferry, accompanied by President Eigdon, and 
my clerk, George W. Robinson, for the pur- Adamondi- 
pose of selecting and laying claim to a city ^i^niaii- 
plat near said ferry in Daviess County, township 60, 
ranges 27 and 28, and sections 25, 36, 31, and 30, which 
the brethren called "Spring Hill," but by the mouth of 
the Lord it was named Adam- ondi-Ahman,* because, said 
He, it is the place where Adam shall come to visit his peo- 
ple, or the Ancient of Days shall sit, as spoken of by 
Daniel the Prophet, f 

* See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. 116. This is not the first time that the 
name or phrase "Adam-ondi-Ahman" is used in the revelations of the Lord. Some 
six years before this, viz., in the year 18:52, it is used incidentally in one of the 
revelations where the Lord in addressing a number of the brethren who had been 
ordained to the High Priesthood, said that notwithstanding the tribulations through 
which they should pass, He had so ordered events that they might come unto the 
crown prepared for them, "and be made rulers over many liiugdoms, saith the 
Lord God, the Holy One of Zion, who hath established the foundations of Adam- 
ondi-Ahman." (Doctrine and Covenants, sec.lxxviii: 15). Some years afterwards, 
viz., in 1835, W. W. Phelps composed his beautiful hymn bearing the name of 
Adam-ondi-Ahman, which was first published in the Messenger and Advocate (No. 
9, vol. I); see also History of the Church, Vol. II, p 365. 

This hymn was a great favorite among the early Saints, although they, perhaps, 
did not understand at that time the significance of the name, nor even now do they 
understand its full significance. All that is known of its meaning is what the 
Lord revealed to the Prophet, viz., that it is significant of the fact that it desig- 
nates the place where the Lord will come and meet with His people as described by 
Daniel the Prophet. 

t Daniel's description of the events here referred to is found in the 7th chapter of 
his prophecies. The description is very imposing, hence 1 quote it: "I beheld till 
the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of Days did sit, whose garment was 
white as snow, and the h iir of his head like the pixre wool: his throne was like the 
fiery flame, and his wheels as burning fire. A fiery stream issued and came forth 
from before him: thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand 
times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set, and the books were 
opened. •#«***! sa'vv^ in the night visions, and, behold, 

one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient 
of Days, and they brought him near before Him. And there was given Him 
dominion, and glory, and a kingdom, that all people, nations, and languages' 


Sunday, 20. — This day was spent by our company 
principally at Adam-ondi- Ahman ; but near the close of 
the day, we struck our tents, and traveled about six miles 
north and encamped for the night with Judge Morin and 
company, who were also traveling north. 

Monday, 21. — This morning, after making some loca- 
tions in this place, which is in township 61, ranges 27 and 
28, we returned to Robinson's Grove, about two miles, to 
secure some land near Grand River, which we passed the 
day previous ; and finding a mistake in the former survey, 
I sent the surveyor south five or six miles to obtain a correct 
line, while some of us tarried to obtain water for the camp. 

In the evening, I called a council of the brethren, to 
Council called kuow whcthcr it was wisdom to go immediately 
Locatkmo"^ iuto thc uorth couutry, or tarry here and here- 
Settiements. abouts, to sccurc land on Grand River, etc. 
The brethren spoke their minds freely on the subject, 
when I stated to the council that I felt impressed to tarry 
and secure all the land near by, that is not secured be- 
tween this and Far West, especially on Grand River. 
President Rigdon concurred, and the council voted unani- 
mously to secure the land on Grand River, and between 
this and Far West. 

Elders Kimball and Hyde this day (21st May) arrived 
at Kirtland from England. 

Tuesday, 22. — President Rigdon went east with a com- 
pany, and selected some of the best locations 
tiquities Dis- in tlic couuty,* and returned with a good re- 
port of that vicinity, and with information of 

should serve Him: His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not 
pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed." 

The Prophet Daniel also saw in this connection that earthly powers would make 
war upon the Saints and prevail against them — until the Ancient of Days should 
come. "And [then] the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness o£ the kingdom 
under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the Saints of the Most 
High, whose kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and 
obey Him." 

* This most likely was Livingstone county, which borders both Daviess and 
Caldwell counties on the east. 


valuable locations which might be secured. Following 
awhile the course of the company, I returned to camp 
in Eobinson's Grove, and thence went west to obtain 
some game to supply our necessities. We discovered 
some antiquities about one mile west of the camp, con- 
sisting of stone mounds, apparently erected in square 
piles, though somewhat decayed and obliterated by the 
weather of many years. These mounds were probaby 
erected by the aborigines of the land, to secrete treas- 
ures. We returned without game. 

Wednesday, 2S. — We all traveled east, locating lands, 
to secure a claim, on Grove Creek, and near varied Move- 
the city of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Towards nientsof the 

*' Prophet's 

evening I accompanied Elder Rigdon to Colo- company. 
nel Wight's, and the remainder of the company returned 
to their tents. 

TJmrsday, 24. — This morning the company returned to 
Grove Creek to finish the survey, accompanied by Presi- 
dent Rigdon and Colonel Wight, and I returned to Far West. 

Friday, 25. — The company went up Grand River and 
made some locations. In the afternoon they struck their 
tents and removed to Colonel Wight's. 

Saturday, 26. — The company surveyed lands on the oth- 
er side of the river opposite Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

Sunday, 27. — The company locating lands spent the day 
at Colonel Wight's. 

Monday, 28. — The company started for home (Far 
West) , and I left Far West the same day in company 
with Brother Hyrum Smith and fifteen or twenty others, 
to seek locations in the north, and about noon we met 
President Rigdon and his company going into the city, 
where they arrived the same evening. 

President Hyrum Smith returned to Far West on the 
30th, and 1 returned on the 1st of June, on 
account of my family, for I had a son born anderHaie 

J * Smith. 

unto me.* 

•The birth of the son took place on the 2nd of June. It was Alexander Hale 


Mondaij^ June 4. — I left Far West with President Eig- 
don, my brother Hyrum and others for Adam-ondi-Ahman, 
The Prophet's ^^^ Stayed at Brother Moses Dailey's over 
Return to uio-ht : and on the morning of the 5th, went 

Adam-ondi- o 7 o 7 ^^ 

Ahman. to Colonel Lyman Wight's in the rain. We 

continued surveying, building houses, day after day, for 
many days, until the surveyor had completed the city plat. 

Monday, June 11. — President Joseph Fielding was 
married to Hannah Greenwood, Preston, England. 

June 10. — My uncle, John Smith, and family, with six 
other families, arrived in Far West, all in good health and 
spirits. I counseled them to settle at Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

Minutes of the Meeting uJiich Organized the Stake of Zion called Adam- 

Adam-ondi-Ahman, Missouri, Daviess county, June 28, 1838. A 
conference of Elders and members of the Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints was held in this place this day, for the purpose of 
organizing this Stake of Zion, called Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

The meeting convened at 10 o'clock a. m., in the grove near the house 
of Elder Lyman Wight. 

President Joseph Smith, Jun., was called to the chair. He explained 
the object of the meeting, which was to organize a Presidency and 
High Council to preside over this Stake of Zion, and attend to the 
affairs of the Church in Daviess county. 

It was then moved, seconded and carried by the unanimous voice of 
the assembly, that John Smith* should act as President of the Stake 
of Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

Reynolds Cahoon was unanimously chosen first counselor, and Lyman 
Wight second counselor. 

After prayer the presidents ordained Elder Wight as second coun- 

Vinson Knight was chosen acting Bishop pro tempore by the unani- 
mous voice of the assemblj'. _ 

President John Smith then proceeded to organize the High Council. 
The councilors were chosen according to the following order, by a unani- 
mous vote: John Lemon, first; Daniel Stanton, second; Mayhew Hill- 
man, third; Daniel Carter, fourth ; Isaac Perry, fifth; Harrison Sagers, 
sixth; Alanson Brown, seventh; Thomas Gordon, eighth; Lorenzo D. 

* The Prophefs uncle, who had but recently arrived at "Diahman.' 


Barnes, ninth; George A. Smith, tenth; Harvey Olmstead, eleventh j. 
Ezra Thayer, twelfth. 

After the ordination of the councilors who had not previously been 
ordained to the High Priesthood, President Joseph Smith, Jun., made 
remarks by way of charge to the presidents and counselors, instructing 
them in the duties of their callings, and the responsibility of their 
stations, exhorting them to be cautious and deliberate in all their coun- 
cils, and be careful and act in righteousness in all things. 

President John Smith, Reynolds Gaboon, and Lyman Wight theni 
made some remarks. 

Lorenzo D. Barnt^s was unanimously chosen clerk of this Council and 
Stake. After singing the well known hymn, Adam-ondi-Ahman, the 
meeting closed by prayer by President Gaboon, and a benediction by 
President Joseph Smith, Jun. 

Lorenzo D. Barnes, 
Isaac Perry, 


Adam-ondi-Ahman is loated immediately on the north 
side of Grand River, in Daviess county, Missouri, about 
twenty-five miles north of Far West. It is situated 
on an elevated spot of ground, which renders the place 
as healthful as any part of the United States, 

, , . T . , , Description of 

and overlooking the river and the country Adam-ondi- 
round about, it is certainly a beautiful location . * 

* Perhaps the following more detailed description of Adam-ondi-Ahman, as also 
the allusion to at least one stirring event which occurred there in the past, may not 
be without interest: Adam-ondi-Ahman.or "Diahman," as it is familiarly known to 
the Saints, is located on the north bank of Grand River. It is situated, in fact, in a 
sharp bend of that stream. The river comes sweeping down from the northwest 
and here makes a sudden turn and runs in a meandering course to the northeast 
for some two or three miles, when it as suddenly makes another bend and flows 
again to the southeast. Grand River is a stream that has worn a deep channel 
for itself, and left its banks precipitous; but at "Diahman" that is only true 
of the south bank. The stream as it rushes from the northwest, strikes the high 
prairie land which at this point contains beds of limestone, and not being able 
to cut its way through, it veered off to the northeast, and left that height of 
land standing like palisades which rise very abruptly from the stream to a height 
of from fifty to seventy-five feet. The summit of these bluffs is the common 
level of the high rolling prairie, extending off in the direction of Far West. The 
bluffs on the north bank recede some distance from the stream, so that the 
river bottom at this point widens out to a small valley. The bluffs on the north 
bank of the river are by no means as steep as those on the south, and are 
covered with a light growth of timber. A ridge runs out from the main line 
of the bluff's into the river bottom some two or three hundred yards, approach- 


June 28. — This day Victoria was crowned queen of 

ing the stream at the point where the bend of the river is made. The termina- 
tion of the bluff is quite abrupt, and overlooks a considerable portion of the 
river bottom. On the brow of the bluff stood the old stone altar, and near the 
foot of it was built the liouse of Lyman Wight. When the altar was first dis- 
covered, according to those who visited it frequentlj', it was about sixteen feet long, 
by nine or ten feet wide, having its greatest extent north and south. The height 
of the altar at each end was some two and a half feet, gradually rising higher 
to the center, which was between four and five feet high — the whole surface be- 
ing crowning. Such was the altar at "Diahman" when the Prophet's party 
visited it. Now, however, it is thrown down, and nothing but a mound of 
crumbling stones mixed with soil, and a few reddish boulders mark the spot 
which is doubtless rich in historic events. It was at tliis altar, according to the 
testimony of Joseph Smith, that the patriarchs associated with Adam and his 
company, assembled to worship their God. Here their evening and morning 
prayer ascended to heaven with the smoke of the burning sacrifice, prophetic 
and symbolic of the greater sacrifice then yet to be, and here angels instructed 
them in heavenly truths. 

North of the ridge on which the ruins of tlie altar were found, and running 
parallel with it, is another ridge, separated from the first by a depression vary- 
ing in width from fifty to a hundred yards. This small valley with the larger one 
through which fiows Grand River, is the valley of Adam-ondi-Ahman. Three years 
previous to the death of Adam, declares one of the Prophet Joseph's revelations, 
the Patriarchs Seth, Euos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared, Enoch, and Methuselah, 
together with all their righteous posterity, were assembled ir this valley we have 
described, and their common father, Adam, gave them his last blessing And 
even as he blessed them, the heavens were opened, and the Lord appeared, and 
in the presence of God, the children or Adam arose and blessed him, and called 
him Michael, the Prince, the ArchangeL The Lord also blessed Adam, saying: 
"I have set thee to be the head — a multitude of nations shall come of thee, and 
thou art a prince over them for ever." So great was the influence of this doiible 
blessing upon Adam, that, though bowed down with age, under the outpouring 
of the Spirit of God, he predicted what should befall his posterity to their latest 
generation. (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cvii). Such is one of the great events 
which occurred on this old historic land of Adam-ondi-Ahman. 




July 4. — The day was spent in celebrating the Declara- 
tion of Independence of the United States of America, 
and also by the Saints making a "Declaration celebration of 
of Independence" from all mobs and perse- Djf^arraT*'^ 
cutions which have been inflicted upon them, ^*^^^- 
time after time, until they could bear it no longer; hav- 
ing been driven by ruthless mobs and enemies of truth 
from their homes, and having had their property confis- 
cated, their lives exposed, and their all jeopardized by 
such barbarous conduct. The corner stones of the Houses 
of the Lord, agreeable to the commandments of the Lord 
unto us, given April 26, 1838, were laid. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., was president of the day; Hyrum 
Smith, vice-president; Sidney Rigdon, orator; Reynolds 
Gaboon, chief marshal; George M. Hinckle 

The Officers 

and J. Hunt, assistant marshals ; and Greorge 
W. Robinson, clerk. 

The order of the day was splendid. The procession 
commenced forming at 10 o'clock a. m., in the following 
order: First, the infantry (militia); second, The Proces- 
the Patriarchs of the Church; the president, ^^o°- 
vice-president, and orator; the Twelve Apostles, presi- 
dents of the stakes, and High Council; Bishop and coun- 
selors; architects, ladies and gentlemen. The cavalry 
brought up the rear of the large procession, which marched 
to music, and formed a circle, with the ladies in front, 
round the excavation. The southeast corner stone of the 
Lord's House in Far West, Missouri, was then laid by the 


presidents of the stake, assisted by twelve men. The 
southwest corner, by the presidents of the Elders, assisted 
by twelve men. The northwest corner by the Bishop, as- 
sisted by twelve men. The northeast corner by the presi- 
dent of the Teachers, assisted by twelve men. This house 
is to be one hundred and ten feet long, and eighty feet 

The oration was delivered by President Rigdon , * at the 

close of which was a shout of Hosanna, and 

a song, composed for the occasion by Levi W. 

Hancock, was sung by Solomon Hancock. The most 

perfect order prevailed throughout the day.t 

*The oration soon afterwards appeared in The Far West, a periodical published 
at Liherty. Clay County, Missouri. It was also published in pamphlet form from 
the office of the ''Elders' Journal.'^ (See statement of Ebenezer Robinson in The 
Bet urn, vol. 1, p. 170). This oration by Sidney Rigdon has always been severely 
criticised as containing passages that were ill-advised and vehemently bitter. Es- 
pecially those passages which threatened a war of extermination upon mobs should 
they again arise to plague the Saints. But when such criticism is made, the rank 
injiistice, the destruction of property and the outrages committed upon the per- 
sona of many of the members of the Church, by the Jackson county mob, should 
also be remembered. Also the failure on the part of the officers of the State to 
protect the Saints in the enjoyment of their civil and religious liberties or even to 
retiim them to their homes in .Jackson count}- — from which failure to magnify the 
law the Saints were still suffering. When, therefore, they saw mobocracy again 
threatening them, it is small wonder if they gave way for a moment to anger, 
and denounced in strong terms those who were likely to disturb their peace and 
repeat the outrages under which they had so long suffered. 

t Following this account of the 4th of July celebration at Far West the Prophe t 
in his history, as heretofore published, takes up the account of the organization of 
"Kirtland Camp," an organization effected bj* the First Seven Presidents of the 
Seventies, assisted by Elder Hyrum Smith. The object of the organization was to 
move the Saints, who desired to go, in a body, from Kirtland to Missouri. The Prophet 
in his history gives an account, as already stated, of the organization of this camp 
and its departure from Kirtland. Then from day to day as more or less importan t 
events took place in the camp, he records such events in his own personal 
history, with the result that his narrative is frequently interrupted by 
brief paragraphs from the camp's Journal. But as we have the full daily 
journal of the camp's progress from Kirtland to Far West, written in a most careful 
and commendable style by the camp's Historian, Elias Smith, it has been decided to 
publisTi the history of the camp from the time it met for organization in Kirtland 
(.March, 1838), until its arrival at Far West, (on the 2nd day of October, 1838), 
without other interruptions; and then omit from the narrative of the Prophet 
those occasional paragraphs taken from the said journal of the camp. This 
arrangement will relieve the Prophet's narrative of so many interruptions, and on 
the other hand it will give an unbroken narrative from an original document of 
one of the most remarkable organizations and journeys in the early history of the 


July 6. — This day I received a letter from Heber C. 
Kimball and Orson Hyde, dated at Kirtland, 

„, . . ,.-,,.,. A Word from 

Ohio, expressmg their good feelings, firm- Eiders Kim- 

., p •,! 1 -, ball and Hyde 

ness in the taith and prosperity. 

Also another letter from my brother Don Carlos Smith, 
as follows: 

Nine Miles from Terre Haute, Indiana. 

Brother Josei^h: — I sit down to inform you of our situation at the 
present time. I started from Norton, Ohio, the 7th of May, in com- 
pany with father, William, Wilkins Jenkins Salisbury, William Mc- 
Clary and Lewis Robbins, and families, also Sister Singly. We started 
with fifteen horses, seven wagons, and two cows. We have left two 
horses by the way sick, and a third horse (our main dependence) was 
taken lame last evening, and is not able to travel, and we have stopped 
to doctor him. We ^vere disappointed on every hand before we started 
in getting money. We got no assistance whatever, only as we have 
taken in Sister Singly, and she has assisted us as far as her means ex- 
tended. We had, when we started, $75 in money. We sold the two 
cows for $13.50 per cow. We have sold of your goods to the amount 
of $45.74, and now we have only $25 to carry twenty-eight souls and 
thirteen horses five hundred miles. 

We have lived very close and camped out at night, notwithstanding 
the rain and cold, and my baby only two weeks old when we started. 
Agnes* is very feeble ; father and mother are not well and very much 
fatigued; mother has a severe cold, and in fact it is nothing but the 
prayer of faith and the power of God, that will sustain them and bring 
them through. Our courage is good, and I think we shall be brought 
through. I leave it with you and Hyrum to devise some way to 
assist us to some more expense money. We have unaccountably bad 
roads, had our horses down in the mud. and broke one wagon tongue 
and thills, and broke down the carriage twice, and yet we are all alive 
and encamped on a dry place for almost the first time. Poverty is a 
heavy load, but we are all obliged to welter under it. 

It is now dark and I close. May the Lord bless you all, and bring 
us together, is my prayer. Amen. All the arrangements that brother 
Hyrum left for getting money failed; they did not gain us one cent. 

Don C. Smith. 

Church. This promised history will be inserted at the point of the Prophet's 
narrative where the camp arrives at Far West. 

* This refers to Don Carlos Smith's wife, who before her marriage to him in 
Kirtland, on July 30, 1835, was Agnes Coolbirth. 


The three revelations* which IreceivedJanuaryl'i, 1838, 
the day I left Kirtland, were read in the public congre- 
„. . „ nation at Far West; and the same dav I in- 

MissiDgReve- ^ ' 

lations. Cjuired of the Lord, "O Lord! Show unto thy 

servant how much thou requirest of the properties of thy 
people for a tithing," and received the following an- 
swer, which was also read in public: 

Eevelation, Given at Far West, July 8, 1838.f 

1. Verily, thus saith the Lord, I require all their surplus property 
to be put into the hands of the Bishop of my Church of Zion, 

2. For the building of mine house, and for the laying of the founda- 
tion of Zion and for the Priesthood, and for ihe debts of the Presi- 
dency of my Church; 

3. And this shall be the beginning of the tithing of my people; 

4. And after that, those who have thus been tithed, shall pay one- 
tenth of all their interest annually; and this shall be a standing law 
unto them forever, for my holj' Priesthood, saith the Lord. 

5. Verily I say unto you, it shall come to pass, that all those who 
gather unto the Land of Zion shall be tithed of their surplus proper- 
ties, and shall observe this law, or they shall not be found worthy to 
abide among you. 

6. And I say unto you, if mj- people observe not this law, to keep 
it holy, and by this law sanctify the land of Zion unto me, that my 
statutes and my judgments may be kept thereon, that it may be most 
holy, behold, verily I say unto you, it shall not be a land of Zion unto you; 

7. And this shall be an ensample unto all the stakes of Zion. Even 
so. Amen. 

Also I received the following: 

Eevelation, given July 8, 1838, making known the disposition of the prop- 
erties tithed as named in the j)Teceding revelation.X 

Verily, thus saith the Lord, the time is now come that it shall be dis- 
posed of by a council composed of the First Presidency of my Church, 
and of the Bishop and his council, and by my High Council, and by 
mine own voice unto them, saith the Lord. Even so, Amen. 

* The three revelations here referred to do not appear in the Doctrine and Cove- 
nants nor in any other publication. Diligent search also has been made for them 
through the several packages of Church documents in the Historian's Office, but 
they have not been found. 

+ Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxix. 

J Doctrine and Covenants, sec. exx. 


Also I received the following: 

Revelation given to William Marks, Newel K. Whitney, Oliver Granger 
and others, at Far West, July 8, 1838.* 

1. Verily thus saith the Lord unto my servant William Marks, and 
also unto my servant N. K. Whitney, let them settle up their business 
speedily and joui'ney from the land of Kirtland, before I, the Lord, 
send again the snows upon the earth; 

2. Let them awake, and arise, and come forth, and not tarry, for I, 
the Lord, command it; 

3. Therefore if they tarry it shall not be well with them. 

4. Let them, repent of all their sins, and of all their covetous desires , 
before me, saith the Lord, for what is property unto me, saith the 

5. Let the properties of Kirtland be turned out for debts, saith the 
Lord. Let them go, saith the Lord, and whatsoever remaineth, let it 
remain in your hands, saith the Lord; 

6. For have I not the fowls of heaven, and also the fish of the sea, 
and the beasts of the mountains? Have I not made the earth? Do I 
not hold the destinies of all the armies of the nations of the earth? 

7. Therefore will I not make solitary places to bud and to blossom, 
and to bring forth in abundance, saith the Lord? 

8. Is there not room enough upon the mountains of Adam-ondi- 
Ahman, and on the plains of Olaha Shinehah, or the land where Adam 
dwelt, that you should covet that which is but the drop, and neglect the 
more weighty matters? 

9. Therefore come up hither unto the land of my people, even Zion. 

10. Let my servant William Marks be faithful over a few things , 
and he shall be ruler over many. Let him preside in the midst of my 
people in the city of Far West, and let him be blessed with the bless- 
ings of my people, 

11. Let my servant N. K. Whitney be ashamed of the Nicholatine 
band and of all their secret abominations, and of all his littleness of 
soul before me, saith the Lord, and come up to the land of Adam-ondi- 
Ahman, and be a Bishop unto my people, saith the Lord, not in name 
but in deed, saith the Lord. 

12. And again, I say unto you, I remember my servant Oliver 
Granger, behold, verily I say unto him, that his name shall be had in 
sacred remembrance from generation to generation, for ever and ever, 
saith the Lord. 

13. Therefore let him contend earnestly for the redemption of the 

♦Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxvii. 


First Presidency of my Church, saith the Lord, and when he falls he 
shall rise a.?ain, for his sacrifice shall be more sacred unto me, than his 
increase, saith the Lord; 

14. Therefore let him come up hither speedily, unto the land of 
Zion, and in the due time he shall be made a merchant unto my name, 
saith the Lord, for the benefit of my people; 

15. Therefore let no man despise mj' servant Oliver Granger, but 
let the blessings of my people be on him for ever and ever. 

16. And again, verily I say unto you, let all my servants in the land 
of Kirtland remember the Lord their God, and mine house also, to 
keep and preserve it holy, and to overthrow the money changers in 
mine own due time, saith the Lord. Even so. Amen. 

Also I received the following: 

Revelation given at Far West, July 8, 1838, in ansiver to the question, 
Show unto us thy icill Lord concerninq the Tivelve* 

1. Verilj', thu'j saith the Lord, let a conference be held immediately, 
let the Twelve be organized, and let men be appointed to supply the 
place of those who are fallen. 

2. Let my servant Thomas remain for a season in the land of Zion, 
to publish my word. 

3. Let the residue continue to preach from that hour, and if they 
will do this in all lowliness of heart, in meekness and humility, and 
long-sufifering, I, the Lord, give unto them a promise that I will pro- 
vide for their families, and an effectual door shall be opened for them, 
from henceforth; 

4. And next spring let them depart to go over the great waters, and 
there promulgate my gospel, the fullness thereof, and bear record of 
my name. 

5. Let them take leave of my Saints in the city Far West, on the 

* Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxviii. This date, the 8th of July, 1838, is remak- 
able for the many revelations given. In addition to the foregoing which are printed 
in the Doctrine and Covenants, in the sections indicated in the foot notes, the 
following was also received, which is not published in the Doctrine and 
Covenants nor elsewhere. It is found on file in Package XVI at the Historian's 
OfBce: Revelation given July 8, 1838, making known the duty of William W. 
Phelps and Frederick G. Williams. 

"Verily, thus saith the Lord, in consequence of their transgressions their former 
standing has been taken away from them, and now, if thej- will be saved, let them 
be ordained as Elders in my Church to preach my Gospel and travel abroad from 
land to land and from place to place, to gather mine elect unto me, saith the Lord, 
and let this be their labors from henceforth. Amen. 


26tb day of April next, on the building spot of my house, saith the 

G. Let my servant John Taylor, and also my servant John E. Page, 
also my servant Wilford Woodruff, and also my servant Willard Rich- 
ards, be appointed to fill the places of those who have fallen, and be 
officially notified of their appointment. 

Minutes of a Meeting of the livelve. 

Far West, July 9, 1838, a conference of the Twelve Apostles 
assembled at Far West, agreeable to the revelation, given July 8, 1838. 
Present, Thomas B. Marsh, David W. Patten, Brigham Young, Parley 
P. Pratt and William Smith: T. B. Marsh, presiding. 

Resolved 1st. That the persons who are to fill the places of those 
who are fallen, be immediately notified to come to Far West; as also, 
those of the Twelve who are not present. 

Resolved 2nd. That Thomas B. Marsh notify Wilford Woodruff, 
that Parley P. Pratt notify Orson Pratt, and that President Rigdon 
notify Willard Richards, who is now in England. 

Voted that President Marsh publish the same in next number of The 
Elders'' Journal. 

President Rigdon gave some counsel concerning the provisions neces- 
sary to be made for the families of the Twelve, while laboring in the 
cause of their Redeemer, advising them to instruct their converts to 
move without delay to the places of gathering, and there to strictly 
attend to the law of God. 

T. B. Marsh, President, 
G. W, Robinson, Clerk, 

Tuesday, 10. — About this time I visited Adam-ondi- 
Ahman in company with President Rigdon, Brother Hy- 
rum, and George W. Robinson. 

Thursday, 26. — The First Presidency, High Council, 
and Bishop's court assembled at Far West to dispose of 
the public properties of the Church in the rp^g Disposi- 
hands of the Bishop, many of the brethren church 'i"ro"^ 
having consecrated their surplus property ^nies. 
according to the revelations. 

It was agreed that the First Presidency should keep all 
their properties that they could dispose of to advantage, 
for their support, and the remainder be put into the hands 
of the Bishop or Bishops, according to the commandments. 


Moved, seconded, and carried unanimously: 

"First — That the First Presidency shall have their expenses defrayed 
in going to, and returning from Adam ondi-Ahman; equally by the 
Bishop of each place. 

"Second — That all the traveling expenses of ttie First Presidency 
shall be defrayed. » 

"Third — That the Bishop be authorized to pay orders coming from 
the east, inasmuch as thej^ will consecrate liberally, but this is to be 
done under the inspection of the First Presidenej'. 

"Fourth — That the First Presidency shall have the prerogative to 
direct the Bishop as to whose orders shall or may be paid by him in 
this place, or in his jurisdiction. 

"Fifth — That the Bishop of Zion receive all consecrations from thos^e 
living east, west, and south, who are not in the jurisdiction of a 
Bishop of any other stake. 

"Sixth — That we use our influence to put a stop to th^ selling of 
liquors in the city Far West, or in our midst, that our streets may not 
be filled with drunkenness; and that we use our influence to bring 
down the price of provisions. 

"Seventh — That Brother William W. Phelps be requested to draw up 
a petition to locate the county seat at Far West.'' 

Saturday^ 28. — I left Far West for Adam-ondi-Ahmany 

in comi)any with President Rigdon, to trans- 

saints from act some important business, and to settle 

some Canadian brethren in that place, as they 

are emigrating rapidly to this land from all parts of the 


Elder Babbitt, with his company from Canada has ar- 
rived, and Brother Theodore Turley is with him. 

Sunday^ 29. — Elders Kimball and Hyde having just re- 
turned from England, preached in Far West. 

Monday^ 30. — The circuit court sat in Far West, Judge 
King presiding. 

I returned this evening from Adam-ondi-Ahman to Far 
West, with President Rigdon. 

Tuesday^ 31. — Attended the circuit court awhile, and 
received a visit from Judge King. 

Some time in July we succeeded in publishing the third 


number of the Elders^ Journal; Joseph Smith, Jim., 
editor: Thomas B. Marsh, printer and pub- 

' T f i. Publication of 

lisher. In this number of the Journal was the Eiders' 
published the following Epistle of David W. 
Patten, one of the Twelve Apstles of the last days: 

The Epistle of Elder David W. Patten. 
To the Saints Scattered Abroad: 

Dear Brethren: — Whereas many have taken in hand to set forth 
the kingdom of God on earth, and have testified of the grace of God, 
as given unto them to publish unto you, I also feel it my duty to write 
unto you, touching the grace of God given unto me, to you-ward, con- 
cerning the dispensation we have received, which is the greatest of all 
dispensations, and has been spoken of bj' the mouth of all the holy 
Prophets since the world began. 

In this my communication to you, I design to notice some of these 
prophecies. Now, the Apostle Paul says on this wise: "For I would 
not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye 
should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in partis happened 
to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in. And so all 
Israel shall be saved: as it is written. There shall come out of Sionthe 
Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob." What is it 
that he says? "For I would not have you ignorant.'' Ignorant of 
what? Why of this mysterj', that blindness in part had happened un- 
to Israel. And to what end? Why, that salvation might come unto the 
Gentiles. "Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and 
the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more 
their fullness!" "For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the 
Apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office." (See Rom., xi: 12, 
13). Now we are to understand the Apostle, as speaking of there- 
turn of Israel, when he said, "How much more their fuUneSs," in their 
return. "For I would not have you ignorant concerning this matter," 
that blindnesss will depart from them in the day that the fullness of 
the Gentiles is come in. And the reason is very obvious, because it is 
said, that "Out of Sion shall come the deliverer; " and for what cause? 
Why? That the word of God might be fulfilled, that this deliverer 
might, through the grace and mercy of God, "turn away ungodliness 
from Jacob." This work evidently commences at the time God begins 
to take the darkness from the minds of Israel, for this will be the 
work of God by the deliverer, for He s^hall turn away ungodliness from 
the whole family of Jacob, "for this is my covenant unto them, when 
I shall take away their sins." 
4 Vol. Ill, 


'Now, then, we can see that this deliverer is a kind o£ harbinger or 
forerunner, that is, one that is sent to prepare the way for another, 
and this deliverer is such a one, for he comes to turn away ungodli- 
ness from Jacob, consequently he must receive a dispensation and an 
authority suitable to his calling, or he could not turn away ungodli- 
ness from Jacob, nor fulfill the Scriptures. But the words of the 
prophets must be fulfilled, and in order to do this, to this messenger 
must be given the dispensation of the fullness of times, according to 
the prophets. For Paul says again, in speaking of the dispensation of 
the fullness of times, "Having made known unto us the mystery of His 
will, according to His good pleasure, which He hath purposed in Him- 
self: that in the dispensation of the fullness of times. He might gather 
together in one all things in Christ, both which are in heaven, and 
which are on earth; even in Him." (Ephesians, i: 9). And Isaiah 
says, "And it shall come to pass in that day, that the Lord shall set His 
hand again the second time to recover the remnant of His people.'' 
(chapter xi: 11). Now is the time that the deliverer shall come out 
of Zion and turn away unofodliness from the house of Israel. Now the 
Lord has said that He would set His hand the second time, and we ask, 
for what, but to recover the house of Jacob? For what have they 
fallen? Most assuredly they have broken the covenant that God had 
made with their fathers, and through their fathers with them. For 
Paul says, "Thou wilt say then. The branches were broken off, that I 
might be grafted in. Well; because of unbelief they were bi'oken off, 
and thou standest by faith. Be not highminded, but fear." — Rom,, 
xi: 18, 20. 

Now it is evident that the Jews did forsake the Lord, and by that 
means they broke the covenant, and now we see the need of the Lord 
setting His hand the second time to gather His people according to 
Eph., i: 10, "That in the dispensation of the fullness of times, 
he might gather together in one all things in Christ, both which 
are in heaven, and which are on earth." Now, I ask, what is a 
dispensation? I answer, it is power and authority to dispense 
the word of God, and to administer in all the ordinances thereof. 
This is what we are to understand by it, for no man ever had the 
Holy Ghost to deliver the Gospel, or to prophesy of things to come, but 
had liberty to fulfill his mission; consequently the argument is clear; 
for it proves itself; nevertheless I will call on the Scriptures to prove 
the assertion: "If ye have heard of the dispensation of the grace of 
God, which is given me to you- ward: how that by revelation he made 
known unto me the mystery;(cis I wrote afore in few words)." (Ephe- 
sians, iii: 2.) And also, Colossians, i: 25; "Whereof I am made a 
minister, according to the dispensation of God which is given to me for 


you, to fulfill the word of God." It is evident, then, that the dispen- 
sation given to the Apostle, came to him by revelation from God. Then 
by this we may understand, in some degree, the power by which he 
spake, and also the dispensation of the fullness of times. 

Now this, at first thought, would appear very small to some who are 
not acquainted with the order of God from the beginning; but when 
we take under consideration the plan of God for the salvation of the 
world, we can readily see that plan carried out most faithfully in all 
its bearings. Soon after the fall of Adam, the plan of salvation was 
made known to him of God Himself; who in like manner, in the 
meridian of time, revealed the same in sending His first begotten Son 
Jesu-5 Christ, who also revealed the same to the Apostles; and God 
raised him from the dead to perfect the plan, and the Apostles were 
made special witnesses of that plan, and testified that in the dispensa- 
tion of the fullness of times, God would gather together in one all things 
in Christ, whether they be things in heaven, or things on the earth. 

Now the thing to be known is, what the fullness of times means, or 
the extent or authority thereof. It means this, that the dispensation 
of the fullness of times is made up of all the dispensations that ever 
have been given since the world began, until this time- Unto Adam 
tirst was given a dispensation. It is well known that God spake to him 
with His own voice in the garden, and gave him the promise of the 
Messiah. And unto Noah also was a dispensation given; for Jesus 
Sdid, "As it was in the days of Noah, so shall it be also in the days of 
the Sou of man;" and as the righteous were saved then, and the 
wicked destroyed, so it will be now. And from Noah to Abraham, and 
from Abraham to Moses, and from Moses to Elias, and from Elias to 
John the Baptist, and from then to Jesus Christ, and from Jesus Christ 
to Peter, James, and John, the Apostles — all received in their time a 
dispensation by revelation from God, to accomplish the great scheme 
of restitution, spoken of by all the holy prophets since the world be- 
gan; the end of which is the dispensation of the fullness of times, in 
tlie which all things shall be fulfilled that have been spoken of since 
the eai'th was made. 

Now the question is, unto whom is this dispensation to be given? Or 
by whom to be revealed? The answer is, to the deliverer that is to 
come out of Zion, and be given to him by the angel of God. "And I 
.saw another angel, fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting 
Gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every na- 
tion, and kindred, and tongue, and people, saying with a loud voice, 
Fear God, and give glory to Him: for the hour of His judgment is 
come: and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and 
the fountains of waters." (Revelation, xiv: G, 7). Now observe, this 


angel delivers the everlastine: Gospel to man on the earth, and that, 
too, when the hour of the judgments of God had come on the gener- 
ation in which the Lord should set His hand the second time to gather 
His people, as stated above. Now we have learned that this deliverer 
must be clothed with the power of all the other dispensations, or his 
dispensation could not be called the dispensation of the fullness of 
times, for this it means, that all things shall be revealed both in heaven 
and on earth; for the Lord said there is nothing secret that shall not be 
revealed, or hid that shall not come abroad, and be proclaimed upon 
the house top, and this may with propriety be called the fullness of 

The authority connected with the ordinances, renders the time very 
desirable to the man of God, and renders him happy amidst all his 
trials and afflictions. To such a one through the grace of God we are 
indebted for this dispensation, as given by the angel of the Lord. But 
to what tribe of Israel was it to be delivered? We answer, to Ephiaim, 
because to him were the greater blessings given. For the Lord said to 
his father Joseph, A seer shall the Lord thy God raise .up of the fruit 
of thy loins, and he shall be a choice seer unto the fruit of thy loins. 
Yea, he truly said. Thus saith the Lord, a choice seer will I raise up 
out of the fruit of thy loins, and he shall be esteemed highly, and unto 
him will I give commandment that he shall do a work for the fruit of 
thy loins, his brethren, which shall be of great worth unto them, even 
to the bringing of them to the knowledge of the covenants which I have 
made with their fathers. And I will give unto him a commandment 
that he shall do none other work save the work which I shall command 
him, and I will make him great in mine eyes, for he shall do my work, 
and he shall be great like unto Moses; and out of weakness he shall 
be made strong, in that day when my work shall commence among all 
people, unto the restoring of the house of Israel, saith the Lord. 

And thus prophesied Joseph, saying — Behold, that seer will the Lord 
bless, and they that seek to destroy him shall be confounded. Behold, 
I am sure of the fulfillment of this promise, and his name shall be 
called after the name of his father, and he shall be like unto me, for the 
thing which the Lord shall bring forth by his hand, by the power of 
the Father, shall bring forth my people unto salvation. 

And thus prophesied Joseph, "I am sure of this thing, even as I am 
sure of the promise of Moses." (II Nephi, iii: 6-16). And again, 
Jesus says, as recorded in the Book of Mormon, page 526: "Behold 
my servant shall deal very prudently; he shall be exalted and extolled, 
and be very high. As many as were astonished at thee. * * * So 
shall he sprinkle many nations; the kings shall shut their mouths at 
him, for that which had been told them shall they see; and that which 


they had not heard shall they consider." Upon this servant is be- 
stowed the keys of the dispensation o£ the fullness of times, that from 
him the Priesthood of God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, might be 
given to many, and the order of this dispensation established on the 
earth. And to the Church He has said by commandment, "Where- 
fore, meaning the Church, thou shalt give heed unto all his words and 
commandments, which he shall give unto you as he receiveth them, 
walking in all holiness before me; for his word ye shall receive as if 
from my own mouth, in all patience and faith; for by doing these 
things, the gates of hell shall not prevail against you." — Doctrine and 
Covenants, sec. xxi. 

Now, my readers, you can see in some degree the grace given to this 
man of God, to us-ward : that we, by the great mercy of God, should re- 
ceive from under his hands, the Gospel of Jesus Christ, having the 
promise of partaking of the fruit of the vine on the earth with him, 
and with the holy Prophets and Patriarchs, our fathers. For those 
holy men are angels now; and these are they who make the fullness of 
times complete with us; and they who sin against this authority given 
to him (the aforementioned man of God), sin not againt him onlj', 
but against Moroni, who holds the keys of the stick of Ephraim [Book 
of Mormon], and also Elias, who holds the keys of bringing to pass 
the restitution of all things, and also John, the son of Zacharias, 
which Zacharias Elias visited, and gave promise that he should have a 
son, and his name should be John, and he should be filled with the 
spirit of Elias, which John I have sent unto you, my servants Joseph 
Smith, Jun, and Oliver Cowdery, to ordain you to this first Priesthood, 
even as Aaron; and also Elijah who holds the kej^s of committing the 
power to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the hearts 
of the children to the fathers, that the whole earth may not be smitten 
with a curse; and also Joseph and Jacob and Isaac and Abraham, your 
lathers, by whom the promises remain; and also Michael, or Adam, 
the Father of all, the Prince of all, the Ancient of Days; and also 
Peter and James and John, whom I have sent unto you, by whom I 
have ordained you, and confirmed you to be Apostles and especial wit- 
nesses of my name, and bear the keys of your ministry, and of the 
same things I revealed unto them, unto whom I have committed the 
keys of my kingdom, and a dispensation of the Gospel for the last 
times, and for the fullness of times, in the which I will gather together 
in one all things, both which are in heaven, and which are on earth. 
(Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xxvii.) 

Therefore, brethren, beware concerning yourselves, that you sin not 
against the authority of this dispensation, nor think lightly of those 
whom God has counted worthy for so great a calling, and for whose 


sake He hath made them servants unto you, that you might be made 
the heirs of God to inherit so great a blessing, and be prepared for the 
great assembly, and sit there with the Ancient of Days, even Adam our 
father, who shall come to prepare you for the coming of Jesus Christ 
our Lord; for the time is at hand, therefore gather up your effects, 
and gather together upon the land which the Lord has appointed for 
your safety. 

David W. Pattex. 





Wednesday, August 1. — 1 tarried at home with my family, 
also the 2nd and 3rd, to refresh myself after The Prophet 
my many late fatigues and arduous duties ^<^^*^- 
which I had been called upon to perform. 

Sunday, 5. — I attended meeting. Elder Erastus Snow* 
preached, after which I addressed the congregation, and 
particularly the Elders, on the principle of wisdom, etc. 
President Eigdon preached in the afternoon, and several 
were confirmed, among whom was Frederick G. Williams, 
who had recently been re-baptized. 

Monday, 6. — This morning my council met me at my 
house, to consider the conduct of certain Canada breth- 
ren, who had settled on the forks of Grand Reproof of 

. , ^ r\ • i • i • Canadian 

river, contrary to counsel. On investigation. Brethren, 
it was resolved that they must return to Adam-ondi- 
Ahman, according to counsel, or they would not be con- 
sidered one with us. 

This day the citizens of Caldwell county assembled at 
Far West, and organized by calling Elias Higbee to the 
chair, and appointing George W. Robinson secretary. 

* Erastus Snow was the son of Levi and Lucina Snov. His ancestors were among 
the early settlers of the Massachusetts colony. He was born on the 9th of Novem- 
ber, 1818, and converted to the Gospel in the Spring of 1832, through the ministry 
of Elders Orson Pratt and Luke S. Johnson. Though converted to the Gospel by 
these Elders he was baptized by his elder brother, William, on the 3rd of February, 
1833, and toon afterwards was ordained a teacher and commenced his work in the 
ministry. Previous to his arrival at Far West he had been active in the ministry 
for several years, preaching extensively in Ohio, New York and Pennsylvania. He 
was a member of the second quorum of Seventies, and had already given evidence 
of his sterling integrity and untiring efforts as a minister of the Lord Jesus Christ 
W hich so characterized all the subsequent years of his long life. 


W. W. Phelps having resigned the office of postmaster, 
A Citizens' it was voted. unanimously that Sidney Rigdon 
Far West. be recommeuded to the Postmaster General, 
as the person of our choice to fill the place of W. W. 
Phelps, as postmaster in this city. 

In the afternoon, the citizens of Far West assembled in 
the school house and organized the meeting by calling 
Judge Elias Higbee to the chair, and appointing George 
W. Robinson, secretary. I stated to the meeting, that 
the time had come when it was necessary that we should 
have a weekly newspaper, to unite the people, and give 
the news of the day. It was unanimously agreed that such 
a paper be established, and that President Sidney Rigdon 
should be the editor. It was also voted that a petition be 
circulated to locate the county seat at Far West. I 
addressed the meeting on the propriety of the measure, 
and also on the duty of the brethren to come into cities 
to build and live, and carry on their farms out of the 
cities, according to the order of God. President Rigdon 
and Brother Hyrum Smith spoke upon the same subject. 

Some two weeks previous to this. Judge Morin, who 

lived at Mill Port, informed John D. Lee* and Levi Stew- 

^ ^ ,, . . art, that it was determined by the mob to pre- 
judge Morm s ' . 

Friendly vcut the "Mormous" from voting at the 

Warning. i • i t 

election on the srxth day ot August, and 
thereby elect Colonel William P. Peniston, who led the 
mob in Clay county. He also advised them to go prepared 
for an attack, to stand their ground, and have their rights. 

The brethren, hoping better things, gave little heed to 
Judg3 Morin's friendly counsel, and repaired to the polls 
at Gallatin, the shire town of Daviess county, without 

About eleven o'clock a. m., William P. Peniston 
mounted a barrel, and harangued the electors for the pur- 

* John D. Lee was Vjorn on the Gth of September, 1S12, in t le town of Kaskasiiia, 
Randolph County, Illinois; and was the son of Ralph Lee, of Virginia, and the 
daughter of John Uoyle, of Nashville, Tennessee. 


pose of exciting them against the "Mormons," saying, 
"The Mormon leaders are a set of horse thieves, liars, 
counterfeiters, and you know they profess to 
heal the sick, and cast out devils, and you all nlrangul! 
know that is a lie." He further said that the 
members of the Church were dupes, and not too good to 
take a false oath on any common occasion; that they 
would steal, and he did not consider property safe where 
they were ; that he was opposed to their settling in Dav- 
iess county; and if they suffered the "Mormons" to vote, 
the people would soon lose their suffrage; "and, "said 
he, addressing the Saints, "I headed a mob to drive you 
out of Clay county, and would not prevent your being 
mobbed now." 

Richard (called Dick) Welding, the mob bully, just 
drunk enough for the occasion, began a discussion with 
Brother Samuel Brown, by saying, "The Mor- ..Djp,^,, 
mons were not allowed to vote in Clay county welding's 
no more than the negroes," and attempted to 
strike Brown, who gradually retreated, parrying the blow 
with his umbrella, while Welding continued to press upon 
him, calling him a liar, etc., and meanwhile trying to 
repeat the blow on Brown. Perry Durphy sought to sup- 
press the difficulty by holding Welding's arm, when five 
or six of the mobbers seized Durphy and commenced 
beating him with clubs, boards, and crying, '"''Kill 
liim^ kill Mm, when a general scuffle commenced with 
fists and clubs, the mobbers being about ten to one of the 
brethren. Abraham Nelson was knocked down, and had 
his clothes torn off, and while trying to get up was attacked 
again, when his brother, Hyrum Nelson, ran in amongst 
them, and knocked the mobbers down with the butt of his 
whip. Riley Stewart struck Welding on the head, which 
brought him to the ground. The mob cried out, "Dick 
Weldin's dead ; who killed Dick? ' ' And they fell upon Riley, 
knocked him down, kicked him, crying, "Kill him, kill 
him; shoot him," and they would have killed him, had not 

I- '^ 


John L.Butler sprung in amongst them and knocked them 
down. During about five minutes it was one succession 
of knock downs, when tlie mob dispersed to get fire arms. 

Very few of the brethren voted. Riley, escaping across 
the river, had his wounds dressed, and returned home. 

John L. Butler called the brethren together and made a 
John L. But- speech, saying, "We are American citizens; 
lei s speech. ^^^. fj^|-|jQj^.g fought for their liberty, and we 

will maintain the same principles." The authorities of 
the county finally came to the brethren, and requested 
them to withdraw, stating that it was a premeditated 
thing to prevent the "Mormons" from voting. 

The brethren held a council about one-fourth of a mile 
Gathering of ^^^^ ^^ towu, whcre they saw mob recruits 
the Mob coming in, in small parties, from five and ten, 

to twenty- five in number cursing and swearing, and armed 
with clubs, pistols, dirks, and some guns. The brethren 
not having arms, thought it wisdom to return to their 
farms, collect their families, and hide them in a thicket 
of hazel laish, which they did, and stood guard around 
them through the night, while the women and children lay 
on the ground in the rain. 

Tuesday, 7. — A report came to Far West this morning, 
by wav of those not belonging to the Church, 

Reports of •' -^ <:d cd 7 

Gallatin to the cffcct that at the election at Gallatin, 

Trouble _ 1 r. 1 ii 

Reach Far vcstcrday, two or three ot our brethren were 

West * *" 

killed by the Missourians, and left upon the 
ground, and not saft'ered to be ini erred; that the breth- 
ren were prevented from voting, and a majority of the 
inhabitants of Daviess county were determiiied to drive the 
Saints from that county. 

On hearing this report, I started for Gallatin, to assist 
The Depart ^^^ brethren, accompanied by President Rig- 
ureofthe (Jqq Brothcr Hvrum Smith, and fifteen or 

Prophet for ' • ' , 

Gaiiaiin. twcuty othcrs, who were armed for their own 

protection ; and the command of the company was given 
to George W. Robinson. 


On our way we were joined by the brethren from differ- 
ent parts of the county, some of whom were attacked 
by the mob, but we all reached Colonel Wight's that night 
in safety, where we found some of the brethren who had 
been mobbed at Gallatin, with others, waiting for our 
counsel. Here we received the cheering intelligence that 
none of the brethren were killed, although several were 
badly wounded. 

From the best information, about one hundred and fifty 
Missourians warred against from six to twelve The Prophet 
of our brethren, who fought like lions. Several thTBrethren 
Missourians had their skulls cracked. Blessed Sr tS'"^' 
be the memory of those few brethren who ^'s^***- 
contended so strenuously for their constitutional rights 
and religious freedom, against such an overwhelming 
force of desperadoes! 

Wednesday^ 8. — After spending the night in counsel at 
Colonel Wight's, I rode out with some of the brethren to 
view the situation of affairs in that region, and 
among others, called on Adam Black, justice with Adlm 
of the peace, and judge elect for Daviess 
county, who had some time previous sold his farm to 
Brother Vinson Knight, and received part pay according 
to agreement, and afterwards united himself with a band 
of mobbers to drive the Saints from, and prevent their 
settling in, Daviess county. On interrogation, he con- 
fessed what he had done, and in consequence of this viola- 
tion of his oath as magistrate, we asked him to give us 
some satisfaction so that we might know whether he was 
our friend or enemy, whether or not he would administer 
the law in justice ; and politely requested him to sign an 
agreement of peace, but being jealous, he would not sign 
it, but said he would write one himself to our satisfaction, 
and sign it, which he did, as follows — 

Adam BlacVs Agreement. 
I, Adam Black, a Justice of the Peace of Daviess county, do hereby 


Sertify to the people, coled Mormin, that he is bound to siqjort the Con- 
stitution of this State, and of the United State, and he is not attached 
to any mob, nor will not attach himself to any such people, and so long 
as they will not molest me, I will not molest them. This the 8th day of 
August, 1838. 

Adam Black, J. P.* 

Hoping he would abide his own decision, and support 
the law, we left him in peace, and returned to Colonel 
Wight's at Adam-ondi-Ahman. 

In the evening some of the citizens from Mill Port called 
on us, and we agreed to meet some of the 

interview ' " 

with Citizens principal men of the county in council, at 

of Mill Port. ^ T ., 1 "^ T , 

Adam-ondi-Ahman the next day at twelve 
o'clock, noon. 

Thursday^ 9. — The Committee assembled at Adam-ondi- 
Ahman at twelve, according to previous appointment, viz., 
on the part of Mill Port citizens, Joseph Morin, senator 
elect: John Williams, representative elect; James B. 
Turner, clerk of the circuit court, and others: on the 
part of the Saints, Lyman Wight, Vinson Knight, John 
Smith, Reynolds Cahoon, and others. At this meeting 
both parties entered into a covenant of peace, to preserve 
each other's rights, and stand in each other's defense; 
that if men did wrong, neither party would uphold them 
or endeavor to screen them from justice, but deliver up 
all offenders to be dealt with according to law and justice. 
The assembly dispersed on these friendly terms, myself 
and friends returning to Far West, where we arrived about 
midnight and found all quiet. 

Fridaif,10. — Being somewhat fatigued I spent the day 
with my family, transacting but little business. 

The spirit of mobocracy continued to stalk abroad, not- 
Treaties of withstanding all our treaties of peace, as will 
Peace of Little ^^ ^^^^ ^^, ^^^ followiug affidavit— 

« The original orthography and composition of this note are preserved in the 
-above copy. 


Peniston''s Affidavit. 

State of Missouri, ] 
Ray County. j ^^" 

Personally appeared before me, the undersigned, judge of the Fifth 
Judicial Circuit, William P. Peniston, and makes oath that he has good 
reason to believe, and that he verily does believe, that there is now col- 
lected and embodied in the County of Daviess, a large body of armed 
men, whose movements and conduct are of a highly insurrectionary and 
unlawful character; that they consist of about five hundred men, and 
that they, or a part of them, to the number of one hundred and twenty, 
have committed violence against Adam Black, by surrounding his house, 
and taking him in a violent manner, and subjecting him to great indig- 
nities, by forcing him, under threats of immediate death, to sign a paper 
writing of a very disgraceful character, and by threatening to do the 
same to all the old settlers and citizens of Daviess county; and that 
they have, as a collected and armed body, threatened to put to instant 
death this affiant on sight; and that he verily believes they will accom- 
plish that act without they are prevented; and also that they have 
threatened the same to Wm. Bowman and others; and this affiant states 
that he verily believes all the above facts to be true, and that the body 
of men now assembled do intend to commit great violence to many of 
the citizens of Daviess county, and that they have already done so to 
Adam Black; and this affiant verily believes, from information of 
others, that Joseph Smith, Jun., and Lyman Wight are the leaders of 
this body of armed men, and the names of others thus combined are 
not certainly known to this affiant; and he further states the fact to be 
that it is his opinion, and he verily believes, that it is the object of this 
body of armed men, to take vengeance for some injuries, or imaginary 
injuries, done to some of their friends, and to intimidate and drive from 
the county all the old citizens, and possess themselves of their lands, or 
to force such as do not leave, to come into their measures and submit 
to their dictation. 

William P. Peniston. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me the undersigned judge, as afore- 
said, this 10th day of August, 1838. 

Austin A. King. 

The above was also sworn to by William Bowman, 
Wilson McKinney, and John Netherton. So Reflections of 
it is that when men's hearts become hardened ^^^ i'rophet 
and corrupt, they will more readily swear to lies than 
speak the truth. 

At this time some of the brethren had removed with 


their families from the vicinity of Gallatin, to Diahman 
and Far West, for safety. 

Saturdaij, 11. — This morning I left Far West, with my 
council and Elder Almon W. Babbitt, to visit the breth- 
ren on the Forks of Grand river, who had come from 
Canada with Elder Babbitt, and settled at that place con- 
trary to counsel. 

In the afternoon, after my departure, a committee from 
Inquiry at Far ^^Y couuty arrived at Far West, to inquire 
i^g^GaHatfu" ^^^^ ^^^® procccdiugs of our society in going 
Affaii. armed into Daviess county, complaint having 

been entered in Kay county by Adam Black, William P. 
Peniston, and others. The committee from Ray county 
requested an interview with a committee of Caldwell, 
and a general meeting was called at the city hall, at 
six in the evening, when it was stated that they were 
assembled to take into consideration the doings of the citi- 
zens of Ray county, wherein they have accused the "Mor- 
mons" of this j)lace of breaking the peace, in defending 
their rights and those of their brethren in the county of 
Daviess. The meeting was organized by appointing Bishop 
Edward Partridge, chairman; and Geo. W. Robinson, 
clerk. The meeting adopted the following— 


"Resolved 1st. That a committee of seven be appointed to confer 
with the committee from Ray county. 

"Resolved 2nd. That this committee, with their secretary, be author- 
ized to answer such questions as may be offered by the committee 
from Ray county, and as are named in the document presented to this 
meeting, purporting to be the preamble and resolutions of the citizens 
of Ray county. 

"Resolved 3rd. That whereas the document referred to has no date 
or signature, our committee judge of the fact, and act accordingly. 

"Resolved 4th. That our committee report their proceedings to this 
meeting as soon as possible. 

"Edward Partridge, Chairman, 
"Geo. W. Robinson, Clerk." 

Sunday^ 12. — I continued with the brethren at the Forks 


of Grand river, offering such counsel as their situation 

Monday, 13. — I returned with my council to Far West. 
We were chased ten or twelve miles, by some chased by a 
evil designing men, but we eluded their pur- 
suit. When within about eight miles of home, we met 
some brethren who had come to inform us that a writ had 
been issued by Judge King, for my arrest, and that of 
Lyman Wight, for attempting to defend our rights against 
the mob.* 

Tuesday and Wednesday, 14 and 15. — I spent princi- 
pally at home, engaged in domestic affairs. 

Thursday, 10. — I spent principally at home. 

The sheriff of Daviess county, accompanied by Judge 
Morin, called and notified me, that he had a The Prophet's 

' ' _ Interview 

writ to take me to Daviess county, for trial, with the sher- 

•^ ' ' iff of Daviess 

for visiting that county on the seventh instant, county. 

It had been currently reported that I would not be 
.apprehended by legal process, and that 1 would not sub- 
mit to the laws of the land; but 1 told the sheriff that I 
intended always to submit to the laws of our country, but 
I wished to be tried in my own county, as the citizens of 
Daviess county were highly exasperated at me, and that 
the laws of the country gave me this privilege. Upon 
hearing this, the sheriff declined serving the writ, and said 
he would goto Richmond, and see Judge King on the sub- 
ject. I told him I would remain at home until his return. 

The sheriff returned from Richmond, and found me at 
home (where I had remained during his absence) , and 
informed me very gravely, that I was out of his jurisdic- 
tion, and that he could not act in Caldwell county, and 

August 20. — Nothing peculiar transpired at Far 
West, from the sixteenth to this day, when the inhab- 
itants of the different parts of the county met to organize 

* The warrant was issued on the misrepresentations of what the Prophet and 
.Lyman Wight did on their visit to Adam Black on the 8th of August. 


themselves into Agricultural Companies. I was present 
Organization ^^^ ^^^^ P^^'^ i^ their deliberations. One 
ure^Com".an- compauy was foi'med, called the "Western 
ies- Agricultural Company, ' 'which voted to enclose 

one field for gram containing twelve sections, seven thou- 
sand six hundred and eighty acres of land. Another 
company was also organized, called the "Eastern Agri- 
cultural Company," the extent of the field not decided. 

Tuesday, 21. — Another company was formed, called the 
"Southern Agiicultural Company," the field to be as large 
as the first mentioned. 

Wednesday, 22. — I spent part of the day in counseling 
with several brethren upon different subjects. 

The brethren continued to gather to Zion daily. 

Some time this month the Saints were warned by the- 
mob to leave De Witt, Carroll county. 

Thursday, 23. — ^^This day I spent transacting a variety 
of business about the city. 

Friday, 24. — I was at home. Also on the 25th, 26th,. 
27th, 28th, 29th, and 30th. 

Affidavit of Adam Black. 

State of Missouri, 1 
County of Daviess. | ^^* 

Before me, William Drydeu, one of the justices of the peace of said 
county, personally came Adam Black, v.ho beinjr duly sworn according- 
to law, deposeth and saith: that on or about the 8th day of August^ 
1838, in the county of Daviess, there came an armed force of men, said 
to be one hundred and fifty- four, to the best of his information, and 
surrounded his house and family, and threatened him with instant death 
if he did not sign a certain instrument of writing, binding himself, as a 
justice of the peace for said county of Daviess, not to molest the people 
called Mormons; and threatened the lives of himself and other indi- 
viduals, and did say they intended to make every citizen sign such obli- 
gation, and further said they intended to have satisfaction for abuse they 
had received on the Monday previous, and that they could not submit to- 
the laws: and further saith, that from the best information and his own 
personal knowledge, that Andrew [Alanson] Riplej^ George A. Smith,. 
Ephraim Owens, Harvey Humstead, Hiram Nelson, A. Brown, John L- 


Butler, Cornelius [P.] Lott, John Wood, H. Redfield, Riley Stewart, 
James Whitaker, Andrew Thor, Amos Tubbs, Dr. Gourze, and Abram 
Nelson was guilty of aiding and abetting in committing and perpetrat- 
ing the above offense. 

Adam Black. 

Sworn to and subscribed this the 28th of August, 1838. 

W. Dryden, 
Justice of the Peace of the County aforesaid. 

This document, with that of the 8th of August, of said 
Black, shows him in his true light — a detest- comment on 
able, unprincipled mobocrat and j?er;'^(rec^ man. -^^amBiack. 

Thursday^ 30. — This day Governor Boggs issued the 
following order to General Atchison — 

Proclamation of Governor Boggs. 

Headquarters of Militia, Adjutant General's Office, 

August 30th, 1838. 

General David R. Atchison, 3rd Division, Missouri Militia. 

Sir — Indications of Indian disturbances on our immediate frontier, 
and the recent civil disturbances in the counties of Caldwell, Daviess, 
and Carroll, render it necessary, as a precautionary measure, that an 
effective force of the militia be held in readiness to meet either con- 
tingency. The Commander-in-Chief therefore orders that you cause to 
be raised immediately, within the limits of your division, to be held in 
readiness, and subject to further orders, four hundred mounted men, 
armed and equipped as infantry or riflemen, and formed into companies 
according to law, under officers already in commission. The Command- 
er-in-Chief suggests the propriety of your causing the above to be 
carried into effect, in a manner calculated to produce as little excite- 
ment as possible, and report your proceedings to him through the Adju- 
tant General. 

By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

B. M. Lisle, Adjutant General. 

A similar letter was also addressed to Major Generals 
John B. Clark, Samuel D. Lucas, David Willock, Lewis 
Bolton, Henry W. Crawther, and Thomas D. Grant. 

I spent considerable time to day in conversation with 
Brother John Corrill, in consequence of some expressions 
made by him, in presence of several brethren who had 
s vol III. 


not been long in the place. Brother Corrill's conduct for 
Conduct of some time had been very unbecomine;, espe- 

JohnCorrill . „ • • t, ^ nj 

Reproved. cially m a man m whom so much confidence 
had been placed. He said he would not yield his judgment 
to anything proposed by the Church, or any individuals of 
the Church, or even the Great I Am, given through the 
appointed organ, as revelation, but would always act upon 
his own judgment, let him believe in whatever religion he 
might. He stated he would always say what he pleased, 
for he was a Eepublican, and as such would do, say, act, 
and believe what he pleased. 

Mark such republicanism as this! A man to oppose his 
own judgment to the judgment of God, and at the same 
time to profess to believe in that same God, who has said: 
"The foolishness of God is wiser than man; and the weak- 
ness of God is stronger, than man." 

President Rigdon also made some observations to 
Brother Corrill, which he afterwards acknowledged were 
correct, and that he understood things different after the 
interview from what he did before. 




Saturday, September 1, 1838. — The First Presidency, with 
Judge Higbee, as surveyor, started this morning for the 
half-way house, as it is called, kept by Brother rpj^^ prophet 
Littlefield, some fourteen or fifteen miles from \if^\^!' ^^^ ■, 

' West toFound 

Far West, directly north — for the purpose of aCityofzion. 
appointing a city of Zion, for the gathering of the Saints 
in that place, for safety, and from the storm which will 
soon come upon this generation, and that the brethren 
may be together, and that they may receive instructions 
to prepare them for that great day which will come upon 
this generation as a thief in the night. 

There is great excitement at present among the Mis- 
sourians, who are seeking if possible an occasion against 
us. They are continually chafing us, and pro- 

.„ -ii- Excitement 

voking us to anger it possible, one sign of Among the 
threatening after another, but we do not fear ""^'^ ' 

them, for the Lord God, the Eternal Father is our God, 
and Jesus the Mediator is our Savior, and in the great I 
Am is our strength and confidence. 

We have been driven time after time, and that without 
cause; and smitten again and again, and that without 
provocation ; until we have proved the world -phe prophet's 
with kindness, and the world has proved us, that 5,^"^'®^ ^H^^ 

' _ ^ ^ ' Wrongs of the 

we have no designs against any man or set of Saints. 
men, that we injure no man, that we are peaceable with 
all men, minding our own business, and our business only. 
We have suffered our rights and our liberties to be taken 
from us ; we have not avenged ourselves of those wrongs ; 
we have appealed to magistrates, to sheriffs, to judges, to 


government and to the President of the United States, all 
in vain; yet we have yielded peaceably to all these things. 
We have not complained at the Great God, we murmured 
not, but peaceably left all, and retired into the back 
country, in the broad and wild prairies, in the barren and 
desolate plains, and there commenced anew; we made 
the desolate places to bud and blossom as the rose; and 
now the fiend-like race is disposed to give us no rest. 
Their father the devil, is hourly calling upon them to be 
up and doing, and they, like willing and obedient chil- 
dren, need not the second admonition; but in the name ot 
Jesus Christ the Son of the living God, we will endure it 
no longer, if the great God will arm us with courage, with 
strength and with power,to resist them in their persecutions. 
We will not act on the offensive, but always on the de- 
fensive ; our rights and our liberties shall not be taken 
from us, and we peaceably submit to it, as we have done 
heretofore, but we will avenge ourselves of our enemies, 
inasmuch as they will not let us alone. 

But to return again to our subject. We found the place 
Site for a City ^^^^ ^^® ^^ty' ^^^ ^^^ brethren were instructed 
Selected. -f-Q gather immediately into it, and soon they 

should be organized according to the laws of God. A 
more particular history of this city may be expected here- 
after, perhaps at its organization and dedication. We 
found a new route home, saving, i should think, three or 
four miles. We arrived at Far West about the close of day. 

The High Priests met at Brother Pea's at Far West, 
and received Levi Richards into their quorum. 

Sunday, 2. — The First Presidency attended meeting as 
usual in the morning. I tarried at home in the 

Rumors of . • , i /-ii i i 

Mobs Gather- evening to cxaminc the Church records, and 
^°^' spent a part of the time in company with a gentle- 

man from Livingston county, who had become considerably 
excited, on account'of a large collection of people, as he said, 
to take Joseph Smith, Jun., and Lyman Wight, for going 
to one Adam Black's in Daviess county; and as the said 


President Smith and Colonel Wight had resisted the 
officer who had endeavored to take them, accord- 
ingly these men are assembling to take them — as they 
say. They are collecting from every part of the country, to 
Daviess county . Report says that they are collecting from 
eleven counties, to help take two men who had never re- 
sisted the law or officer, nor had they thought of doing so, 
and this their enemies knew at the same time, or many 
of them at least knew it. This looks a little too much 
like mobocracy, it foretells some evil intentions. The 
whole of upper Missouri is in an uproar and confusion. 

This evening I sent for General Atchison, of Liberty, 
Clay county, who is the major general of this division — to 
come and counsel with us, and to see if we could 
not put a stop to this collection of people, and to oen. Atchi- 
put a stop to hostilities in Daviess county. I also 
sent a letter to Judge King containing a petition for him to 
assist in putting down and scattering the mob collecting 
in Daviess county. 

Monday^ 3. — Nothing of importance occurred today. 
Reports come in concerning the collection of a mob in 
Daviess county, which has been collecting ever since the 
election in Daviess county, on the sixth of August last. 
I was at home most of the day. 

This evening General Atchison arrived in Far West. 

Tuesday^ 4. — This day I spent in council with General 
Atchison. He says he will do all m his power to disperse 
the mob. We employed him and Alexander 

■p,. . , ,, . , , , . Consultation 

Doniphan (his partner) as our counsel m with General 
law. They are considered the first lawyers 
in upper Missouri. 

President Rigdon and myself commenced this day the 
study of law, under the instruction of Generals rpj^^ p^.^ ^^^ 
Atchison and Doniphan. They think, by dili- and Sidney 

. ^ •' ^ •' Rigdon Study- 

gent application, we can be admitted to the J^iaw. 

bar in twelve months. 

Tljjp result of our consultation with our lawyers was 


that myself and Colonel Wight volunteer to be tried b}^ 
The Prophet Judge King in Daviess county. Colonel Wight 
and Lyman ^^s preseut, haviug been previously notified 

Wight to sub- '^ ' " ^ 1 ' T 1 

mit to Trial. to attend the consultation. Accordingly, 
Thursday next, was appointed for the trial, and word to 
that effect was sent to Judge King (who had previously 
agreed to try the case). All are to meet at Brother Little- 
field's, near the county line in the southern part of 
Daviess county. I was at home in the evening after 
six o'clock. 

Wednesday J 5.^1 gave the following affidavit, that the 
truth might appear before the public in the matter in con- 
troversy : 

The Prophet'' s Affidavit on the Adam BlacJc Incident. 

State of Missouri, "I 
Caldwell County, J ^ ' 

Before me, Elias Higbee, one of the justices of the county court, 
within and for the county of Caldwell aforesaid, personally came Joseph 
Smith, Jun., who, being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and 
saith: That on the seventh day of August, one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-eight, being informed that an affray had taken place in 
Daviess county, at the election, in the town of Gallatin, in which two 
persons were [reported] killed, and one person badly wounded, and fled to 
the woods to save his life; all of which were said to be persons be- 
longing to the society of the Church of Latter-day Saints; and further, 
said informant stated that those persons who committed the outrage 
would not suffer the bodies of those who had been killed to be taken 
off the ground and buried. 

These reports, with others, one of which was that the Saints had not 
the privilege of voting at the polls as other citizens; another was that 
those opposed to the Saints were determined to drive them from 
Daviess county, and also that they were arming and strengthening their 
forces and preparing for battle; and that the Saints were pre- 
paring and making ready to stand in self defense — these re- 
ports having excited the feelings of the citizens of Far West and 
vicinity, I was invited by Dr. Avard and some others to go out to 
Daviess county, to the scene of these outrages; thej' having previously 
determined to go out and learn the facts concerning said reports. 

Accordingly some of the citizens, myself among the number, went 
out, two, three, and four, in companies, as they got ready. The re- 


ports and excitement continued until several of those small companies 
through the day were induced to follow the first, who were all eager to 
learn the facts concerning this matter. We arrived in the evening at 
the house of Lyman Wight, about three miles from Gallatin, the scene 
of the reported outrages. Here we learned the truth concerning the 
said affray, which had been considerably exaggerated, yet there had been 
a serious outrage committed. We there learned that the mob was collect- 
ed at Millport, to a considerable number; that Adam Black was at their 
head; and that they were to attack the Saints the next day, at the place 
we then were in, called Adam-ondi-Ahman. This report we were still 
inclined to believe might be true, as this Adam Black, who was said to be 
their leader, had been, but a few months before, engaged in endeavor- 
ing to drive those of the society who had settled in that vicinity, from 
the county. This had become notorious, from the fact that said Black 
had personally ordered several of said society to leave the county. 

The next morning we dispatched a committee to said Black's, to as- 
certain the truth of these reports, and to know what his intentions 
were; and as we understood he was a peace officer, we wished to know 
what we might expect from him. They reported that Mr. Black, in- 
stead of giving them any assurance of peace, insulted them and gave 
them no satisfaction. Being desirous of knowing the feelings of Mr. 
Black for myself, and being in want of good water, and understanding 
that there was none nearer than Mr. Black's spring, myself with 
several others mounted our horses and rode up to Mr. Black's fence. 

Dr. Avard, with one or two others who had ridden ahead, went into 
Mr. Black's house; myself and some others went to the spring for 
water. I was shortly after sent for by Mr. Black, and invited into the 
house, being introduced to Mr. Black by Dr. Avard. Mr. Black wished 
me to be seated. We then commenced a conversation on the subject 
of the late difficulties, and present excitement. I found Mr. Black 
quite hostile in his feelings toward the Saints; but he assured us he did 
not belong to the mob, neither would he take any part with them; but 
said he was bound by his oath to support the Constitution of the United 
States, and the laws of the State of Missouri. Deponent then asked 
him if he would make said statement in writing, so as to refute the 
statement of those who had affirmed that he (Black) was one of the 
leaders of the mob. Mr. Black answered in the affirmative. Accord- 
ingly he did so, which writing is in possession of the deponent. The 
deponent further saith, that no violence was offered to any individual 
in his presence, or within his knowledge; and that no insulting language 
was given by either party, except on the part of Mrs. Black, who, while 
Mr. Black was engaged in making out the above-named writing, (which 
he made with his own hand), gave to this deponent, and others of his 


society, highly insulting language and false accusations, which were 
calculated in their nature to greatly irritate, if possible, the feelings of 
the bystanders belonging to said society, in language like this — being 
asked by the deponent if she knew anything in the "Mormon" people 
derogatory to the character of gentlemen, she answered in the nega- 
tive, but said she did not know but the object of their visit was to steal 
something from them. After Mr. Black had executed the writing, de- 
ponent asked Mr. Black if he had any unfriendly feelings towards the 
deponent, and if he [the deponent] had not treated him genteelly. He 
answered in the aifirmative. Deponent then took leave of said Black 
and repaired to the house of Lyman Wight. The next day he returned 
to Far West, and further this deponent saith not. 

Joseph Smith, .Jun. 
Sworn to and subscribed this fifth day o^ September, A. D. 1838. 

Elias Higbee, J. C. C. C. 

Judge King arrived at Far West, on his way to 
jud e King Daviess to meet the proposed trial. Gen- 
at Far West. qy^\ AtcMson had gone before Judge King 
arrived, and the judge tarried all night. I was at home 
after six o'clock in the evening. 

Thursday, 6. — At half-past seven this morning, I started 
start for the ^^ horscback, accompauied by several brethren, 
Place of Trial, amoug whom wcTC my brother Hyrum and Judge 
Elias Higbee, to attend my trial at Brother Littlefield's. 
I thought it not wisdom to make my appearance before 
the public at the county seat of Daviess county, in con- 
sequence of the many threats made against me, and the 
high state of excitement. The trial could not proceed, 
on account of the absence of the plaintiff, and lack of 
testimony, and the court adjourned until tomorrow at ten 
o'clock in the morning, at a Mr. Raglin's, some six or 
eight miles further south, and within half a mile of the 
line of Caldwell. Raglin is a regular mob character. We 
all returned to Far West, where we arrived before dark. 

Friday, 7. — About sunrise I started with my friends. 
The Trial at ^^^ arrived at Mr. Raglin's at the appointed 
Raglin's. hour. Wc did not know but there would be 

a disturbance among the mob characters today; we ac- 


cordingly had a company of men placed at the county 
line, so as to be ready at a minute's warning, if there 
should be any difficulty at the trial . 

The trial commenced; William P. Peniston, who was 
the prosecutor, had no witnesses but Adam Black, but he 
contrived to swear to a great many things that never had 
an existence, and I presume never entered into the heart 
of any other man, and in fine, I think he swore by the 
job, and that he was employed so to do by Peniston. 

The witnesses on the part of the defense were Dimick 

B. Huntington, Gideon Carter, Adam Lightner, and 
George W. Robinson. 

The judge bound Colonel Wight and myself over to 
court in a five hundred dollar bond. There T^e Prophet 
was no proof against us to criminate us, but wfgjf Bound 
it is supposed he did it to pacify, as much as ^^^'■• 
possible, the feelings of the mobbers. The judge stated 
afterwards, in the presence of George W. Robinson, that 
there was nothing proven against us worthy of bonds, but 
we submitted without murmuring a word, gave the bonds, 
with sufficient securities, and all returned home the same 

I found two persons in Daviess county at the trial, 
who were sent from Chariton county as a committe, 
to inquire into all this matter, as the a Committee 
mobbers had sent to that place for assist- fromchariton 
auce, they said, to take Smith and Wight; but county. 
their real object was to drive the brethren from the county 
of Daviess, as had been done in Jackson county. They 
said the people in Chariton county did not see proper to 
send help without knowing for what purpose they were 
doing it, and this they said was their errand. They ac- 
companied us to Far West, to hold a council with us, in 
order to learn the facts of this great excitement, which is, 
as it were, turning the world upside down. We arrived 
home in the evening. 

The Presidency met in council with the committee from 


Chariton county, together with General Atchison, where 
a relation was given of our affairs in general, the present 
state of excitement, and the cause of all this confusion. 
The gentlemen from Chariton expressed their fullest satis- 
faction upon the subject, and considered they had been out- 
rageously imposed upon in this matter. They left this 
afternoon apparently perfectly satisfied with the interview. 
News came this evening that the mob were to attack 

Adam-ondi-Ahman, and a few of the brethren 
Attack upon from Far West started to assist the brethren 

to defend themselves. 

Sundajj, 9. — This morning a company in addition to 

that which went last evening wentto Adam-ondi-Ahman to 

assist the brethren there in their defense against the mob. 

Captain William AUred took a company of ten mounted. 

men and went to intercept a team with guns 
Arms Intend- and ammuuitiou, sent from Richmond to the 

mob in Daviess county. They found the wagon 
broken down, and the boxes of guns drawn into the high 
grass near by the wagon; there was no one present that 
could be discovered. In a short time two men on horse- 
back came from towards the camp of the mob, and im- 
mediately behind them was a man with a wagon ; they 
all came up and were taken by virtue of a writ on the 
supposition that they were abetting the mob, by carrying 
guns and ammunition to them. The men were taken to- 
gether with the guns to Far West; the guns were dis- 
tributed among tl^e brethren, for their defense, and the 
Drisoners were held in custody. This was a glorious day 
indeed, the plans of the mob were frustrated in losing 
their guns, and all their efforts appeared to be blasted. 
Captain Allred acted under the civil authorities in Cald- 
well, who issued the writ for securingthe arms and arrest- 
ing the carriers. The prisoners were brought to Far West 
for trial. 

The mob continue to take prisoners at their pleasure ; 
some they keep, and some they let go. They try all in 



their power to make us commit the first act of violence. 
They frequenty send in word that they are 
torturing the prisoners to death, in the most Take Prison- 
cruel manner, but we understand all their 
ways, and their cunning and wisdom are not past find- 
ing out. 

Monday, 10. — This day the prisoners taken by Captain 
Allred on Sunday, viz., John B. Comer, William L. 
McHoney, and Allen Miller, were brought be- Aiired's Pris- 
fore Albert Petty, justice of the peace, for ^°®'^^- 
examination. The prisoners ask?d for bail, to allow time 
to get counsel. The law allowed no bail, but the court 
adjourned till Wednesday to give time to the prisoners to 
get counsel. 

After the arrest the facts were communicated to Judge 
King by letter, under date of Richmond, September iOth, 
asking his advice how to dispose of the guns and prisoners. 

Judge King advised by letter to turn the prisoners loose, 
and let them receive kind treatment; that the guns were 
government property, in the care of Captain Advice from 
Pollard of his vicinity, but whether they went '^"^^e King, 
by his authority or permission he could not say, he was 
at a loss to give any advice about them ; but said that 
they should not, through any agency of his, be taken 
from us to be converted and used for illegal purposes. 
The letter was signed by A A. King (directed to Messrs. 
Smith and Rigdon) . 

Under the same date Judge King advised General Atchi- 
son "to send two hundred or more men, and dispel the 
forces in Daviess county and all the assembled j^^j^^ King's 
armed forces in Caldwell, and cause those'Mor- n^^^r^^ i 

' Double Deal- 

mons' who refuse to give up, to surrender, ^^s- 
and be recognized, for it will not do to compromise the 
law with them." What compromise need there be. Judge 
King, for no "Mormons" had refused to surrender to the 
requisitions of the law? It is mob violence, alone, that 
the "Mormons" are contending against. 

76 HISTOEY of" THE CHUKCHr ' ' [A. D. 1838 

A petition was this day made out by the citizens of 
Petition from ^^J co^nty, directed to General Atchison, 
Ray County. asking him to call out the militia to suppress 
the insurrection in Caldwell and Daviess counties, and save 
the effusion of blood, which must speedily take place unless 
prevented. Signed by Jesse Coates and twenty-eight 

Wednesday, 12. — This day the prisoners, [AUred's] 
John B. Comer and his comrades, were put 

The Trial of -it , i 

AUred's Fris- upou trial, it was provcu to the court that the 


guns were taken by one of the prisoners and 
that he with the others were taking them to Daviess coun- 
ty to arm the mob. It was also proved that the mob was 
collecting for the purpose of driving the Saints from their 
homes. The prisoners were held to bail for their appear- 
ance at the circuit court, Comer as principal, the others 
were merely in his service. 

This day also a communication was sent to Governor 
The Citizens ^^ggs, dated Davlcss county, containing all 
of Daviess i\yQ falschoods and lies that the evil genius 

County to the _ _ ^ 

Governor. of mobocrats, villaius, and murderers could 

invent, charging the "Mormons" with every crime they 
themselves had been guilty of, and calling the "Mormons" 
impostors, rebels, Canadian refugees, emissaries of the 
prince of darkness, and signed, "The Citizens of Daviess 
and Livingston Counties." 

Under this date, General Atchison informed the Gov- 
ernor, by letter from headquarters at Rich- 
Atchison Or- 1 , 1- • • P 1 
ders Outthe moud, that ou the solicitation ot the citizens 

and the advice of the judge of the circuit, he 
had ordered out four companies of fifty men each from 
the militia of Clay county, and a like number from Ray; 
also four hundred men to hold themselves in readiness if 
required, all mounted riflemen, except one company of 
infantry. The troops were to proceed immediately to the 
scene of excitement and insurrection. 




About this time [September 12th] sixty or more mobbers 
entered De Witt* and warned the brethren to Trouble at De 
leave that place. wi" Begins. 

Friday^ 14. — I was at home after three o'clock in the 

William Dryden, Justice of the Peace in Daviess county, 
stated to the Governor, in a long communication, that he 
had issued a writ against Alanson Eipley, George A. 
Smith, and others, for assaulting and threat- ^^ den's Ke- 
ening Adam Black, on the eighth of August porttotbe 
last; and that the officer, with a guard of ten 
men, in attempting to serve the writ, was forcibly driven 
from the town where the offenders were supposed to be, 
and that the "Mormons" were so well armed and so num- 
erous in Caldwell and Daviess, that the judicial power of 
those counties was wholly unable to execute a writ against 
a "Mormon," and that the "Mormons" held the "institu- 
tions of the country in utter contempt," with many more 
such falsehoods of the blackest kind . Upon this representa- 
tion Governor Boggs issued an order to General David R. 
Atchison, of the third Division of Missouri militia, through 
the Adjutant General, B. M. Lisle, to raise a sufficient 
force of troops under his command, and aid the civil 
officers in Daviess county, to execute all writs and other 
processes, in- their charge, and especially assist the officer 

* De Witt is located in the southeast corner of Carroll county, about fifty miles 
southeast of Far West, and near the point where Grand river empties into the Mis- 
souri. During the summer of 1838 a number of the Saints settled there, some of 
whom, when the above warning was given, were still encamped in their wagons 
and tents. 


charged with the execution of a writ issued by William 
Dry den, Justice of the Peace, on the twenty-ninth of 
August last, for the arrest of Alanson Ripley, George A. 
Smith and others, and bring the offenders to justice. 
The following letter gives a tolerably fair view of the 
movements of the militia for a few days past: 

Doniphan'' s Beport to Atchison. 

Headquarters, First Brigade, 3rd Division Missouri 
Militia, Camp at Grand River, September 15, 1838. 

Major General David R. Atchison, Commanding 3rd Division Missouri 

Sir: — In pursuance of your orders, dated 11th instant, I issued orders 
to Colonel William A. Dunn, commanding' the 28th regiment, to raise 
four companies of mounted riflemen, consisting of fifty men each; also 
to Colonel John Boulware, commanding 70th regiment, to raise two 
companies of mounted riflemen, consisting each of like number to 
start forthwith for service in the counties of Caldwell and Daviess. 

On the same day. Colonel Dunn obtained the four companies of vol- 
unteers required from the 28th regiment, and on the morning of the 
12th I took the command in person, and marched to the line of Cald- 
well, at which point, I ordered the colonels to march the regiments to 
the timber of Crooked river. I then started for Far West, the county 
seat of Caldwell, accompanied by my aid alone. 

On arriving at that place, I found Comer, Miller, and McHoney, the 
prisoners mentioned in your order. I demanded of the guard, who had 
them in confinement, to deliver thetli over to me, which was promptly 
done. I also found that the guns that had been captured by the Sher- 
iff and citizens of Caldwell, had been distributed and placed in the 
hands of the soldiery, and scattered over the country; I ordered them 
to be immediately collected and delivered up to me. I then sent an 
express to Colonel Dunn to march the regiment by daylight, for that 
place, where he arrived about seven a. m., making forty miles since 
ten o'clock, a. m., on the previous day. 

When my command arrived, the guns were delivered up, amounting 
to forty-two stand, three stand could not be produced, as they had 
probably gone to Daviess county. I sent these guns under a guard to 
your command in Raj' county, together with the prisoner Comer, the 
other two being citizens of Daviess I retained, and brought with me to 
this county, and released them on parol of honor, as I conceived their 
detention illegal. 


At eight o'clock a. m., we took up the line of march, and proceeded 
through Millport in Daviess county, thirty-seven miles from our former 
encampment, and arrived at the camp of the citizens of Daviess and 
other adjoining counties, which amounted to between two and three 
hundred, as their commander. Dr. Austin, of Carroll county, informed 
me. Your order requiring them to disperse, which had been forwarded 
in advance of my command, by your aid, James M. Hughes, was read 
to them, and they were required to disperse. They professed that their 
object for arming and collecting was solely for defense, but they were 
marching and counter marching guards out; and myself and others who 
approached the camp were taken to task and required to wait the ap- 
proach of the sergeant of the guard. I had an interview with Dr. 
Austin, and his professions were all pacific. But they still continue in 
arms, marching and counter marching. 

I then proceeded with your aid, J. M. Hughes, and my aid, Benja- 
min HoUiday, to the Mormon encampment commanded by Colonel 
Lyman Wight. We held a conference with him, and he professed entire 
willingness to disband and surrender up to me every one of the Mor- 
mons accused of crime, and required in return that the hostile forces, 
collected by the other citizens of the county, should also disband. At 
the camp commanded by Dr. Austin, I demanded the prisoner, de- 
manded in your order, who had been released on the evening after my 
arrival in their vicinity. 

I took up my line of march, and encamped in the direct road between 
the two hostile encampments, where I have remained since, within 
about two and a half miles of Wight's encampment, and sometimes the 
other camp is nearer, and sometimes further from me. I intend to 
occupy this position until your arrival, as I deem it best to preserve 
peace, and prevent an engagement between the parties, and if kept so 
for a few days, they will doubtless disband without coercion. I have 
the honor to be, yours with respect, 

A. W. Doniphan, 
Brig-General 1st Brigade, 3rd Division Missouri Militia. 

By this it is clearly seen that the officers and troops 
acting under the Governor's orders had very The Prophet's 
little regard for the laws of the land, otherwise Comment. 
Comer, Miller, and McHoney would not have been dis- 
charged by them. 

I was at and about home this day, attending to my busi- 
ness as usual. 

Sunday^ 10. — Held meeting in the afternoon, had 


preaching and breaking of bread. I was at home all day 
with my family. 

Monday^ 17. — I was counseling with the brethren at 
home and about the city. 

AtcMsorCs Report to the Governor. 

Headquarters 3rd Divisiox, Missouri Militia, 

Grand River, Sep. 17, 1838, 
To His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief: 

Sir: — I arrived at the county seat of this county, Daviess, on the 
evening of the 15th instant, with the troops raised from the militia of 
Ray county, when I was joined bj' the troops from Clay county under 
the command of General Doniphan. In the same neighborhood I 
found from two to three hundred men in arms, principally from the 
counties of Livingston, Carroll and Saline. These men were embodied 
under the pretext of defending the citizens of Daviess county, against 
the Mo^'mons, and were operating under the orders of a Dr. Austin 
from Carroll county. The citizens of Daviess, or a large portion of 
them, residing on each side of Grand river, had left their farms, and 
removed their families either to the adjoining counties, or collected 
them together at a place called the Camp Ground. The whole county 
on the east side of Grand river appears to be deserted, with the excep- 
tion of a few who are not so timid as their neighbors. The Mormons 
of Daviess county have also left their farms, and have encamped for 
safety at a place immediately on the east bank of Grand river, called 
Adam-ondi-Ahman. The numbers are supposed to be about two hun- 
dred and fifty men, citizens of Daviess county, and from fifty to one 
hundred men, citizens of Caldwell county; both parties have been 
scouting through the country, and occasionally taking prisoners, and 
threatening and insulting each other, but as yet no blood has been shed. 
I have ordered all armed men from adjoining counties to repair to their 
homes; and Livingston county men, and others, to the amount of one 
hundred men, have returned, and there remain now about one hundred 
and fifty, who will, I am in hopes, return in a few days. I have been 
informed by the Mormons, that all of those who have been charged 
with a violation of the laws will be in today for trial ; when that is done, 
the troops under my command will be no longer required in this county, 
if the citizens of other counties will return to their respective homes. 
I have proposed to leave two companies of fifty men each, in this 
county, and discharge the remainder of the troops; said two companies 
will remain for the preservation of order, until peace and confidence 


are restored. I also enclose to your Excellency the report of General 
Doniphan, and refer you for particulars to Major Rogers. 
I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 
D. R. Atchison, 

Major General 3rd Division Missouri Militia. 

Tuesday, 18. — I have been at home all day, consid- 
erably unwell, but am somewhat better this evening. 

This day the Governor ordered Captain Childs to have 
the Boonville Guards mounted, with ten days' provisions, 
and in readiness to march on his arrival at Marching 

Orders to the 

the end of the week. The Governor also Miiitia. 
ordered General S. D. Lucas, of the fourth division to 
march immediately with four hundred mounted men to 
the scene of difficulty, and co-operate with General Atchi- 
son. [Similar orders were issued to Major Generals Lewis 
Bolton, John B. Clark, and Thomas D. Grant. 

Wednesday , 19. — I was at and about home. 

Thursday, 20. — I was at home until about ten o'clock, 
when I rode out on horseback. I returned a little before 
sunset, and was at home through the evening. 

The following extracts from General Atchison's letter of 
this date, to the Governor, from Liberty, will Movements of 
give a pretty correct view of the movements *'^® Miiitia. 
of the militia: 

Excerpts of Atchison'' s Letter to the Governor. 

Sir: — The troops ordered out for the purpose of puttiug down the 
insurrection supposed to exist in the counties of Daviess and Caldwell, 
were discharged on the 20th instant, with the exception of two com- 
panies of the Ray rnilitia, now stationed in the county of Daviess, under 
the command of Brigadier General Parks. It was deemed necessary in 
the state of excitement in that county that those companies should 
remain there for a short period longer, say some twenty days, until con- 
fidence and tranquility should be restored. All the offenders against 
the law in that county, against whom process was taken out, were 
arrested and brought before a court of inquiry, and recognized to ap- 
pear at the Circuit Court. Mr. Thomas C. Birch attended to the prose- 
cution on the part of the State. The citizens of other counties who 
came in armed, to the assistance of the citizens of Daviess county, have 

6 Vol. III. 


dispersed and returned to their respective homes, and the Mormons 
have also returned to their respective homes, so that I consider the in- 
surrection, tor the present at least, to be at an end. From the best 
information I can get, there are about two hundred and fifty Mormon 
families in Daviess county, nearly one half of the population, and the 
whole of the Mormon forces in Daviess, Caldwell, and the adjoining 
counties, is estimated at from thirteen to fifteen hundred men, capa- 
ble of bearing arms. The Mormons of Daviess county, as I stated in a 
former report, were encamped in a town called Adam-ondi-Ahman, and 
are headed by Lyman Wight, a bold, brave, skillful, and I may add, a 
desperate man; they appeared to be acting on the defensive, and I 
must further add, gave up the offenders with a good deal of prompt- 
ness. The arms taken by the Mormons, and prisoners were also given 
up upon demand, with seeming cheerfulness. 

The mob this day again threatened De Witt. 

Friday^ 21. — I was about home. 

Saturday^ 22. — I went out early in the morning, returned 
to breakfast at half past seven, and took an ailing on 
horseback at nine in the morning. 

Petition of the Saints of De Witt to Governor Boggs. 

De Witt, Carroll County, State of Missouri, 

September 22, 1838. 
To His Excellency Lilhurn W. Boggs, Governor of the State of 
Missouri : 
Your Petitioners, citizens of the county of Carroll, do hereby petition 
your Excellency, praying for relief: That whereas, your petitioners 
have on the 20th instant, been sorely aggrieved, by being beset by a 
lawless mob, certain inhabitants of this and other counties, to the 
injury of the good citizens of this and the adjacent places; that on the 
aforesaid day, there came from one hundred to one hundred and fifty 
armed men, and threatened with force and violence, to drive certain 
peaceable citizens from their homes, in defiance of all law, and threat- 
ened then to drive said citizens out of the county, but, on deliberation, 
concluded to give them, said citizens, till the first of October next, to 
leave said county; and threatened, if not gone by that time, to exter- 
minate them, without regard to age or sex, and destroy their chattels, 
by throwing them into the river. We therefoi-e pray you to take such 
steps as shall put a stop to all lawless proceeding; and we, your Peti- 
tioners, will ever pray, c&c. 

Benj. Kendriek. John Tillford, 

Dudley Thomas, H. G. Sherwood, 

A. D. 1838] 



William P. Lundow, 
Jno. Kendrick, 
Thos. Dehart, 
Francis Brown, 
Albert Loree 
Samuel Lake, 
Asa Manchester, 
Wm. Winston, 
John Clark, 
Thos. HoUingshead, 
Asa W. Barnes, 
Elijah T. Rogers, 
John Dougherty, 
Moses Harris, 
Perry Thayer, 
B. B. Bartley, 
Jonathan Harris, 
Wm. J. Hatfield, 
Oliver Olney, 
John Thorp, 
H. T. Chipman, 
David Dixon, 
Beuj. Hensley, 

Franklin N. 

John Murdock, 
G. M. Hinkle, 
James Valance, 
Jabez Lake, 
H. M. Wallace, 
D. Thomas, (non- 

( Mormon, 
Nathan Harrison, 
Elizabeth Smith, 
Henry Root, 
A. L. Caldwell, 
Rufus Allen, 
Ezekiel Barnes, 
D. H. Barnes, 
Wm. S. Smith, 
James Hampton, 
Robert Hampton, 
Jonathan Hampton, 
George Peacock, 
Daniel Clark, 
John Proctor, 
James McGuin, 
Smith Humphrey, 

Simday, 23. — I attended meeting both forenoon and 
afternoon, and was at home in the evening. 

Monday, 24.— 1 was at home until half- past eight a. m., 
when I rode out on horseback, and returned about five in 
the evening. 

The governor, having heard that peace had been re- 
stored in Daviess and Caldwell counties, ordered Generals 
Clark, Crowther, Lewis, and Bolton to discharge their 
troops. The order was dated at Jonesborough. 

Tuesday, 25. — General Parks wrote the governor from 
Mill Port, that he had been in the upper part of Daviess 
county to assist the constable in bringing General 
offenders to justice, and that the major- to^Gorernor 

general, with the troops from Ray and Clay 

counties on the 18th instant, (except two companies from 


Ray under his command) were disbanded. In this letter 
General Parks said: 

Whatever may have been the disposition of the people called Mor- 
mons, before our arrival here, since we have made our appearance they 
have shown no disposition to resist the laws, or of hostile intentions. 
There has been so much prejudice and exaggeration concerned in this 
matter, that I found things entirely different from what I was prepared 
to expect. When we arrived here, we found a large body of men from 
the counties adjoining, armed and in the field, for the purpose, as 
I learned, of assisting the people of this county against the Mormons, 
without being called out by the proper authorities. 

P. S. — Since writing the above, I received information that if the 
committee do not agree, *the determination of the Daviess county men is 
to drive the Mormons with powder and lead. 

The same day, General Parks wrote General Atchison 
as follows: 

I am happy to be able to state to you, that the deep excitement exist- 
ing between the parties, has in a great degree ceased; and so far I have 
had no occasion to resort to force, in assisting the constables. On 
tomorrow, a committee from Daviess county meets a committee of the 
Mormons at Adam-ondi-Ahman, to propose to tbem to buy or sell, and 
I expect to be there. 

Wednesday, 26. — Fifteen or twenty of the Mormons 
were cited to trial at Gallatin where Lyman Wight has 
pledged himself to me that they will attend. 

I was at home until ten or eleven o'clock in the morn- 
ing, when I rode out, and returned home and spent the 

The mob committee met a committee of the brethren, 
and the brethren entered into an agreement to purchase 
Agreement to all the lauds aud possessions of those who 
moVj.^^*^^^ desired to sell and leave Daviess county. The 
High Council of Adam-ondi-Ahman was immediately 
called and Elders Don C. Smith, George A. Smith, Lor- 
enzo D. Barnes and Harrison Sagers were appointed to 
go immediately to the churches in the south and east and 
raise men and means to fulfill the contract. The commit- 

•This has reference to the committee appointed by the respective parties to ne- 
gotiate terms for buying or selling on the part either of the mob oi the Saints. 


tee arrived at Far West late in the evening, and called 
upon me and gave me the foregoing information. I 
approved ot the action of the brethren. 

Thursday^ 27. — I was home and about the city. 

Extract of a Letter from General Atchison to Governor Boggs, Dated — 

Liberty, September 27th, 1838. 

The force under General Parks is deemed suflEicient to execute the 
laws and keep the peace in Daviess county. Things are not so bad in 
that county as represented by rumor, and, in fact, from affidavits I have 
no doubt your Excellency has been deceived by the exaggerated state- 
ments of designing or half crazy men. I have found there is no cause 
of alarm on account of the Mormons; they are not to be feared; they 
are very much alarmed. 

Friday, .28. — I was about home until near sundown, 
when I rode out. 

Elder John E . Page arrived at De Witt with his Canada 
company sometime this week. 

Saturday, 29. — I rode out on horseback, returning about 
three in the afternoon and spent the evening at home. 

Sunday, 30. — I left home about ten o'clock in the 

Monday, October 1. — I returned home about five o'clock 
where I tarried the remainder of the evening. The mob hav- 
ing left Daviess county (after they were organ- MobActiv- 

T . . -tj-- 1 ' A j_ 1 • T-v • 1 T itiesShifted to 

ized into a militia by Atchison, Doniphan and De witt. 
Parks and disbanded) went to Carroll county and gathered 
at De Witt, threatening vengeance to the Saints without 
regard to age, sex or condition; but Daviess county was 
for a season freed from those peace disturbers. 

Tuesday, 2. — The mob pressed harder upon De Witt 
and fired upon the Saints. 

The Kirtland Camp arrived in Far West from 
Kirtland. I went in company with Sidney Rigdon, 
Hyrum Smith, Isaac Morley and George W. Arrival of 

-r. 1 • 1 J. Ji •^ J 1 KirtlandCamp 

Robinson, and met them some miles out, and at Far west. 
escorted them into the city, where they encamped on the 


public square directly south, and close by the excavation 
for the Lord's House. Here friends greeted friends in 
the name of the Lord. Isaac Morley, Patriarch at Far 
West, furnished a beef for the camp. President Rigdon 
provided a supper for the sick, and the brethren provided 
for them like men of Grod, for they were hungry, having 
eaten but little for several days, and having traveled 
eleven miles this day ; eight hundred and sixty miles from 
Kirtland, the way the camp traveled. 




At a meeting of the Seventies in the House of the Lord 
in Kirtland, on the sixth day of March, 1838, the moving 
of the Saints from Kirtland to the land of 

»«■• • • 1 -11 T "^^^ Meeting 

Missouri, m accordance with the command- of the seven- 
ments and revelations of God, was spoken of 
and also the practicability of the quorum of the Seventies 
locating in as compact a body as possible in some stake 
of Zion in the west, where they could meet together when 
they were not laboring in the vineyard of the Lord ; and 
also could receive counsel from the Twelve and the First 
Presidency in matters pertaining to their mission to the 
nations with greater facilities than they would if scattered 
here and there over all the face of the land. 

The subject was discussed at some length, and a reso- 
lution was passed r^uesting the Councilors to consult to- 
gether and make a report on the subject at the next meet- 
ing of the quorum. The meeting was then adjourned to 
Saturday, the 10th instant, at one o'clock p. m. 

At that time the quorum met again and the Presidents 
reported that they had consulted together on the subject 
referred to them at the last meeting, and that 

^1 n 1 • • .1 . Ti 1 . The Report of 

they were ot the opinion that the subject the Presi- 
should be laid before the First Presidency of 
the Church for their counsel and advice ; and also if it 
would be thought expedient to appoint the place for their 
location in Far West or some other place where it should 
seem good unto them. 

The measures proposed by the Councilors were unani- 
mously approved of by the members of the quorum pres- 

• This chapter and the one following contain the uninterrupted history of Kirt- 
land camp promised at p. 42, and is taken from the camp's daily journal, kept by 
the late Judge Elias Smith. 


ent. The Presidents further stated that they had taken 
To Move in a ^'^^^ Consideration the extreme poverty of the 
Thou'ht'^ Seventies in Kirtland and vicinity, and that 

Practicable. it seemed to them almost an impossible thing 
for the quorum [as such] to move from this place under 
existing circumstances; that the measures entered into 
by the High Council and High Priests for removing the 
Saints had failed and they had given up making any fur- 
ther attempts after their scheme of going by water had 
fallen through, and that they had further advised every 
individual of the Church wishing to go up unto Zion to 
look out for himself individually and make the best 
of it he could. 

Much was said on the subject; and while the subject of 
going up in a body — which seemed to be the prevailing 
The Subject dcsirc of the members present — was under 
Discussed. discussiou, the Spirit of the Lord came down 
in mighty power, and some of the Elders began to 
prophesy that if the quorum tvould go up in a body to- 
gether, and go according to the commandments and reve- 
lations of God, pitching their tents by the way, that they 
should not want for anything on the journey that would 
be necessary for them to have; and further that there 
should be nothing wanting towards removing the whole 
quorum of Seventies that would go in a body, but that 
there should be a sufficiency of all things for carrying 
such an expedition into effect. 

President James Foster arose in turn to make some re- 
marks on the the subject, and in the course of his address 
Foster's Vis- ^^ declared that he saw a vision in which was 
^^°- shown unto him a company (he should think 

of about five hundred) starting from Kirtland and going 
up to Zion. That he saw them moving in order, encamp- 
ing in order by the way, and that he knew thereby that it 
was the will of God that the quorum should go up in that 

The Spirit bore record of the truth of his assertions for 


it rested down on the assembly in power, insomuch that all 
present were satisfied that it was the will of <,qq^ ^jjj^ 
God that the quorum should go up in a com- ^^•" 
pany together to the land of Zion, and that they should 
proceed immediately to make preparations for the jour- 
ney. The Councilors were requested to devise the best 
course to be pursued to carry the plan into effect, and the 
meeting adjourned to Tuesday, 13th, at one p. m. 

In the forenoon of that day the Council of the Seventies 
met and invited President Hyrum Smith, and sent for 
President William Marks, but he was not at n. .. 

' Meeting; or the 

home, and consequently did not attend. i3th of March. 
Benjamin S. Wilber, in absence of the clerk, was invited 
to act as clerk pro tern. After the meeting was opened by 
President Hyrum Smith by prayer, .they proceeded to 
draw up under the supervision of President Smith the 
outlines of the following Constitution for the organization 
and government of the camp, which was adopted at the 
meeting in the afternoon. * 

At the time appointed in the afternoon the quorum met 
according to adjournment. Several of the High Council 
and High Priests attended the meeting. The 


Spirit of God was manifested as before. The protem. ai>- 
subject was discussed and the Constitution ^°'^ ^ 
presented , which was approved by the quorum and by the 
visiting Elders who testified that the movement was of 
God and recommended it to the brethren of the Church ; 
and said that they should lay the subject immediately be- 
fore their own quorums. On motion it was resolved that 
two of the quorum should be appointed to act as members 
of the Council, ^;ro tern, in the place of Daniel S. Miles 
and Levi Hancock — who were then in the west — till the 
camp should arrive at Far West. This to be in accordance 
with the first article of the Constitution, which recognized 
the whole seven [First Seven Presidents of the Seventy] as 
councilors of the camp. 

* See page 90. 


On motion it was resolved that the President of Seven- 
ties should have the right of nominating the two assist- 
ant councilors and all other oflScers of the 

Power of 

Nominating camp rcQuired by the Constitution, or on the 

Officers Vest- f ^ ^ , -, n r,- \ t 

ed in First joumey, up to the land of Zion. in accord- 
ance with the above resolution Elias Smith, 
clerk of the Council, and Benjamin S. Wilber, were nomi- 
nated and received the unanimous vote of the quorum as 
Councilors of the camp. The Constitution was read and 
explained to the meeting item by item, that there might 
be no misunderstanding concerning any part of it or of 
the motives and designs of the Seventies in the move- 
ment then in agitation ; and those who subscribed to the 
Constitution were exhorted to make all preparations in 
their power to carry into effect the object of the camp, 
and the meeting was adjourned to Saturday, 17th, at 
one p. m. 

The Constitution. 

The council of the Seventies met this day in the attic story of the 
Lord's House and took into consideration the propriety and necessity of 
the body of the Seventies going up to the land of Zion in a company 
together the present season, and adopted the following rules and laws, 
for the organization and government of the camp: 

First — That the Presidents of the Seventies, seven in number, shall 
be the Councilors [i. e. leaders] of the camp; and that there shall be 
one man appomted as treasurer, who shall by the advice of the Coun- 
cilors manage the financial concerns during the journey, and keep a 
just and accurate account of all monies received and expended for the 
use of the camp. 

Second— That there shall be one man appointed to preside over each 
tent, to take charge of it; and that from the time of their appointment 
the tent-men shall make all necessary arrangements for the providing 
of teams and tents for the journey; and they shall receive counsel and 
advice from the Councilors; and furthermore, shall see that cleanliness 
and decency are observed in all cases, the commandments kept, and 
the Word of Wisdom heeded, that is, no tobacco, tea, coffee, snuff or 
ardent spirits of any kind are to be taken internally. ^^ 

Third — That every man shall be the head of his own family, and 
shall see that they are brought into subjection according to the order of 
the camp. 

A. D. 1838] 



Fourth — That all those who shall subscribe to the resolutions, rules 
and regulations, shall make every exertion, and use all lawful means to 
provide for themselves and their families, and for the use and benefit 
of the camp to which they belong; and also to hand over to the Seven 
Councilors all monies appropriated for that purpose on or before the 
day the camp shall start. 

Fifth — That the money shall be retained in the hands of the Coun- 
cilors, being divided proportionately among them for safety and to be 
paid over to the Treasurer as circumstances may require. 

Sixth — That any faithful brethren wishing to journey with us can do 
so by subscribing to, and observing these rules and regulations. 

Seventh — That every individual shall at the end of the journey — 
when a settlement is to be made, or as soon thereafter as their circum- 
stances will admit — pay their proportional part of the expenses of the 
journey. By expenses it is understood all that is necessarily paid out 
for the use of a team, wagon or cow, if they safely arrive at the place 
where the camp shall finally break up. 

Eighth — That these rules and laws shall be strictly observed, and 
every person who shall behave disorderly and not conform to them shall 
be disfellowshiped by the camp and left by the wayside. 

Ninth — That this shall be the law of the camp in journeying from 
this place up to the land of Zion, and that it may be added unto or 
amended as circumstances may require by the voice of those who shall 
subscribe unto it. 

[The names of the persons and number in their respective families, 
who subscribed to the foregoing constitution]. 


James Foster 6 

Josiah Butterfield 4 

Zerah Pulsipher 7 

Joseph Young 5 

Henry Harriman 2 

Elias Smith 3 

W. S. Wilbur 2 

Joshua S. Holman 8 

J. D. Parker 3 

Duncan McArthur 9 

Stephen Starks 6 

Anson Call 3 

Amos B. Fuller 3 

Jeremiah Willey 4 


Eleazer King, Jun 3 

Thomas G. Fisher 4 

Alfred Brown 2 

Stephen Headlock 2 

John R. Folger 4 

Nathan K. Knight 9 

Joel Judd 3 

Thomas Nickerson 4 

Brother Nickerson's family 5 

David D. Demming 2 

Nancy Richerson 3 

Joseph McCaseland 4 

Hiram H. Byington 4 

David Gray 8 



[A. D. 1838 

Hiram Dayton 12 

Truman 0. Anp:ell 4 

Dominions Carter 6 

Jonathan H. Holmer.... 3 

J. B. Noble 7 

Levi B. Wilder 6 

James S. Holmon 7 

Amos Nickerson 

Lewis Eager 3 

Stephen Shumway 3 

Enoch S. Sanborn 5 

Jonathan Crosby 2 

Jonathan Hampton 4 

Otis Shumway 7 

Frederick M. Vanleuven G 

Benjamin Butterfleld 7 

Eleazer King 7 

John Tanner 10 

Alauson Pettingill 5 

William Perry 4 

Warren Smith 7 

Samuel Barnet 5 

William Carpenter 5 

John Greabble 8 

Arnold Healey 3 

Joel Harvey 5 

Justin Blood 5 

Reuben Daniels 7 

Jonas Putnam 6 

Daniel Pulsipher 4 

Charles Thompson 2 

Nathan B. Baldwin 2 

Michael Griffith 6 

Henry Stevens 3 

Levi Osgood 5 

Cyrus B. Fisher 6 

Elijah Merriam 2 

Samuel Hale 3 

Martin Hanchet 5 

Orin Cheney 9_^ 

George Stringham 6 

Mary Parker 4 

Julia Johnson 8 

Alexander Wright 1 

Adonijah Cooley 5 

Elijah Cheney 2 

Jesse Baker 2 

Elias Pulsipher 8 

Jason Brunett 7 

E. B. Gayland 6 

Samuel Fowler.. 8 

David K. Dustin 2 

Charles Bird 7 

Thomas Butterfleld 3 

William Field 5 

William Shuman 7 

Cornelius Vanleuven 3 

Benjamin K. Hull 6 

Oliver Olney 9 

William Bosley 2 

Joseph Pine ^ 

Noah Packard 9 

John M. King 4 

Jonathan Dunham 4 i 

Joel H. Johnson 6 

Austin W. Cowles 9 

Jonathan H. Hale 5 

George W. Brooks 4 

Abraham Wood 4 

Shearman A. Gilbert 3 

William B. Pratt 4 

Samuel Parker * 4 

Daniel Bowen 7 

Richard Brasier 4 

John Pulsipher 2 

Alba Whittle 6 i 

Joel Drury 5 

Jonathan Fisher 5 

Benjamin Baker 6 

Amasa Cheney 6 

Josiah Miller 10 

Amos Baldwin 12 

John Sweat 10 

Daniel Allen, Jun 4 

Stephen Richardson 8 

Martin H. Peck G 

A. D 1838] 



Zemira Draper 6 

Isaac Rogfers 4 

Abram Boynton 7 

Michael McDonald 5 

James Brown 7 

Alexander Campbell 

Joseph C. Clark G 

Jared Porter 3 

William Earl....' 11 

Daniel Bliss 2 

Isaac W. Pierce 5 

Jabez Lake 5 

Samuel Mulliner 5 

Aaron M. York 4 

James Strop 6 

Reuben Hedlock 8 

Andrew Lamereaux 7 

William Wilson 3 

John Carter 2 

Samuel Parker 4 

Isaac Dewitt 8 

Hiram Griffiths 3 

John Hamond 8 

Arnold Stevens 6 

Gardner Snow 3 

George Snow 2 

Thomas Draper 

Abram Bond 3 

John Lameraux 6 

Jesse P. Harmon (> 

John Vanleuven, Jun 9 

Aaron Cheney 6 

Nathan Cheney 4 

Edwin P. Merriam 3 

Henry Munroe 3 

Ira P. Thornton 7 

Oliver Rowe 6 

Stephen Rowe S- 

John Thorp 7 

Daniel L. Nuptire 3 

William Gribble 3 

Charles N. Baldwin 2 

William Draper, Sen 2 

Laban Morris 2 

Lucius N. Scovil 4 

Aaron Johnson 4 

Joseph Coon 4 

Nathan Staker 6 

Asa Wright 10 

Zephaniah W. Brewster 9 

Munro Crosier 2 

Asaph Blanchard 1 

Ethan A. Moore 8 

William Carey 

James Lethead 

John Rulison 8 

March 17. — Met again agreeable to adjournment in the 
attic story of the Lord's House, at 1 p. m. ^^ ,^ 

•' . The Move- 

A general attendance of those belonging to ment com- 

, -. 1 1 , • ^ mended. 

the camp and many others belongmg to 
the different quorums of the Church came in. The 
room was full to overflowing. Elder Josiah Butter- 
field, presided. After opening by prayer the object 
of the meeting was stated by the chairman, viz., 
the removing of the Saints to Zion. Elder James Foster 
next laid before the meeting the movements of the Seven- 
ties in relation to that desired object and was followed by 
Elders Joseph Young, Henry flarriman, Zera Pulsipher, 
and by others of the different quorums, who highly ap- 


proved of the proceedings of the quorum of Seventies in 
relation to the order of removing and of the organization 
of the camp. The Constitution was read by the clerk, 
which was spoken of in terms of commendation by all 
who spoke. Much of the Spirit of God was manifested 
on this occasion and the hearts of all made glad in antici- 
pation of their deliverance from Kirtland. 

President Hyrum Smith came in and addressed the 
„ ^ . ^ meeting at some length on the movements of 

Hyrum Smith , ~ ° 

on Previous the Saluts iu Kirtlaud in relation to their 

Jlovements. . . i i i o • 

emigration to the land of Zion since the com- 
mandment had gone forth for the honest in heart to rise 
up and go up unto that land. He stated that what he 
had said and done in reference to chartering a steamboat, 
for the purpose of removing the Church as a body, he had 
done according to his own judgment without reference to 
the testimony of the Spirit of God ; that he had recom- 
mended that course and had advised the High Council and 
High Priests to adopt that measure, acting solely by his 
own wisdom, for it had seemed to him that the whole 
body of the Church in Kirtland could be removd with less 
expense in the way he had proposed than in any other. 
He said further that the Saints had to act oftentimes upon 
their own responsibility without any reference to the 
testimony of the Spirit of God in relation to temporal 
affairs, that he has so acted in this matter and has 
never had any testimony from God that the plan of going 
by water was approved of by Him, and that the failure 
of the scheme was evidence in his mind that God did 
not approve of it. 

He then declared that he knew by the Spirit of God 

thatthe movements that were making by the quorum of the 

Seventies for their removal and the plan of 

Hvrum Smith . . . 

Commends their joumeyiiig was according to the will of 

the Lord. He advised all who were calculating 

to go up to Zion at present, whose circumstances would 

admit, to join with the Seventies in their plan and go 


up with them; and if he were so situated that he could 
join the camp himself and go with them, he would do 
so, and strictly comply with the rules which had been 
adopted for the regulation of the camp on the journey. 
It would be his delight to go as an individual without 
having any concern whatever in the management of" 
affairs, either directly or indirectly, during the journey. 
In answer to an inquiry that was made about the 
difficulties that might attend the movements . ^ 

^ Advantage 

of SO large a body, he observed that no of a Large 
fears need be entertained by any on that 
score, for there would no difficulty attend the camp, if 
there should be 5,000 persons in it. The more the 
better; and the advantages of their going altogether 
would be greater than they could possibly be if they 
should go in small companies, as provisions and other 
necessities could be purchased in large quantities much 
cheaper than they could by small squads who would be 
under the necessity of buying at great disadvantage. 

After advising the camp not to be too particular in 
regard to the Word of Wisdom and advised ^ . 

^ . Caution as to 

them to have the assistance of the High the word of 

r^ -T • ■ ^ T • J • Wisdom. 

Council m carrying the plan into execution, 

and giving other advice about orgaaizing the camp, 

President Hyrum Smith retired. 

The Constitution being read again, about forty who did 
not belong to the quorum of Seventies came forward and 
subscribed their names to it, making in all about eighty. 
The meeting was then adjourned to Tuesday, March 20th, 
at 1 p. m. 

March 20. — In the afternoon the Seven Councilors met 
to consult on the best measures to be pursued practical 
for procuring teams and tents and other ^i-eps- 
things necessary for the journey. After considering the 
subject carefully it was thought that two good teams 
and one tent, if no more could be obtained, would suffice 


for eighteen persons ; and that it would be advisable to 
appoint the overseers of tents at the meeting to be held 
in the afternoon, whose duty according to the Constitution 
would be to form their companies of eighteen, or as near 
that number as circumstances will admit of, and proceed 
immediately to procure teams and a tent for the same, 
and to make all necessary arrangements for the journey 
Elders Oliver Granger, Mayhew Hillman and Harvey 
Eedfield and some others attended who were requested to 
Views of on- *^^Pi'^ss their views of the expedition, as a 
rer Granger rumor had goue forth that they considered it an 

et ul. , ^ •' 

impracticable undertaking and one that would 
never be accomplished. Elder Granger said that he con- 
sidered it would be the greatest thing ever accomplished 
since the organization of the Church or even since the 
exodus of Israel from Egypt if the Saints in Kirtland, 
considering their poverty, should succeed in going from 
that place in a body, and that it would require great wis- 
dom and prudence and the most determined perseverance 
to effect such a measure, though he considered it possible 
to do it and believed God would bless them in so doing. 

Elder Eedfield spoke at some length and said that in 
consequence of the rumors which were afloat he had 
thought the Seventies were taking unwarrantable ground, 
and had expressed his views freely on the subject, and 
rather justified himself on that score, though he con- 
demned the principle of believing reports which were put 
in circulation without first considering their foundation 
and the source from which they came. He said he was 
convinced that the things he had heard were untrue con- 
cerning some movements which he had heard the Seven- 
ties were making, and the declarations and denunciations 
they gave some of the other quorums, which had come to 
his ears, were likewise without foundation. He said he was 
heart and hand with the Council of the Seventies in their 
endeavors to remove the Saints in Kirtland to the land 
of Zion, and the Spirit testified to him that the move- 



ments were in righteousness and according to the will of 

Elder Hillman spoke in confirmation of what his breth- 
ren had said, approved of the movement and said that the 
High Priests and High Council had at a meeting held a 
day or two previous passed a resolution to uphold and 
support the Seventies in their undertaking. 

A selection of names for overseers of tents was made 
and the meeting adjourned. 

At one p. m. the members of the camp and others who 
attended met in the upper court of the Lord's 
House. Elder Henry Harriman presided, ™°'^' '°°^' 
and opened by prayer. He also addressed the meeting, 
followed by Elder Foster, both setting forth the greatness 
of the undertaking in hand, of the necessity of every 
individual bestirring himself and making every exertion 
to prepare for the journey. The names of those who had 
signed the Constitution were read over, that if there were 
any objection against their going in the camp in conse- 
quence of any difficulty that might exist or of disobedi- 
ence to the commandments of the Lord it might be made 
manifest by those who might know of the existence of any 
such thing. 

The names of those selected for overseers of tents were 
read over one by one and were voted in by the voice of 
the camp, and Jonathan H. Hale was appointed treasurer, 
and the meeting was then adjourned. 

After the 20th of March the Council met often to coun- 
sel on the things which from time to time sundry Meet- 
pressed themselves upon their attention rela- o^'^gct^of*^^ 
tive to the preparation necessary for the jour- Them, 
ney, things both spiritual and temporal ; and to ask coun- 
sel and give their advice that they might decide in right- 
eousness all things pertaining to their calling and the 
affairs of the camp, and to implore their heavenly Father 
to provide means to soften the hearts of the enemies of 
the Saints, in Kirtland, and in the region round about: 

7 Vol. Ill 


that His people might be delivered from their power, as 
they have fallen into the hands of their enemies like 
Israel of old, in consequence of disobedience and their 
slowness of heart to obey the commandments of the Lord 
which He had given unto them; and that He would h^ve 
mercj' upon them and deliver them from bondage in this 
land, that they might go up to the land of Zion accord- 
ing to the commandments and revelations of the Lord by 
His servant Joseph Smith, Jun., and according to the 
pattern given unto them. 

In these meetings for counsel and prayer God truly 
verified Ris promises; for when His servants asked they re- 
ceived, and His Spirit was poured out upon them abundant- 
ly, from time to time manifesting the will of the Lord con- 
cerning the movements necessary to be made in order to 
carry the arduous undertaking into effect, in remov- 
ing the quorum of Seventies, and those that joined with 
them, from Kirtland to the land of Zion. 

The extreme poverty of the majority of those belong- 
ing to the camp and the depression of their spirits in con- 
Difficuities sequcucc thereof and the downfall of Kirt- 
Encountered. land; the opf^ositiou of those who had dis- 
sented from the Church and of those who from the 
beginning had opposed the commandments of God which 
He had established in the last days among the children of 
men, and last of all, though not least, the opposition of 
many who called themselves Saints, were obstacles which 
presented themselves in formidable aspect against the ex- 
ertions of the Council to bring about the order of things 
to be entered into in order to accomplish the work, and to 
unite the feelings of the brethren and to restore their confi- 
deuce in each other, which had in a great measure been 
lost during the past year, or since the failure of their im- 
aginary means of speculation, of grandeur and wealth. 

Thursday, Jidij 5. — The camp commenced organizing on 
a piece of land in the rear of the house formerly occupied 
by May hew Hillman, about one hundred rods south of the 


House of the Lord, in Kirtland. The morning was beau- 
tiful. At an early hour the heavens were over- Assembling 
spread with a cloud which continued to hide °^ ^^^ camp. 
the scorching rays of the sun till towards evening, when 
it moved away. The horizon at every point that was unob- 
structed by intervening objects was clear, and everything 
seemed to indicate that the God of heaven has His all- 
searching eye upon the camp of the Saints, and had pre- 
pared the day for the express purpose of organizing the 
camp, that the Saints might start on their journey in the 
order which had been shown in the beginning. About 
twenty tents were pitched in the course of the day and 
several other companies came on late who had not time 
to pitch their tents. Many spectators from the towns 
round about came to behold the scene, and, with few excep- 
tions, they behaved with the greatest decorum. The day 
was solemn to all concerned and the greatest solemnity was 
visible on the countenances of the Saints who expected to 
tarry for a season in Kirtland, and also on the countenances 
of many of the unbelievers in the everlasting Gospel of 
Jesus Christ and of the great work of the gathering of the 
Saints of the Most High in these last days of wickedness 
before God's judgments shall have been poured out with- 
out measure upon the wicked, to sweep them off from the 
face of the earth. 

Between four and five hundred of the camp tented on 
the ground during the night. The spectators goiemn Re- 
retired at a late hour and left the camp in flections. 
quietude. The night was clear and the encampment and 
all around was solemn as eternity; which scene, together 
with the remembrance of those other scenes through which 
the Saints in Kirtland had passed during the last two years 
all presented themselves to the thinking mind; and, togeth- 
er with the greatness of the undertaking, the length of the 
journey, and many other things combined, could not fail to 
awaken sensations that could be better felt than described. 

Friday, July 6. — At an early hour in the morning the 


people began to assemble to witness the exodus of the camp, 
and several hundred persons had gathered to- 
gether before all things could be arranged in 
order to move off from the ground without confusion, all of 
which consumed most of the forenoon. At twelve o'clock, 
noon, the camp began to move, and at half -past twelve 
the whole company had left the ground in order, and took 
up their line of march towards Chester, south from Kirt- 
land, where they encamped at six o'clock p. m., a distance 
of seven miles from Kirtland. 

After the tents were pitched and all things arranged an 
enumeration of the camp was taken, when it was ascer- 
„ , . tained that there were in the camp 529 souls 

Number m '■ 

the Camp. present — a few necessarily absent — of which 
256 were males, and 273 females. There were 105 fami- 
lies, all on the ground excepting five, which had not 
time to get ready in season to start with the camp, 
two of which came up in the evening; of the others Elder 
Martin H. Peck joined at Petersburgh; the other two, 
Elders S. Shumway and Brother Charles Wood, joined 
the camp at the same place a few hours after. President 
William Marks and some other brethren from Kirtland 
accompanied the camp to Chester, and on parting with 
the Councilors blessed them, in the name of the Lord, 
and left his blessing with them, and with the camp, cove- 
nanting to uphold them by the prayer of faith and re- 
quired the same of the Councilors and of the brethren of 
the camp. 

The feelings of the brethren on leaving Kirtland and 
parting with those who were left behind were somewhat 
Sorrow at pcculiar, notwithstanding the scenes they had 
Parting. passcd through in Kirtland; but the conscious- 

ness of doing the will of their heavenly Father, and obey- 
ing His commandments in journeying to Zion, over 
balanced every other consideration that could possibly be 
presented to their minds, and buoyed up their spirits, and 
helped them to overcome the weaknesses and infirmities 

A. 1). I8:i8| HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 101 

of human nature which men are subject to here on the 

Saturday^ July 7. — Started from Chester about half- 
past six in the morning, and camped in pj^.^^. Experi- 
Aurora, Portage county — thirteen miles from ^°^®s- 
Chester — at four p. m., on the farm of Mr. Lacey. The 
road between Chester and Aurora, through Russell and 
Bainbridge, in Geauga county, was bad and somewhat 
hilly. The weather being extremely warm and the camp 
not being sufficiently accustomed to moving and acting in 
concert, all contributed to make some confusion in the 
camp during the latter part of the day. One wagon, 
Andrew Lamereaux's, broke down twice and some other 
small accidents happened, but nothing very serious. Dur- 
ing the day several children were sick, some dangerously 
so, and some adults were attacked by the destroyer. 

Sunday^ July 8. — Public worship at eleven o'clock. Elder 
Joseph Young preached. Many came in the ^ Renewal of 
course of the day to visit the camp. They covenants, 
generally treated us with great civility, though there were 
some exceptions. In the afternoon about half -past five 
the heads of families were called together and were in- 
structed by Elders Foster, Pulsipher, Butterfield and 
Dunham to keep their families in more strict subjection 
to the laws of Grod, and to adhere strictly to the Constitu- 
tion of the camp. They were told that the destroyer was 
in the camp and some would fall victims to his power if 
they did not comply with the requisitions of the Lord. 

A vote was called and the camp covenanted anew strict- 
ly to observe the laws of the camp and the commandments 
of the Lord. Soon after night- fall a company of maraud- 
ers were heard about the camp, but we were not molested 
during the night. 

Monday, July 9. — At seven in the morning the camp 
began to move, passed through the village i^^cidents of a 
of Aurora, through the corner of Streets- ^^^ 
borough to Hudson, a handsome village, in which is situ- 


ated the "Western Eeserve College." Stopped at one 
o'clock near the south line of that town. David Elliot 
broke his wagon down near Streetsborough, and Samuel 
Hale's wagon tongue was broken a little south of the vil- 
lage of Hudson. The fourth division of the camp came 
up about two o'clock, at which time the first moved on 
and passed through Stowe Corners, so called, across the 
Pittsburgh and Akron canal (which is yet in an unfinished 
state at the falls on the Cuyahoga river, which empties 
into Lake Erie at Cleveland) , and encamped for the night 
on Mr. Camp's farm, at Talmadge, at half-past six in the 
evening. The first, second and third divisions came on 
to the grounds together, the fourth, composed chiefly of 
ox teams, did not come up till ten o'clock. The roads 
were generally good, the country level, with few excep- 
tions, the weather extremely warm, but nearly all with- 
stood the fatigue of the day with fortitude and patience, 
feeling thankful for the blessings which the Lord bestowed 
upon the camp of His Saints. 

The country through which we passed this day was bet- 
ter adapted to pasturage than tillage, the grass generally 
looked well, some fine fields of wheat were seen which had 
began to whiten for the harvest. 

Joel H. Johnson's oxen failed and were left behind, and 
some others were very much fatigued and did not arrive 
at the encampment until late at night. Traveled twenty 
miles, which was three or four more than we should have 
done if accommodations for the teams could have been 
obtained short of that distance. 

Tuesday, Juld 10. — Before starting the Council drew up 
the following resolutions for the further or- 

Additional • ; • e .^ i • i 

Camp Regu- gauization ot the camp, which were unani- 

lations. , -\ i -\ 

mously adopted: 

Resolved — First. That the engineer of the camp shall receive ad- 
vice from the Councilors concerning the duties of his office, and that he 
shall call on his assistants to perform those duties which he cannot 
attend to himself, and that he shall be relieved from the arduous task 


of [personally] superintending the movements of the camp during the 

Second —That the horn shall be blown for rising at four o'clock, and 
at twenty minutes past four for prayer every morning, at which time 
each overseer shall see that the inmates of his tent are in order, that 
worship may commence throughout the camp at the same time, imme- 
diately after the blowing of the horn. 

Third — That the head of each division shall keep a roll of all able- 
bodied men, and that he shall call out as many men each night as the 
engineer shall require of his division to stand on guard. One-half of 
which guard shall stand the fore part of the night, and the other the 
latter part, being regularly relieved by the engineer or one of his as- 
sistants at one o'clock in the morning. 

Fourth — That every company in the camp is entitled to an equal pro- 
portion of the milk whether the cows are owned by the individuals of 
the several tents or not, and that it shall be so distributed, as near as 
may be, among the several companies in the camp. 

Fifth — That Thomas Butterfield shall be appointed herdsman of the 
camp, whose duty it shall be to superintend the driving of the cows and 
other stock, and to see that they are well taken care of on the journey, 
and that he shall call on as many as shall be necessary to assist him in 
performing those duties. 

Sixth — That in no case at present shall the camp move more than 
fifteen miles in one day, unless circumstances shall absolutely re- 
quire it. 

Joel H. Johnson sold one of his oxen for ten dollars,, 
the other came up with the camp. 

The camp began to move at nine o'clock and passed, 
through the village of Talmadge, one mile, ^j^^ pj^.^^ ^^^ 
then turned southwest to Middleburg, a fine serter. 
village situated on a branch of the Cuyahoga, three miles 
from Talmadge, and encamped for the night in the town of 
Coventry, about one mile fi-om the village of Akron, 
which is situated on the Ohio and Erie canal. At twelve 
o'clock, for the purpose of lightening our loads, we left 
some of our goods on the canal boats to be conveyed by 
water. The wind rose high and the roads were dusty 
which made it hard traveling on account of the dust. In 
the afternoon we had a small shower of rain, the first that 
had fallen since the camp started Benjamin Butterfield 


left the camp in the morning and started off by himself. 
Traveled this day six miles. Brother John Hammond 
broke his wagon, the only accident. 

Wednesday ^ July 11. — After the goods that were to be 
sent by water were conveyed to Akron, the camp moved 
The First ^^' ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ division wMch waited to 
Death. attend to the burial of Brother and Sister 

Wilbur's little son, aged six months and twelve days, who 
died at 11 o'clock a. m. and was interred in an orchard 
on the farm of Israel Allen in Coventry, at 2 p. m. He 
had been sick two or three da5^s, and some other children 
ill the camp had also been sick, but all recovered excepting 
Brother Wilbur's son. Passed this day through New 
P'jrtage on the Ohio canal, which we crossed two or three 
miles below that place, and encamped on the farm of Mr. 
Bockmans, in Chippeway township, county of Wayne. A 
heavy shower of rain fell in the afternoon and the whole 
company got thoroughly wet for the first time since we 
started; but very few complained, however, and all re- 
tired to rest wet and weary after the usual duties of the 
evening were ended. 

The country through which we passed this day was 
somewhat uneven and swampy. Near New Portage it is 
low and to all appearance must be quite unhealthful. The 
crops of wheat, corn and grass look well, the wheat being 
generally about ripe and ready to harvest. John Ham- 
mond broke his wagon again today and was left behind to 
n-pair it, and did not get up to the encampment at night. 
Traveled this day eleven miles. 

Thursday, July 12. — Left the encampment at half-past 

eight; passed through the village of Doylestown, situated 

on a hill in the township of Chippeway. 

Nature of the ^, , ^„ . i t- ^ ^ \ 

(•■.untry Crosscd Chippcway creek; some or the head- 
^vaters of the Muskingum river came through 
the township of Milton, where we stopped at one p. m. to 
feed. Then passed through the township of Green into 
Wayne, and encamped on the farm of Mr. , 


two miles from Wooster, at seven in the evening. The 
road was rough in some places, in some places stony, and, 
in consequence of the shower of rain which fell the day 
before, in some places muddy. 

The country through which we passed today is some- 
what hilly, the soil productive and the crops of wheat, 
corn and oats look fine and beautiful. Timber, principally 
of oak, with some chestnut and some other kinds of forest 
trees, is scattered here and there. 

John Hammond overtook us in the morning on horse- 
back, his wagon had broken again, the third Difficulties by 
time, so it could not be easily mended. The *^^ "^*y- 
Council advised him to go back and get the brethren resid- 
ing near New Portage to assist him in exchanging it for 
another, or let him have one to go up to Zion with, and 
have it returned to them, as he had now fallen so far be- 
hind that we could not well assist him without hindering 
many others. 

Nathan B. Baldwin broke one of his wagon tires, and 
Henry Harriman one of his axle-trees, and stopped near 
Chippeway creek to have them mended. Brother Baldwin 
came up in the evening and Henry Harriman the next 

It rained a little in the course of the day, the air was 
cool and the horses and oxen performed the journey with 
greater ease than any other day since the camp started. 
Traveled in the course of the day about seventeen miles. 

Friday^ July 13. — The fourth division left the encamp- 
ment about eight o'clock, the third and second Descriptions 
followed, and the first left at nine. Passed ^^ country, 
through Wooster, the county seat of Wayne county, a 
large and beautiful village surrounded by a fertile country 
and is a place of considerable business. There are eight 
or ten public houses and several synagogues for worship, 
and many other commodious and elegant buildings in the 
village which is in Wayne township. 

At Wooster we took the road to Mansfield, west from 


Wooster thirty- three miles. Passed through the village 
of Jefferson, a small place in the township of Plain, 
thence to Reedsborough in Mohican township, and en- 
camped a little after five p. m. on the farm of William 
Crothers, in Mohican, thirteen miles from Wooster, mak- 
ing this day sixteen miles. 

The country west of Wooster is rather hilly, some 
beautiful flats on the creeks, though not in so good a state 
of cultivation as in many other places. Crossed Apple 
creek east of Wooster, and Kill buck west of the town, a 
branch of the White Woman and Mohican creek, which 
fall into the same stream in Coshocton county. The roads 
were somewhat better than between New Portage and 
Wooster, though more hilly. On the flats of Mohican the 
road was bad, being muddy and stony. The country west 
of Wooster is not so productive as it is north of that place 
through which we passed on the twelfth inst., yet some 
beautiful fields of grain were seen. Two wagons failed 
this day, Joseph C. Clark's and Edwin P. Merriam's. 
The first was mended at Wooster, the other broke down 
just at the entrance of the field in which we pitched our 
tents. Bought four barrels of flour, the first provisions 
we purchased after the camp started. The people between 
Kirtland and Wooster were generally apprised of our com- 
ing before we arrived, and were not so much smprised to 
see us as they were west of that place. After we left the 
main road to Columbus, as we followed along, 

Sorrow for ' "^ ' 

the "Deiud- they sccmcd astonished and filled with won- 
der and amazement at seeing so large a body 
moving together, and some did not fail to express their 
feelings with warmth to the brethren as they passed along, 
declaring against the "fallacy", as they called it, of "Jo 
Smith's" prophecies, and expressing their pity for the 
deluded believers in modern revelation. We saw this day 
the first harvesting of grain of any kind, though many of 
the farmers in Wayne county had done most of their haying. 
Saturddj/, July 14. — Struck our tents at seven a. m. and 


the fourth division left the encampment followed by 
the third and second, the first left at eight. We „ 

' . Preparations 

passed through Jeromeville, a small village for the sab- 
situated on a branch of the Mohican, thence 
through the village of Haysville in Vermillion township, 
county of Richland, and pitched our tents on the farm of 
Mr. Solomon Braden, in the town of Petersborough. The 
country we passed through this day is beautifully diversi- 
fied with hills and valleys. The timbered lands were 
covered principally with oak, the roads good, the weather 
warm and dry. Brother William Perry turned over his 
wagon and his wife and children were hurt, though not 
dangerously. A young woman, a daughter of John Van- 
leuven, Jun., came very near being killed by having a 
wagon run over her, these were the only accidents that 
occurred during the day. This was the first day since we 
left Kirtland that we traveled without breaking down one 
or more wagons. Pitched our tents at two p. m. on a 
hill near the east line of Petersburg township and washed 
and prepared for the Sabbath, In the afternoon a com- 
plaint was prepared by N. B. Baldwin against Abram 
Bond for murmuring and other unchristian-like conduct. 
The Council, after hearing the complaint and the defense, 
referred the case to the company in their own tent to set- 
tle among themselves. This was the second complaint 
made to the Council of any consequence on the way from 
Kirtland. Traveled this day ten miles. 

Sunday, July 15. — The Council met in the morning and 
made some arrangements about the order of public wor- 
the day. Elder Josiah Butterfield and Joseph ^•^^p- 
Young were appointed to preside during the day. 

At eleven o'clock public worship commenced. Many 
of the citizens of the town attended, most of whom be- 
haved well, and treated us with respect. Elder Jonathan 
Dunham delivered a discourse on the first principles of 
the Gospel, from Mark, 16th chapter, followed by several 
others of the Elders. 


Martin H. Peck came np and joined tiie camp about 
noon, and Stephen Shumway and Charles 

Some left by ' ■ ^ 

the Way Re- Wood Came up iH the afternoon . 

John Hammond, who was left behind at 
New Portage in consequence of breaking his wagon, also 
joined us again. Benjamin Butterfield, who left the camp 
at Talmadge, Portage county, found his way into camp 
again in the course of the day. 

Monday, July 16. — Started in our usual order in the 

morning, traveling west toward Mansfield, through which 

we passed in the afternoon about four o'clock. 

Prominent -^ 

Elders Ar- Passcd through the Village of Petersburg two 

■j-pc + r /I 

miles from our encampment, then through 
Mifflic township, three or four miles east of Mansfield. In 
Madison township we were met by the sheriff and a depu- 
ty, and a Mr. Stringer, who had taken out a warrant for 
several of the brethren for Kirtland Safety Society money, 
and took Josiah Butterfield, Jonathan Dunham and Jona- 
than H. Hale for Joseph Young, and committed them to 
jail. As we came to Mansfield we were honored by the 
discharge of artillery, but as the Lord would have 
it we were not enjoined nor molested more than by in- 
sulting language from some of the numerous crowd of 
persons that thronged the streets. From Mansfield we 
came through Newcastle, m the township of Springfield, 
and encamped on the farm of Frederick Cassel over night. 
Mansfield is a fine village, the county seat of Eichland, 
situated on a hill surrounded by a fertile country. Traveled 
this day sixteen miles. 

Benjamin Butterfield left the camp again before night 
in ill humor and went off by himself. 

Tuesday, July 17. — Started at eight in the morning; 
On the Head- P^sscd thi'ough the village of Ontario in 
scSand"*^ Springfield, thence through the town of San- 
Sandusky. dusky iuto Jacksou, in Crawford county, and 
encamped six miles east of Bucyrus, the county seat of 
Crawford county. Traveled sixteen miles. 

A. D. 1838] HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 109' 

The country we passed through between Mansfield and 
Bucyrus is the highest in the State of Ohio, being on the 
headwaters of the Sciota which falls into the Ohio, and 
of the Sandusky that falls into Erie, the country though 
high is generally level. 

Just at dark the brethren who had been committed to 
prison came up. They were discharged by the court at 
12 o'clock, noon, after which they traveled twenty- two 

The court for Eichland county was in session and would 
have been adjourned the evening the brethren, Josiah, 
Butterfield Jonathan Dunham and Jonathan H. Hale, were 
arrested, had it not been for that occurrence. Their case 
was called on the same evening and adjourned till eight 
o'clock next morning. Dominicus Carter went back from 
our camp and staid with them till they were liberated. We 
were all glad and thanked the Lord for their deliverance 
out of the hands of our enemies . 

Wednesday^ July 18. — The Council met in the morning 
and called together the overseers of tents and instructions 
gave them some instructions concerning their *° overseers. 
duty in presiding over their tents, and Dominicus Carter 
was appointed commissary of the camp, and Aaron M. 
York chosen overseer of tent No. 3, third division, in his 
place; and the tent removed to No. 5, first division. 
About eight the camp started, passed through Benjamin 
and took the road to upper Sandusky, and stopped at one 
p. m. on the edge of a prairie to rest. For the first time 
we had the privilege of encamping without pay. The road 
in the afternoon in some places was rather bad in the 
groves between the openings of the grand prairie, the 
edge of which bordered on the right of our road from our 
encampment east of Bucyrus till we encamped at night 
in the town of Grand Pranie, county of Marion, on the 
line between that county and Crawford, ten miles south- 
west from Bucyrus. Passed through the township of 
Antrim, in Crawford county, in the afternoon. Traveled 
this day sixteen miles. As we passed through Bucyrus- 


the people seemed much agitated and made many remarks 
coQcerning us. One man said he had received a liberal 
education and had prepared himself for the ministry, but 
it now availed him nothing. The movements of the "Mor- 
mons" were actions and not words, and looked more like 
love and like the spirit of union than anything that had 
come under his observation. 

Thursday, July 19. — The second, third and fourth 
divisions started about eight o'clock, the first stayed on 
the ground, some of them until afternoon, to repair 
wagons. Traveled through a prairie country to Little 
Sandusky, a little north of west from the place of our 
encampment on the night of the eighteenth. Then turned 
west and pitched our tents on the west side of the prairie, 
about a mile and a half from the village of Sandusky. 
Traveled this day seven and one-half miles. No particu- 
lar occurrence through the day worth}^ of notice. En- 
camped for the first time in a straight line, and being on 
a prarie the tents and wagons presented a beautiful 
picture to a distant beholder, and could not fail to bring 
to the mind of anyone familiar with the history of the 
journeyingsof Israel from Egypt, the prophecy of Balaam, 
concerning Israel's prosperity, and his pathetic exclama- 
tion, when he beheld them abiding in their tents from the 
top of Peor: "How goodly are thy tents, O Jacob, and 
thy tabernacles, Israel! As the valleys, as they spread 
forth, as gardens by the river side, as the trees of lign- 
aloes which the Lord hath planted, and as cedar trees be- 
side the waters." 

Friday, July 20. — The Council met in the morning to 
attend to another complaint preferred by E. B. Gaylord,* 
Reproofs Ad- superintendent of the fourth division, against 
ministered. Abram Boud, for murmuring and complain- 
ing, and for personal abuse. Elder Zera Pulsipher, who 
presided, gave him a severe reprimand for his conduct in 
general on the journey p.nd for abusing others without 

•By typographical error this name, in the list of those who signed the camp's 
constitution (p 92), is given as E. B. Gayland. 


any provocation, and he was informed that he would be 
left by the wayside if he did not reform, and behave more 
like a man of God than he had of late, or for a few days 
past. Some other business relative to our circumstances 
and situation in journeying was talked over and the Coun- 
cil unanimously decided that the camp should be called 
together before we started and some instructions given to 
them concerning their duties, and also to reprimand some 
for indulging themselves in covetousness and murmuring 
against the Council, and also others of the camp who held 
important stations as captains of divisions or overseers of 

The camp was accordingly called together and such in- 
structions given them as the Spirit of the Lord dictated, by 
Elders Pulsipher, Young, Butterfield, Foster and Harri- 
man, which had the desired effect in restoring good order 
and the spirit of union in the camp. 

On motion of Samuel Parker it was unanimously re- 
solved that the Councilors should be excused ^^ ^ 

The Council 

from standing on guard during the iourney. Relieved of 

. ^ . . 1 Guard Duty. 

that they might have more time to counsel to- 
gether and to attend to those duties which necessarily de- 
volved upon them as Councilors of the camp. James A. 
Clark, Jared Porter and Daniel' Bliss were appointed to 
assist the herdsman in taking care of the herds, as it was 
found too arduous for one. The camp started about nine 
and traveled westwardly two miles to Bowsherville, which 
is one hundred and forty-three miles from Detroit; thence 
four miles in the same direction, and then turned south 
and came through the village of Burlington, situated on 
Taymockty creek, a branch of the Sandusky, and pitched 
our tents in the highway near a schoolhouse, about 
one-half mile from Burlington, in the township of 
Grand, Marion county, between three and four o'clock 
p. m. 

A heavy shower of rain fell soon after we encamped and 
it continued to rain most of the niffht. Most of the com- 


pany got thoroughly wet. Distance this day nine and one- 
half miles. 

Saturday, July 21. — Started about eight a. m. ; traveled 
southwesterly through the township of Goshen, Hardin 
county to the Sciota river, in the township of Dudley, where 
we stopped to refresh ourselves and teams, at Judge 
Wheeler's. From thence we came to Mr. Bosman's, in 
township of Jackson, where we encamped in the highway, 
seven miles from Sciota, making in all sixteen miles. It 
was quite cool and comfortable traveling, but the road was 
extremely bad, being in some places almost impassable, 
but the Lord attended us and His blessings were multi- 
plied upon us so that no accident of any account hap- 
pened to us during the day. Newel K. Knight broke an 
axle-tree out of his wagon which was mended in a short 

Sunday, July 22. — On accoimt of forage we were under 
the necessity of traveling about five miles through Rush 
creek, and pitched our tents on a rise of ground, by the 
wayside, on the farm of Mr. Partial, inn-keeper in the 
town of Rush Creek, Logan county, and held public meet- 
ing at five p. m. Attended to offermg our sacraments to 
the Most High, breaking bread for the first time on our 
journey. The first two Sabbaths after we started on our 
journey we were so circumstanced and thronged with 
visitors that we omitted attending to the ordinance of the 
Lord's Supper. At our meeting in the afternoon the Lord 
blessed us by the outpouring of His Spirit, our hearts 
were comforted and most of the camp felt thankful for 
the blessings conferred upon us by our heavenly Father, 
thus far on the journey to the land of Zion. 

As we passed along the road in the morning, molesting 
no one, some of the company were saluted in modern 
style by having eggs thrown at them by some rutfians 
from their dwellings near the road, but on seeing some of 
our company stop, they desisted from their course fearmg 
the consequences from appearances, and even showed three 


or four bayonets, intimating that tliey would defend them- 
selves in case of assault. No one, however, intended 
doing any harm to them, and only wished them to under- 
stand that we noticed their intrusion upon our privileges 
as citizens to travel the high road unmolested. Sometime 
in the night a luminous body about the size of a cannon 
ball came down from over the encampment near the 
ground then whirled round some forty or fifty times and 
moved off in a horizontal direction, soon passing out of 

Monday^ July 23. — The camp began to move at a 
quarter past seven a. m., and came through the village of 
Rushsylvania, where we were threatened be- Threats of Ar- 
fore our arrival with prosecution for ' 'Kirtland ^^®* ^'^*^^- 
Bank Money," signed by F. G. Williams, president, and 
Warren Parrish, cashier. Some of the company passed 
on from our encampment in the morning to find out what 
was intended against us, but no person made any attempt 
to stop any one, and we passed on in safety. From 
Rushsylvania we came through the village of Bellefon- 
taine, the county seat of Logan county; twelve miles 
thence to McKee's creek, a branch of the Miami, in the 
township oE Union, and camped at the side of the creek 
at seven o'clock. Traveled this day sixteen miles. 

On the road near Bellefontaine one of the sons of Mar- 
tin H. Peck, had a wagon wheel run over his leg, but 
as the Lord would have it, and to the astonish- ^ ^^^^^ ^^ 
mentof all — considering the weight of the load Healing. 
on the wagon — he received no particular injury, although 
the wheel ran over the boy's leg on a hard road without 
any obstruction whatever. The wheel made a deep cut 
in the limb, but after hands were laid on him in the name 
of the Lord, the boy was able to walk considerable in the 
course of the afternoon. This was one, but not the first,, 
of the wonderful manifestations of God's power unto us. 
on the journey. 

After we left Bucyrus hill we came to Bellefontaine, 

8 vol III. 


the road was in many places very bad, especially in the 
Scarcity of backwoods. In Marion and Hardin counties 
^^°^- provisions were scarce and could not be ob- 

tained, consequently we were obliged to do with what we 
had; and here was another manifestation of the power of 
Jehovah, for seven and a half bushels of corn sufficed for 
the whole camp, consisting of six hundred and twenty 
souls, for the space of three days, and none lacked for 
food, though some complained and murmured because 
they did not have that to eat which their souls lusted 

Tuesday, Juhj 24. — We lay in our encampment at Mc- 
Kee's creek through the day to wash our clothes and re- 
A Day of fresh our teams, as they were very much 
^^®'- fatigued by traveling for several days on a 

rough and muddy road. We took two jobs, one of chopping 
cord wood, and one of shoemaking, and earned about 
twenty dollars, besides mending and repairing several 
wagons and putting things in order in the camp. 

yVednesday, July 25. — Started on our journey and came 
through West Liberty, situated on Mad river, thence 
Camp at the ^^1^0 the towuship of Salem, Champaign 
Governor of^ county,and cucamped about two miles noi'thof 
otic. Terbana,on the farm of Joseph Vance, Govern- 

or of the state of Ohio. The encampment was formed near 
his residence, at six o'clock, having traveled twelve miles 
this day. The country in the valley of Mad river is level 
and beautiful and very fertile. We saw extensive fields 
of wheat on each side of the way, mostly reaped, and 
crops of all kinds were far better than any we had seen 
elsewhere on our journey. 

In the evening the camp was called together by the 
Council, and some of them severely reprimanded in gen- 
eral terms for their unchristian-like conduct, and much 
instruction given concerning our duties to God, and to 
one another, in order to move on our journey in righteous- 
ness, that we might obtain the favor of the Lord, 


and have His blessings attend us from day to day. 

After the assembly was dismissed, the Council returned 
and listened to a complaint presented by B. S. Wilbur 
against Stephen Starks, for some unchristian-like con- 
duct during the day. The trouble was amicably settled 
to the satisfaction of all concerned. The Council ad- 
journed, after transacting some other business, at eleven 
o'clock p. m. From Kirtland to our encampment in 
Salem, is two hundred and fifteen miles. 

Thursday, July 26. — Camp began to move at eight 
o'clock; the first division, however, did not leave the 
grounds until after eleven. Several of the breth- 

Camp Labors. 

ren went out to labor both yesterday and today, 
in order to procure means to further us on our journey, and 
they did not come up with us at night. We traveled 
south through the village of Urbana, the county seat of 
Champaign county; thence into the township of Money- 
field, Clark county, and camped on the farm of Mr. A. 
Breneman, four and one half miles oft: the National road 
at Springfield. Traveled twelve miles, plus two hundred 
and fifteen miles from Kirtland, equals two hundred and 
twenty- seven miles. 

The camp was called together in the evening and a 
timely lecture was given by Elder Pulsipher, on our situ- 
ation, and all were exhorted to be united in 

T 1 T • T • • rm Admonitions. 

heart and hand m order to join together. The 
Spirit of the Lord was manifested and we returned to our 
tents feeling thankful for the blessings of the Lord upon us. 
Friday, July 27. — Continued our journey to Spring- 
field on the National road, one hundred and seventy- one 
miles from Wheeling, in Virginia. Crossed Through 
Buck creek, a branch of Mad river, just be- Sp'-ingfieid. 
fore entering the village on the north. Springfield is a 
large and beautiful village, the county seat of Clark 
county, containing about three thousand inhabitants. 
There are many elegant buildings of brick, and it seems 
to be a place of considerable trade. 


A little west of SpriDgfield we left the National road 

and took the road to Dayton, distance from Springfield 

twent5'-five miles, and passed through the township of Mad 

river, and a small village called Washington in the same 

township, and pitched our tents lust at dark 

Astonishment . ^ ^ . , ^ • 

Created by m a gi'ove iiear Lenox, m Mad river town- 
ship. The day was excessively warm and the 
road dusty, but we all arrived safely at our encampment 
in the evening, except some of those who stopped to 
labor. Many of the people all along the road seemed 
quite astonished to see so many in the comj)any. Some 
judging there were three hundred teams, and made some 
curious remarks concerning us and "Jo Smith;" and one 
man threatened to shoot Elder Dunham if he did not 
immediately leave his premises when he called to procure 
forage for our teams at noon. After we encamped a stage 
went by and the passengers behaved as they passed us 
more like the savages of the west than anything we have 
seen since the commencement of our journey. Distance 
traveled today, fifteen miles. J. D. Parker, who had left 
Kirtland some time after we did, overtook us at our en- 
campment this evening and staid with us till Monday 

Saturday^ July 28. — We removed from Mad river town- 
ship and came to Fairfield, three miles, thence to Bath 
township and encamped about noon half a mile from the 
road on the banks of Mad river in Green county, five and 
one half miles from Dayton. Distance this day nine 
miles. Distance from Kirtland, two hundred and fifty- 
one miles. 

Sunday, July 20. — We held a public meeting in a grove 
on a farm of Mr. Houghman, about one fourth of a mile 
from our encampment, at eleven o'clock. Elder Zera Pulsi- 
pher preached. 

In the afternoon we had a sacrament meeting on the 
camp grounds. Elder Duncan McArthur, after the admin- 
istration of the Lord's Supper, bore testimony of the truth 


of the revelations of the Lord in these last days to the 

numerous spectators who were present, and in , , 

a brief way made known unto them some of ment Admin- 

those things that the Lord was doing in the 

earth ; and others that would shortly come to pass among 

the inhabitants thereof. The Spirit of Grod attended his 

testimony and we had a joyful meeting. 

The Council met in the morning to regulate some things 
relative to the duties of the day, and adjourned till five 
p. m. At that time they met again and took 

■"^ . . 1 r. Ti Abram Bond 

into consideration the case of Abram Bond, Di.feiiow- 
and unanimously resolved that for his mur- 
muring and not giving heed to the regulations of the 
camp, he should be disfellowshiped by the camp and left 
to the care of himself, which decision was made known 
unto him and approbated by those who were present at the 
time. He accordingly left the camp the next day. War- 
ren Smith, who left Kirtland about the first of June, 
came into the camp with his family and joined us. Wil- 
liam Gribble —whose wife accompanied us from Kirtland 
— also joined the camp this day. We found many of the 
Saints from Kirtland and other places, and Elder John 
E. Page, with a part of his company that started from 
Oak Point, in St. Lawrence county, New ^ 

' . John E. 

York, whither they had fled in the course of Page's com- 

the past winter, from the commotions and 

rumors of war in Canada.* They were scattered along the 

* The war rumors here mentioned have reference to what is known in Canadian 
history as the "Canadian Rebellion." It was the culmination of agitation begun 
as early as 1831, on the part of the people of Canada, under popular leaders, such as 
Papineau, Brown, Nielson, McKenzie and others, for enlarged measures of home 
rule for the Dominion. The popular leaders marshaled their forces against the 
government during the winter of 1837-8, and a number of skirmishes took place. 
Canadian independence was much talked of, and the people in the United States 
along the Canadian border were much excited, and volunteers began to flock in 
considerable numbers to aid the cause of the "patriots," as the insurgents were 
called. "But," to quote a Canadian historian, "the American President, Mr. Van- 
Buren, issued two successive proclamations warning the people of the penalties to 
which they would expose themselves by engaging in hostilities with a friendly 
power, and also appointed General Scott to take command of the disturbed fron- 


road from SpriDgfield to Dayton, some of them laboring- 
for means to prosecute their journey and some had stopped 
to recruit their teams as well as their purses, that 
they might continue their journey after the warm season 
had passed. Many of them came to visit us and were 
received with feelings of gratitude for the goodness of our 
heavenly Father for the preservation of our lives and for 
the privilege of meeting each other in this land of 

The weather has been extremely hot and dry in the 
land, and in the southwestern part of the state of Ohio, 
Prayer for ^^^' many wceks : and rain was much needed, 
^^^- and supplication was made to the God of 

Israel for rain on the land in this region of country, at 
the meeting in the forenoon, and at the close of the serv- 
ice in the afterpart of the day. Elder Dunham and Elder 
Charles Thompson each held a meeting in the afternoon, 
about two miles from camp. 

Monday^ July 80. — We remained in our encampment 

during the day and were visited by several gentlemen, and 

were solicited to tan*y in this place for a 

Rain. . "^ \ 

season and take a job on the Springfield and 
Dayton turnpike. vSome of the brethren went out to 
make what discoveries they could relative to labor, and 
partly engaged some small jobs on condition that we tar- 
ried here for a few days. In the afternoon and evening 
it rained on each side of us, that is, to the north and to 
the south, and at no great distance from us quite hard, to 
all appearances ; and we also had a small shower in the 
afternoon, though not enough to water the earth suffi- 
ciently, yet it cooled the air and greatly revived both the 
animal and vegetable kingdoms, for which we thank that 

tier and enforce a strict neutralit3'." After the arrival of General Scott on the 
frontiers, effective measures were taken to prevent further supplies and recruits 
from reaching the "patriots," and the militia ordered out by the Canadian govern- 
ment, after some severe fighting, dispersed the insurgents, many of M-hom fled to 
the United States. The British pai'liament subsequently granted some of the 
legislative reforms demanded by the people. 


Being that rules the armies of heaven and the inhabitants 
of the earth, and sendeth rain both upon the just and 
upon the unjust. 

Elder John E. Page, who preached about one mile from 
us in the evening, tarried with us over night and left us in 
the morning to go to his family at Fairfield, five miles and 
one half distant, where they had resided for a few weeks 
since the Canada camp (John E. Page's company) had 

Tuesday^ July 31. — A part of our company went off to 
work on a job of raising a levee for Mr. Hushman, and some 
one way and some another to labor during the ^^^^ Leave 
day. In the morning all the men in the camp *^^ c&m^. 
were called out and were made acquainted with our pecu- 
niary circumstances, and an inquiry made who, if any, 
wished to leave the camp and look out for themselves. 
One man. Brother Asa Wright, said that his wife had 
always been opposed to going in the camp, and that he 
had told some of the brethren in the camp that in conse- 
quence of that and some other things it was his choice to 
leave. Elder Stephen Headlock also complained of the 
murmuring of some of the camp, and said that he had 
rather leave the camp — though he desired with all his 
heart to go in it up to the land of Zion — than to hear so 
much complaining as he had for a few days past, and had 
freely expressed his mind before to that effect to some of 
the brethren- 
He was reprimanded by Elder Pulsipher for his own 
neglect of duty and told to set his own tent in order, and 
then if he knew of any infringement on the 
rules of the camp by others, to try, as the eproof. 

law of God required, to reclaim the offenders and restore 
them to order that the blessings of God might be poured out 
upon the camp during the long and tedious journey which 
still lay before it. A vote was taken to see how many 
were desirous of stopping and laboring, if the Council 
thought advisable to do so. Some further inquiries were 


made concerning the conditions that had been or might 
be offered to the camp to make a piece of turn pike road 
or do any other work that might be obtained by the Coun- 
cil, and under their superin tendency, when all, with a 
few exceptions, — and they were persons unable to labor — 
voted to abide by the advice of the Council, and would 
stay or go, as they should advise or direct. 

Elder John E. Page made a short speech, exhorting all 
to fulfill their covenants, let what would come, life or 
death, inasmuch as they were in righteousness before 
God; and said that all our deeds would be 
Exhorts tbe had iu remembrance ; that we would be re- 
*™^" warded for them, whether good or evil, both 

in time and in eternity; and further observed that the 
journeying of the Saints to Zion in obedience to the com- 
mandments of the Lord afforded an opportunity for them 
to become what they desired; either to be as great and as 
noble as they could or to sink into obscurity in the eyes of 
God and His Saints and be the least in this last kingdom 
which God has set His hand to build up upon the earth. 
After making many appropriate remarks he implored the 
blessings of heaven upon us, which was responded to by 
a hearty amen, and then all dispersed to attend to the 
duties of the day. 

In the course of the day we took a job of making half 
a mile of turnpike, and removed our encampment into a 
^ , ,. beautiful grove near the edge of a prairie 

Work on the " o ■ 

Turnpike. about ouc-fourth of a mile, and about the same 
distance from Mad river. Here we began to make prep- 
arations to commence work, but made little progress, for 
most of the laboring men were absent, and we did not get 
•our tents pitched till nearly night. 

Wednesday, August i.— Began at an early hour to 
make arrangements to commence our job. Sent off part 
of the men to finish the levee and some to build a fence 
around our camp, and about twelve o'clock made a 
beginning on the road. A few sick in the camp this day, 

A. L). 1838] HISTOllY OF THE CHURCH. 121 

but most of us were in good health and satisfied with our 

Thursday, August 2. — Very warm and dry as it had 
been for many days, with the exception of the showers on 
Monday evening. 

Progressed with our labors on the road rather slowly, 
for we were not in condition to work to good advantage, 
as we had not tools enough, and had been on our journey 
so long that it was rather fatiguing to labor hard in the 
commencement. Some sickness in the camp, but no more 
than would be expected, owing to our change of climate, 
and the extreme heat and drouth in the land. 

Friday, August 3. — Made great progress in the turn- 
pike, and the desponding spirits of some began to revive, 
for laboring had looked to some to be rather a hard way 
to procure means to prosecute our journey. Renewed dih- 
though but few complained. Some new cases sence. 
of sickness, but many of those who were unwell the 
day before were recovering fast. The men and boys in 
camp were called together in the evening and instructed 
by the Council as the Spirit of the Lord manifested unto 
them concerning cleanliness and decency and the import- 
ance of being industrious in laboring with their hands to 
procure means to go on our way. The covenant to put 
our strength, our properties and monies together for the 
purpose of going together in the camp to Zion, and of 
delivering the poor from their poverty and oppression in 
the land of Kirtland was adverted to by Elders Pulsipher 
and Foster, and all exhorted and entreated to give heed 
to it if they wished to enjoy the blessings of the Lord. 

The Council at a meeting held in the afternoon had 
taken into consideration the propriety of appointing 
three men to sit as councilors or judges [known as an 
Assistant Council, see p. 128] to settle matters and 
difficulties between brethren, that the Council An Assistant 
might be relieved in some measure from the pohi'ted. ^ 
arduous duties of settling controversies and have more 


time to devote to other things that devolved upon them 
as Presidents of the camp. Duncan Mc Arthur, Gordon 
Snow and George Stringham wei-e nominated, and the 
subject was laid before the meeting in the evening to re- 
ceive the unanimous approbation of all present. The 
many blessings conferred on us by our Heavenly Father 
since He first made known His will unto the Council of 
Seventies, that it was His will that the Seventies should go 
to Zion in a camp together, were recapitulated and 
our hearts were made glad and we rejoiced in the Rock of 
our salvation whose mercies had been extended unto us, 
notwithstanding our murmurings against Him and slow- 
ness of heart to believe His words, and the many prom- 
ises which He had made unto us. At the close of 
the meeting our united prayers ascended to God in the 
name of His Son, Jesus Christ, for the recovery of Elder 
Jacob Chapman's family who resided near the city of 
Dayton, and had sent unto us for some of the Elders to 
go and lay hands on them in the name of the Lord, as 
they were sorely afflicted with disease, and for the recov- 
ery of the sick in our own camp, and that the destroyer 
might cease to make inroads among us. 

Saturday, August 4. — Our circumstances about the 
same as on the day previous. A heavy shower towards 
evening cooled the air and greatly revived the vegetation 
which was suffering for want of rain in the country round 
about. In the evening the camp was called together 
again and the names of those who had absented them- 
selves from labor were read over and those who had no 
excuse for their absence were severely reprimanded, and 
the overseers of tents instructed by the Council to with- 
hold the usual rations allotted from such individuals as 
could but would not labor, that the idler should not eat 
the bread of the laborer, according to the commandments 
of the Lord. — Doctrine and Covenants, sec. xlii. 




Sunday, August 5. — One month had passed away since 
the camp was organized and we were all present in the 
camp with few exceptions. Elder Joseph preaching of 
Young preached from Acts xvi , and 30th verse, ^^^®'' "^oung. 
on the principles of salvation through the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ. A respectable congregation of strangers assembled 
with us and gave the best attention to what was declared 
unto them. The sacrament of the Lord's supper was ad- 
ministered in the afternoon by Elders Foster and Wilbur 
and the services of the day were closed by singing and 
imploring the blessings of God upon us and upon the 
Saints of the Most High in every land, and for the tri- 
umph of Christ's kingdom on the earth. The Council met 
after the public services of the day were ended, to trans- 
act some business of the camp which seemed to be neces- 
sary ; and after that was disposed of El ier Zera Pulsipher 
suggested the propriety of ordaining George Stringham 
to the office of an Elder, and said that the Spirit had 
borne witness to him for some time that it was the will 
of the Lord that he should be ordained to that office. The 
subject was taken into consideration and the Council de- 
cided that he should be ordained if it was congenial to his 
own feelings. On being interrogated he said that he was 
willing to be ordained and would do anything the Lord 
required of him for the building up of His kingdom on the 
earth. Elder James Foster with some others then pro- 
ceeded to ordain him according to the rules of the Church 
of Latter-day Saints, an Elder in said Church. The 
Council then adjourned. 


Monday, August G. — Some complaining in the camp and 
An Increase some sick, principally children and aged 

of Interest in -r-rr t n i • i i 

the Camp. pcrsoHs. We progrosscd nnely m our labors 
on the road, and a greater interest seemed to be mani- 
fested for the welfare of the whole body than had been 
since the camp stopped. John Hammond lost one of his 
horses in the night, the first one that had died during our 

Tuesday, August 7 . — No occurrence worthy of note dur- 
ing the day. The destroyer continued to afflict 

Exhortations. . . . , , , , „ , 

US With Sickness as a body, and many ot the 
men were unable to labor. In the evening the laborers 
were called together and some instructions were given to 
them concerning our labors and the necessity of diligence 
impressed upon those who manifested an indifference to 
the general interest of the whole camp. 

Wednesday, August 8. — This morning found another of 
our horses dead, one that had been bought for the benefit 
Death of ^^ the caiup, aiid before noon we had to kill 

Horses. aiiothcr that had his leg broken. It belonged 

to John Matthews who had left the camp a few davs be- 
fore without the consent of the Council. Sickness still 
prevailed among us though the laboring men were in bet- 
ter health than usual and the spirit of love and union was 
manifested by most of the camp and all that were able 
labored cheerfully without a murmur during the day. In 
the evening a child of Hiram H. Byington died, which 
was the second time death had entered our camp on the 
road from Kirtland to this place. 

Thursday, August 9. — Brother Byington' s child was 
buried at twelve o'clock. Some sickness in 
the camp this day, but not quite so much as 
there has been for a few days past. A little shower about 
noon cooled the air though enough did not fall to water 
the earth which was suffering from want of rain and had 
been for some time, insomuch that the shower that fell on 
the 4th instant did not suffice to water it enough to restore 

A. D. 1838] HISTOliY OF THE CHUKCH. 125 

vegetation to its natural state, and the crops of corn and 
other grains were suffering almost beyond description in 
the region of country round about. 

Friday^ August 10. — The weather continued extremely 
hot and dry. Elder James Foster took his MoreEmpioy- 
tent in company with J. S. Holman, S. ^^^^' 
Shumway of the 3rd division and Joel Harvey of the 4th, 
with the inmates of their tents and went to work on a job 
of building a levee for Mr. Hushman about two miles from 
the camp, where E. B. Gay lord of the 4th division had 
moved his tent a few days before, and was digging a 
ditch for the same individual. In the evening a daughter 
of Thomas Carico, aged one year and five months, died, 
and was buried the next day. 

Saturday, August 11. — One or two showers of rain cooled 
the air and revived the languid and drooping 
spirits of those in the camp, and symptoms of 
better health were visible on the countenances of the 
afiiicted. In the fore part of the night Sarah Emily, 
daughter of Dominicus Carter, aged about two years and 
three months, died, being the fourth one the destroyer took 
from our midst. 

Sunday, August 12. — Elder Pulsipher preached in the 
forenoon to a large congregation of strangers most of 
whom gave the best attention. At two p.m. Charies 
the funeral of Elder Carter's child was attend- corrected. 
ed, and at four Elder John E. Page, who had been in- 
vited, preached a sermon on the gathering of Israel and 
the location of Mount Zion,* after which the Council met 

*In speaking of the services this 12th day of August, and the discourse of Elder 
John E. Page, Brother Samuel D. Tyler, who, as well as Judge Elias Smith, kept 
a most excellent journal of the camp's proceedings day by day, says: "Elder 
John E. Page of the Canada camp preached at three o'clock to us, and many spec- 
tators. Text. Jer. 31: 6. In his discourse he proved that America was the land 
given to Joseph's posterity, and that the Indians are the descendants of Joseph, and 
that they would be gathered to Zion and the Jews to Jerusalem and tliat the watch- 
men shall lift up their voices on Mount Zion, etc. In short, he preached the truth 
with power. At the close he saul he had been preaching in Fairfield and had the 
confidence and good feeling of the people, and he advised that none of less talent 


to regulate and set in order some things that seemed to be 
necessary in the camp, in order to preserve harmony and 
union among us. Elder Charles Thompson was called in 
question for something he had taught concerning the order 
ot moving of the camp. After being shown the im- 
propriety of his conduct, and the fallacy of some of his 
views and the effect the promulgating of them had and 
would have in the camp, he made ample retraction before 
the Council, and before the camp which was called to- 
gether for that purpose in the evening. 

Several brethren from Elder Page's camp and others 
that resided in this region of country spent the Sabbath 
with us. Among the number were Elder Nelson and 
Brother Ide,who resided near the city of Dayton. Several 
of the brethren who had resided in Kirtland, being now 
on the way to the land of Zion, had stopped to labor near 
us and they were also present, and met with us at communion 
which was administered by Elders John E. Page and Jona- 
than H. Hale at the close of the meeting in the afternoon. 

Monday, August lo. — Richard D. Blanchard joined the 
^ . . ^ camp by the consent of the Council. Somewhat 

Spirit of V J 

Union iMani- coolcr towards cveuing than it had been for 


some time. About twenty sick in the camp, 
mostly women and children, but none are dangerously 
ill. The laborers were called together again in the even- 
ing and some instructions given them concerning our la- 
bors and prospects in relation to means to prosecute our 
journey, and a spirit of union was manifested which cheer- 
ed our hearts and made us thankful to the Grod of Israel 
for that and the many other blessings we daily received 
from His liljeral hand. 

Tuesday, August 14. — The day passed away as usual. 

than himself, slioukl venture to preacli to them, lest they should injure the cause. 
He said he did not say this to boast, but I think he had better not[haveJ said it, for 1 
think it was not according to scripture and the Spirit of God; for God has chosen 
the weak and foolish things of the world to confound the wisdom of the wise and 
prudent. Now, if the Lord will send poor, weak Elders to any people to preach to 
them, I doubt not that He will risk them, yea, and risk His cause with them also. 

A. 0.18381 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 127 

For some time past most of the laborers were able to per- 
form the work assigned them, and but few comparatively 
were sick in the camp, and these generally were growing 

Wednesday, August 15. — It rained most of the afternoon 
which hindered us from our labors a considerable part of 
the time. 

Brother Jonas Putnam and family by the advice of the 
■Council left the camp and moved about twelve jonas Putnam 
miles on to a farm belonging to Brother Ide to ommen e 
take charge of it while he [Brother Ide] went to prepare a 
place for himself and the small branch of the Church in this 
vicinity in some of the Stakes of Zion in the west. We 
were not willing that Brother Putnam should leave the camp 
upon any other principle than that of mutual consent of 
all concerned, for he was esteemed by all as a just man, 
and devout, and one that was worthy of the fellowship of 
the Saints. Elder Elijah Cheney who had left Kirtland 
before the camp with his family came into our encamp- 
ment in the forenoon having been blessed of the Lord on 
iiis journey and was received with a hearty welcome by 
the brethren of the camp. 

Thursday, August 16. — Elder B. S. Wilbur took about 
twenty men with Elder George Stringham and his tent and 
•company and went to the city of Dayton to do a job of 
work which had been engaged by the advice of the Comicil. 

In the evening G. W. Brooks and wife were called be- 
fore the Council and inquiry made into some ^ 

■^ •' Expulsion 

things which had been in cn-culation for some from the 

, • 1 T • 1 ("1 Camp. 

•days respecting them, and in the course oi the 
investigation it was acknowledged that Brother Brooks' 
wife had used tea most of the time on the road, and had 
used profane language, and she declared she would still 
pursue the same course, and it was not in the power of her 
husband or the Council to stop it. She further said that 
she was not a member of the Church and did not expect 
to come under the rules of the camp. 


The decision of the Council was that they must leave- 
the camp, and Brother Brooks was severely reprimanded 
for not keeping his tent in order according to the Consti- 
tution of the camp, and not keeping his family in subjec- 
tion, as a man of God, especially as an Elder of Israel. 

Friday^ August 17. — Elders J. Foster and Henry Harri- 
Further In- tnau, haviug finished the job of embankment 
clm'^Viem°^ [IcvecJ, camc back into the encampment 
bers. themselves but did not bring back their tents » 

In the afternoon the Council met and several of the mem- 
bers of the camp were tried for breach of the Constitu- 
tion, and Nathan K. Knight presented an appeal from a 
decision of the Assistant Council on a charge preferred 
against himself and wife by Amos Jackson, overseer of hi& 
tent, for some misdemeanor in respect to the order of the 
camp and unchristian- like conduct on the journey, which 
decision was that they had violated the Constitution of 
the camp and disregarded their covenant to observe and 
keep it, and consequently must be left by the wayside. 
After an inquiry into the affair the decision made [by the 
Assistant Council] was confirmed by the Council of the 

Josiah Miller was advised, in consequence of the con- 
duct of his son-in-law, Aaron Dolph, who was not a mem- 
ber of the Church, and would not conform to the order of 
the camp, to take his family and go by himself. 

Nathan Staker was requested to leave the camp in con- 
sequence of the determination of his wife, to all appear- 
Expuisions ances, not to observe the rules and regulations 
from Camp. ^f ^}^g camp. There had been contentions in 
the tent between herself and Andrew Lamereaux, over- 
seer of the tent, and also contentions with his family 
several times on the road, and after the camp stopped in 
this place. The Council had become weary of trying to 
settlethese contentions between them. Andrew Lamereaux 
having gon9 to Dayton to labor, taking his family with 
him, was not present at the Council, neither was there 

A. I). 18381 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 129 

any new complaint made, but the impossibility of Brother 
Staker to keep his family in order was apparent to all, 
and it was thought to be the best thing for him to take 
his family and leave the camp. Some other things were 
brought before the Council and inquiry made into the con- 
duct of several individuals, and the Council had come to 
the determination to put iniquity from the camp wherever 
it could be found, that God's anger might be turned away 
and His blessings rest down upon us. 

Saturday, August 18. — Josiah Miller, agreeable to the 
counsel given him, took his family and left the camp with 
the best of feelings existing between him and the Council 
of the camp ; he left it only in consequence of the dispo- 
sition of his son-in-law, Aaron Dolph, to set at naught 
the Constitution by which the camp were bound by agree- 
ment to put their strength, properties and monies 
together in order to move the camp to the land of Zion. 

Another child died this day, aged about three years, 
a daughter of Martha Higby, who was in company 
with Z. H.* Brewster. Sister Higby's husband had left 
her some time before the camp started. The brethren 
finished their job at Mr. Harshman's on Friday, and at 
Dayton on Saturday. The health of the camp was much 
better than usual since we stopped here. 

Sunday, August 19. — As usual a large congregation met 
with us and gave good attention to the services Religious ser- 
of the day. Elder Joel H. Johnson, by the '^^'^*'- 
request of Elders Young and Harriman, who presided, 
preached on the first principles of the Gospel from Gala- 
tians i, in the forenoon. In the afternoon the sacrament 
was administered agreeable to the commandments of the 

Monday, August 20. — Nathan K. Knight and George W. 
Brooks, who had been excluded from the camp as before 
stated, left the camp. Daniel Bliss went with George W. 
Brooks by the consent of the Council — at his own request — 

• By an error this initial in the list of names is given as W. 
G Vol III. 



as he was not well provided for as to a place for his family 
to ride on the road. 

Tuesday^ August 21. — Two boys born in the camp in the 
Births in moming. One, the son of Gardner Snow, the 

Camp. other of Frederick M. Vanleuven. The Conn- 

cil held a consultation in the afternoon and concluded to 
make preparations to start on our journey as soon as pos- 
sible, if the Lord did not open the way clearly before 
us to tarry longer in this place. J. A. Clark was excluded 
from the camp. 

Wednesday, August 22. — Finished our job of grading 
TurnpikeCon- ^^ ^^® momiug aud the remainder of the day 
tract finished, most of US rcstcd oursclves, and made some 
preparation to start again on our way. Extremely hot, 
and the earth parched with drought to a greater degree 
than has been known for many years in this region of 

Andrew J. Squires called on us on his way to Kirtland 
on Tuesday afternoon, and left again after having some 
consultation with the Council of the Seventies about his 
standing in the Church, and went on his way to Kirtland. 

Thursday^ August 23. — The Council met to regulate 
some things and concluded to start on Monday, the 27th 
Arrange- iustaut, and to labor all the time we could till 

ments for Re- ^^^^ time. Scveral resolutions were passed 

newal of the ^ 

Journey. amoug which was the following: That those 

of the camp who were absent should come back to the en- 
campment and that the vacancies in overseers of tents be 
filled and then all called together and instructed more 
particularly concerning the duties of their office before the 
camp shall start again ; that the camp shall be reorgan- 
ized, inasmuch as some have left since its organization. 

John Hammond was expelled by the assistant Coun- 
cil from the camp for not standing at the head of his 
family, his wife making much disturbance in the tent, 
of which Brother Hammond was the overseer. 

Friday, August 24. — Most of the brethren who 


were absent came into the camp during the day to 
make preparations to go on our journey. Gathering of 

Elder Joseph Young went to Dayton to "'" ■'^''°'- 
attend the funeral of William Tenny, late of Kirtland, 
who died yesterday. 

Saturday, August 25. — In the afternoon the overseers 
of the tents were called together by the Council, and 
inquiry made into the affairs of each tent to see if there 
were any difficulties existing among them or any other 
persons in i he camp. The inquiry resulted in discovering 
much that was not as it should be. Several tents were 
in disorder, and the Council proceeded to make inquiry 
and to set in order the inmates of those tents that were 
in a state of confusion. Most of the difficulties were 
amicably settled, one exception. John Rulison was 
turned out of the camp by the assistant Council. The 
same Council were directed to go to Brother Nickerson's 
tent and set it in order; breaking the Word of Wisdom 
and disbelief in some of the revelations constituted the 
difficulties in this tent. 

Sunday, August 26. — As usual a public meeting was 
held in the forenoon and a sacrament meeting in the aft- 
ernoon. The Spirit of the Lord was poured out on the 
assembly and some were convinced of the truth of what 
was declared unto them. 

Monday, August 27. — Having finished our turnpike con- 
tract, we made every possible exertion to 


continue our journey on the morrow, by for the Jonr- 
shoeing horses and fixmg wagons. We had ^^^' 
a blacksmith shop in operation in the camp for several 
days, doing the necessary work. In the evening 
a heavy shower of rain fell which was greatly needed, 
and it seemed for some time past that it would be almost 
impossible for us to travel in consequence of the drought, 
and the dust that flew on the highway; but as the Lord 
had been merciful to us before, so He was in this instance, 
for which we felt thankful in very deed. 


Tuesday^ August 28. — Made every exertion in our power 
to start, but found it impossible about noon, as we had to 
make provisions for several families who had been de- 
prived of a team by those who were turned out of the 
camp taking their teams with them. 

Charles Wood was expelled from the camp by two of the 
Council, James Foster and Henry Harriman, on the 27th. 
Brother Wood was tenting about two miles from our 
encampment with two or three other families, who 
for some misdemeanor had been expelled from the 
camp. Brothers Foster and Harriman, by the consent 
of all concerned, acted in this matter without a majority 
of the Council being present, but this was not the practice 
of the Council, as a majority was considered necessary to 
have a trial or council concerning any matter relating to 
the affairs of the camp ; but in this instance no exceptions 
were made by any. In the evening the brethren in the 
camp were called together and our labors and tribulations 
were talked over. The Spirit of God rested down upon 
the camp with power, and after singing the hymn, "The 
Spirit of God like a fire is burning," we concluded by 
a song, "Hosanna to God and the Lamb," and retired 
with joyful hearts to our tents. 

Werbiesdai/, August 29. — Early in the morning we be- 
gan to leave the gi'ound, having the previ- 
sumes its ous dav reorganized as lar as possible, 

ourney. ^ ^ Brcwstcr aud Ms father-in-law, J. Hig- 

by who was with him, were left behind for want of a team 
to carry them with their families. 

We passed through the city of Dayton, situated near 
the junction of Mad river with the Great Miami, and took 
the road to Eaton and traveled through the township of 
Jefferson and put up in the township of Jackson, near 
the village of Johnsville, twelve miles from Dayton, and 
pitched our tents in the highway, having traveled eight- 
een miles. Having been at work one month we all were 
thankful for the privilege of again marching on our way. 


Our labors in Bath and its vicinity amounted to about 

Thursday^ August 30. — Traveled through Twin town- 
ship on the north line, and through Washington township, 
in Preble county; passed through the village ontheindi- 
of Alexander, in Twin township, and then ana Line. 
through the village of Eaton, twelve miles from Johns- 
ville, and pitched our tents on the line of Indiana and 
Ohio, eleven miles from Eaton, having traveled twenty- 
four miles, and are now tv^o hundred and ninety- three 
miles from Kirtland. 

The land from Dayton to the Ohio line is generally bad, 
and covered with maple, beach, elm, ash, whitewood and 
other northern timber; and the soil after leaving the 
bottoms of the Miami is not so fertile as the lands on that 
[Miami] and Mad river. The road was generally good, 
and the weather extremely fine. Our teams stood the 
journey much better than when we first started from Kirt- 

On Thursday a daughter of Otis Shumway died, at 
Eaton, on the road, and was buried in the woods near 
where we camped at night, in the township of Jackson, 
Preble county, Ohio. 

Friday^ August 31. — Started early, crossed the line of 
Indiana a few rods from our encampment into 

ji 1 • p -TTT -VTT T T Camp Eiiters 

the township or Wayne, Wayne county, Indi- the state of 
ana. We came to the village of Richmond, 
on the east branch of Whitewater, four miles. Richmond 
is a flourishing place on the national road, which we came 
to soon after we passed the line, or between there and Rich- 
mond. From Richmond we came to Centerville, the 
county seat of Wayne county, six miles; and thence we 
came to the village of Germantown, eight miles, and en- 
camped for the night near that village, about sunset. 
Crossed during the day several tributary streams of the 

*The amount is not stated in the camp journal. 


Whitewater, the principal of which was Nolands Fork, 
west of Centerville. Traveled fourteen miles. 

September 1. — The camp started at eight a. m. 
Course of ^^ camc through a small village called Cam- 
journey. bridge, One mile from Germantown; then 

through Dublin three miles; through Louisville, nine 
miles; then to Flatrock, in Franklin township, Henry 
county; thence to Roysville, on the east side of Blue 
ri\ er, and Knight's Town, on the east side ten miles, and 
encamped by the side of the way one mile west of Knight's 
Town, just at dark. The air was cool in the evening and 
after the fires were built, which ^as necessary for our 
comfort and convenience, our encampment looked beauti- 
ful, and we attracted the attention of all who passed by, 
and of the citizens of the neighborhood who declared that 
our company exceeded any they had before seen in all 
their lives. Distance from Kirtland three hundred and 
thirty- five miles 

Sunday, Sej^temher 2. — Frost seen in the morning. It 
being quite cool, we thought it our duty to go on our way, 
. o ^ so we started at eight o'clock, and came 

A Sunday " ' 

Journey.' through the Small villages of Liberty and Port- 

land, and stopped at noon in Center township, Hancock 
county, at Mr. Caldwell's, about nine miles from our en- 
campment. Here the son of E. P. Merriam died; the 
body was carried on to our place of encampment at night. 
In the afternoon we came through Greenfield, the coun- 
ty seat of Hancock county. Crossed Sugar creek, nine 
miles, and encamped at night on Buck creek on the west 
line of tiancock county, and east line of Marion county, 
having traveled twenty-one miles through a low, level 
country of clay soil and hard road. The crops of corn 
were small, and all grain scarce. The weather is cool 
and the roads good, but from appearances they had been 
almost impassable. Three hundred and fifty-six miles 
from Kirtland. 

Monday, Septenther 3. — Cold and frosty in the morning. 


We arose at four, as usual, and at half- past five Sister 
Bathsheba Willey, who was sick when we _ . 

•^ ' Death of 

started from Kirtland, died and was buried Bathsheba 

. . . Willey. 

together with Brother Merriam's child in the 
northeast corner of T. Ruther's orchard, Jones township, 
Hancock county, about one- fourth of a mile east from Buck 
creek. The stage broke Lucius N. Scovil's wagon down.* 
We came this day to Indianapolis, on the east side of White 
river, the metropolis of the state of Indiana, and pitched 
our tents at night six and one-sixth miles west of the 
city, in Wayne township, on the farm of Brother Miller. Dis- 
tance from Kirtland, three hundred and seventy- three miles. 

luesdai/, Septemher 4. — In the morning B. S. Wilbur, 
who had been left behind in Dayton, Ohio, warning and 
to transact some business, came up in the Exhortation, 
stage about four o'clock. The camp was called together 
in the morning, and warned by the Council of the dis- 
pleasure of our heavenly Father with some for their 
wickedness, and that His judgments would fall upon them 
with greater weight than they had if there was not a 
speedy repentance. The Council also entreated all to be 
humble and pray much, for the destroyer was in our 
midst and many were afflicted. Ira Thornton, overseer 
of tent No. eight, third division, by leave of the Council, 
stayed behind to go up to the land of Zion with his 
father-in-law, who resided near our encampment, and 
was going to start in a few days. Brother Thornton dur- 
ing the journey had been a faithful brother, and stopped 
now merely on his wife's account, and not that he was or 
had been disaffected with the movements in the camp or 
with the management of the Council. 

Josiah Butterfield stopped to get a wagon wheel made, 
and the camp started at a late hour. We came through 

• This incident is related by Samuel D. Tyler, under date of Sunday, September 
2nd, as follows: "This afternoon a miserable drunken stage driver maliciously 
ran aside out of his course and struck the fore wheel of one of our wagons and 
stove it in and dropped it; then drove off exulting in his mischief. The stage he 
drove was marked "J. P. Voorhees." 


Cumberland village, two miles; thence through Plainfield, 
in Guilford township, Hendricks county, five miles; and 
stopped at noon in Liberty township, two miles east of 
Bellville, five miles from Plainfield, through which we 
passed in the afternoon; thence through the village of 
Bellville eight miles, and encamped late in the evening 
about three miles west of Bellville, having traveled twenty- 
three miles. David Elliot left the camp this morning. Dis- 
tance from Kirtland, three hundred and ninety-six miles. 

Wednesday, September 5. — Thomas Xickerson's child 
died in the night, and was buried where we stopped at 
noon on the farm of Noal Fonts, west of the village of 
Putnamville. Passed this day through Mt. Meridian. 
Putnamville, and Manhattan. Crossed Walnut and Mc- 
Cray creek and encamped by the side of the way just 
west of Clay county, having traveled twenty miles. 
Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and sixteen miles. 

Thursday , September 6. — Traveled thirteen miles through 
a fine country, good road, and pitched our tents between 
Arrival at ^^^ ^^^ three miles east of Terre Haute, the 
Terre Haute, couuty scat of Vigo couuty, situated on the 
west side of the Wabash, on a swell of land in a beautiful 
prairie surrounded by a fruitful and fertile country. Dis- 
tance from Kirtland, four hundred and thirty-three miles. 

Friday , September 7. — Sometime in the night a daugh- 
ter of Otis Shumway died ; and in the morning a child of 
J. A. Clark died. Both were buried in the graveyard in 
Terre Haute through which we passed, and crossed the 
Wabash about twelve o'clock at both ferries, and left the 
national road and turning to the right, took the North 
Arm Prairie road to Paris. Traveled nine miles, and en- 
camped in LaFayette township, three-fourths of a mile 
east of the Illinois line. The distance from Kirtland, the 
way we came, to Terre Haute is four hundred and thirty- 
six miles. E. Cherry did not come up, and was left be- 
hind ; his family was sick. 

Saturday, September 8. — Crossed the Illinois line in the 


mornii?g into Edgar county; crossed the North Arm 
Prairie, so-called; crossed Sugar creek and 
came through Paris, the county seat of Edgar 
county, and traveled fourteen miles on a prairie, and put 
up for the night at a late hour, pitching our tents on the 
prairie near the house of Mr. Keller, who appeared 
friendly and obliging. Traveled today twenty-five miles. 
Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and seventy miles. 

Sunday, September 9. — Started early, and came to Am- 
bro creek, in a grove, two miles, and encamped during 
the day. The fourth division came up just as we started 
in the morning; for they were unable to travel as fast 
as the other divisions owing to the heat of the day on 
Saturday. Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and 
seventy- two miles. 

The Council met after we encamped, and after much 
consultation concluded to call the heads of 

».,., 11 i(? l^ • Serious Diffi- 

f amines together and lay betore them our situ- cuities Con- 
ation with respect to means and the prospects 
before us and the apparent impossibility of our obtaining 
labor for ourselves and for the support of our families in 
the city of Far West during the coming winter ; and to ad- 
vise them, especially those that did not belong to the 
Seventies, to commence looking for places for themselves 
where they could procure a subsistence during the Winter 
and procure means sufficient to remove them to Missouri 
in the Spring. Accordingly in the afternoon the camp 
were called together and those things laid before them 
for their consideration, which seemed to meet with the 
approval of a large majority of the heads of families in 
the camp. Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and 
seventy-two miles. 

Monday, Septeniher 10. — Considerable anxiety seemed 
to be manifested by some concerning the ad- Dissatisfac- 
vice of the Council, and some complained, tion in camp. 
like ancient Israel, and said that they did not thank the 
Council for bringing them so far, and had rather been left 

138 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.. D. 1838 

in Kirtland, and some said one thing and some another^ 
Among the number were Aaron Cheney, Nathan Cheney,. 
William Draper and Thomas Draper and Henry Munroe» 
who were sent for, to come and settle with the clerks and 
look out for quarters immediately. Themira Draper, Al- 
fred Draper and Cornelius Vanleuven left the camp with 
them. Reuben Daniels, whose wife was sick and had a. 
son born in the night, together with Ethan A. Moore and 
Joel Harvej^, also left the camp to stoi? for a few days and 
then pursue their journey by themselves. After the camp 
started Joseph Coon stopped because his wife was sick. 
We traveled five or six miles west of the little Ambarras, 
where we encamped. We passed through a small place 
called Independence, which is in an oak opening, in 
which we had encamped. It was about six miles through 
it, and then we crossed through a prairie fifteen miles, and 
encamped on the west side of the East Ocha or Kaskaskias, 
some of the teams not coming up to the encamp- 
ment till twelve o'clock. Traveled twenty- two miles. 
Distance from Kirtland, four hundred and ninety-four 

Tuesday^ September 11. — Crossed another prairie, four- 
teen miles, and encamped at four p. m. on the west side 
Increased ^^ ^^® Wcst Ocha, in Macou county, hav- 

Sickness. j^g traveled sixteen miles. Distance from 

Kirtland, five hundred and ten miles. 

Many in the camp at this time were sick and afilicted. 
Some with fever and ague, and some with one thing and 
some with another. The most dangerous were Elder 
Josiah Willey and John Wright, son of Asa Wright, aged 
about fourteen years. 

Wednesday , September 12. — Started at eight o'clock and 
crossed another prairie twelve miles, then through a piece 
of timber land on the headwaters of San Juan river, then 
over a three-mile prairie, and stopped to refresh our teams 
in the edge of the wood a little after noon, sixteen miles 
from our encampment of the night before. In the after- 


noon crossed over a prairie four miles, then through a 
piece of timbered land, then another prairie two miles, 
and encamped by the side of a small creek, having 
traveled this day twenty- two miles. Distance from Kirt- 
land, five hundred and thirty-nine miles. 

Thursday^ September 13. — In the morning it was ascer- 
tained that George Stringham and Benjamin Baker, with 
Joseph C. Clark had stopped behind, or could not come 
up because of the failure of their teams. Asa Wright 
did not come up at night, but came up in the morning by 
himself before we started, to settle his accounts. His son 
being sick was the reason of his staying -behind. Alba 
Whittle and Joel H. Johnson also settled their accounts, 
as they expected to stop at Springfield or sooner if they 
could find a place. 

Started at a late hour and traveled fourteen miles 
through a prairie country down the Sangamon river, 
which ran on the right of the road in a westerly course to 
the Illinois. We encamped about three p. m. on a 
piece of land laid out for a village called Boliva or Boli- 
var. Here Ira Thornton's child died. Distance from 
Kirtland, five hundred and fifty-three miles. 

Friday^ September 14. — Before the first division left the 
ground Elder Stringham and Beniamin Baker 

^ 1 Camp Passes 

came up, but we left them there. We came Through 
this day to Springfield, eighteen miles, cross- 
ing several small creeks and passing through a small 
place called Rochester. From Springfield we came four 
miles, and encamped for the night. We could not pro- 
cure anything for our teams to eat and were obliged to 
fasten them to our wagons and give them a little corn or 
turn them onto dry prairie almost destitute of vegetation. 
Springfield is destined to be the seat of government of 
Illinois and the state house is now in course of building. 
It is situated on a beautiful prairie and looks like a flour- 
ishing place though it is yet in its infancy. Elder J. H. 
Johnson and his mother and their families, together with 


Alba Whittle, Jonathan and Cyrus B. Fisher, Ed\\an P. 
Merriam and Samuel Hale — who was sick — and wife, also 
stopped at Springfield or near there, and Richard Brasher 
went to Huron, three miles west from Si^ringfield to stop 
with his friends for a short season. Traveled twenty-two 
miles. Distance from Kirtland, five hundred and seventy- 
five miles. 

Saturday^ Septemher 15. — William Glribble left the 
camp in the morning to stop at Springfield during 
the winter, and Ira Thornton left and went on with Allen 

We started before breakfast and traveled fourteen miles. 
Passed through a small village called Berlin and camped 
on Spring creek in Island Grove. Here T. P. Pierce's 
child died, and was buried on Sunday, near Elder Keeler's 
house. Elder Keeler was late from New Portage, Ohio. 
Here we tarried till Monday morning. Distance from 
Kirtland, five hundred and eighty- nine miles. 

Suuday, Septemher 16. — We held a meeting in the af- 
ternoon and attended to communion. We had but few 
spectators in the camp during the day. A spirit of union 
rarely manifested was felt at the meeting, and our souls 
rejoiced in the Holy One of Israel. 

Monday^ Septemher 17 . — This morning Elias Pulsipher, 

Daniel Pulsipher, Steven Starks, Hiram H. Byington 

and Monro Crosier settled their accounts and 

More Depart- tii-t m iii-t 

Tires from the stopped behind. Traveled this day through 
^^^' Jacksonville, a fine village, the county seat of 

Morgan county, which we entered about fourteen miles 
east of Jacksonville. From thence we came to Geneva, 
a small, dusty place, and encamped near David Orton's, 
on a prairie, having traveled twenty-five miles. Most of 
the camp was late in arriving on the ground, and some 
did not come up till morning Distance from Kirtland, 
six hundred and fourteen miles. 

Tuesday., Septemher 18. — Warren Smith, Jonas Put- 
nam, Stephen Shumway and D. C. Demming and Joseph 


Young stopped at Geneva, Morgan county, and in the 
course of the day, Asaph Blanchard, Stephen Headlock 
and B. K. Hall also stopped near Exeter, and James C. 
Snow, whom we found near Geneva, joined us. We came 
through Exeter to Philip's feriy on the Illinois river, four 
miles below Naples, which is on the same river, on the 
straight road from Jacksonville to Quiucy on the Missis- 
sippi, which we left and traveled six miles east of the 
ferry. We arrived at the ferry about four p. m., and 
some of the teams went over and encamped on the west 
side of the river in Pike county. In the night David 
Elliot, whom we had left m Putnam county, Indiana, 
came up on horseback, having arrived with his family 
within fifteen miles of us in the evening and left us again 
to hasten on his team that he might overtake us at Louis- 
ville, Missouri. Distance from Kirtland, six hundred and 
twenty-nine miles. 

Wednesday, September 19. — We all got over the Illinois 
at half-past one p. m. and came to Griggs- „. 

r f iDtD Tidings 

ville, then to Pittsfield, the county seat of from Far 
Pike county, twelve miles, and encamped 
on a small hill one mile west of the village. While 
we were crossing the river two brethren arrived 
from Far West and brought us the first direct information 
from that place or from any of the brethren in the West 
since we started on our journey. The country between 
the Illinois river and Pittsfield is more rolling than it is 
on the east of that river, especially east of Springfield. 
Distance traveled from Kirtland, six hundred and forty- 
two miles. 

Thursday, September 20. — Started on our journey and 
came to Atlas, a small village, the former county seat of 
Pike county, twelve miles through a rolling prairie country, 
thentotheSnye, a branch of the Mississippi, about six miles 
from the river where we crossed in the afternoon, all but 
three wagons, into the town of Louisiana, in the state of 
Missouri; and encamped about three-fourths of a mile 


west or the town. Traveled twenty miles. Distance 
from Kirtland, six hundred and sixty- two miles. 

Friday, Septemher 21- — Traveled about seventeen miles 
A M^s&ouri throng a hot country and encamped m a wood 
storm. near a prairie in a heavy rain which fell all 

the afternoon, and was the first that had fallen on us 
since we left Bath, Ohio, and was the most tedious time 
we had passed through. In the evening it thundered and 
rained powerfully, most of us went to bed without our 
supper, and tied our horses to our wagons. We thought 
it a perilous time, but few complained, nearly all bore it 
patiently. Duncan Mc Arthur broke down his wagon in 
the forenoon and did not come up at night. 

Saturday , Septemher 22. — Traveled this day eighteen 

miles, eight miles of which was the worst road we had on 

the iourney. The other ten miles prairie. 

Bad Roads. m, ^-,11 1 • 

Thomas Carico broke down his wagon and 
stopped and mended it, and did not overtake the camp at 
night. Eleaser King and sons, who left Kirtland before 
the camp, came up and encamped with us at night. The 
air was cool and chilly and towards night uncomfortably 
cold. We encamped about one-half mile east of Lick 
creek, in Monroe county. Distance from Kirtland, six 
hundred and ninety-seven miles. 

Sunday, Septemher 23. — A heavy frost in the morning, 
but after the sun arose it was pleasant and warm. We 
thought it our duty to travel and accordingly started on 
our way. The road very rough and bad part of the 
waj^ especially in the timbered land. Duncan Mc- 
Arthur and Thomas Carico, who had been left behind in 
consequence of breaking down their wagons, overtook us 
in the morning before we all started, some having to 
stay behind to find their horses, which went back across 
the prairie about nine miles in the night. E. B. Gaylord 
broke down his wagon and got badly hurt, and did not 
overtake us till Monday night. We traveled to Paris, the 
county seat of Monroe county, twenty miles, and en- 


<;amped one mile west of the town late in the evening near 
^ prairie. Crossed south fork of Salt river, five miles east of 
Paris, and several other tributary streams of the same river, 
most of which were dry by reason of the extreme drought 
which had prevailed in this land during the summer. Trav- 
eled today twenty-one miles. Distance from Kirtland, 
seven hundred and eighteen miles. 

Monday^ September 24. — Eeorganized the camp which 
had become rather disorganized by reason of ^ 

" '' , Reorganiza- 

so many stopping by the way. The third tion of the 
division was put into the first and second, as 
that division had become quite small. The Council called 
the camp together and laid before them the scanty means 
in their hands, and wanted the brethren to furnish such 
things as they had to dispose of to purchase corn, etc., for 
our cattle and horses, that we might continue our journey. 
Traveled twenty miles before sunset, most of the way 
prairie, and encamped on the Elk fork of Salt river. We 
found the inhabitants in commotion and volunteering, under 
the order of Grovernor Boggs, as we were repeatedly told, to 
go up and fight the "Mormons" in Far West and that 
region of country. We were very correctly informed that 
one hundred and ten men had left Huntsville in the morn- 
ing on that expedition ; and that the govenor had called 
on five thousand from the upper counties ,and if we went 
any farther we should meet with ditficulty and even death 
as they would as leave kill us as not. 

We had been saluted with such reports every day after 
we came through Jacksonville, Illinois; but we paid little 
attention to it, trusting in that God for protection which 
had called upon us to gather ourselves together to the 
land of Zion, and who had thus far delivered us out of the 
hands of all our enemies, on every hand, not only in Kirt- 
land, but on all our journey. Traveled this day twenty 
miles. Distance from Kirtland, seven hundred and thirty- 
•eight miles. 

Tuesday^ September 25. — Thomas Nickerson lost his 


horses and could not find them before the camp started, 
and did not overtake us at night. 

We came through Huntsville, the county seat of Ran- 
dolph county, eleven miles, where we were told before we 
arrived there, that we should be stopped, but nothing of 
the kind occurred when we came through the town, and 
we even heard no threats whatever, but all appeared 
friendly. A mile and a half west of Huntsville we crossed 
the east branch of Chariton, and one and a half miles 
west of the river we found Ira Ames and some other 
brethren near the place where the city of Manti is to be 
built, and encamped for the night on Dark creek, six miles 
from Huntsville. Traveled this day seventeen miles. Dis- 
tance from Kirtland, seven hundred and fifty-five miles. 

Wednesday^ September 26. — In the morning Elder James 

Foster at a late hour proposed to disband and break up 

the camp in consequence of some rumors he 

Proposition to it, in i • i i • t i i 

Disband the had heard from the west which he said he be- 
*™^' lieved. Elder Pulsipher being aw^ay only 

five of the Councilors could be present. The other 
four objected to this proposal, but so far yielded as to 
consent to have the camp stop till an embassy could be 
sent to Far West to see the state of things in that region 
and ascertain whether it would be wisdom or not for us to 
go into that or any of the western states this winter. 

The camp was called together and the subject was par- 
tially laid before them by Elder Foster, which produced 
a sadness of countenance seldom seen in the course of our 
journey. While we were talking over the subject Elder 
Pulsipher came up, just as a gentleman by the name of 
Samuel Bend, of Pike county, Missouri, came along, and 
without knowing our intentions or destination, told us of 
the state of affairs in Far West, and Adam-ondi-Ahman, 
and everything we desired to know concerning some par- 
ticular things. On being told that our intentions were 
to stop for a while, he advised us to go right along. He 
told us about the Daviess county mob and that the volun- 


teers called for by the governor, which had rendezvoused 
at Keatsville, would be discharged at twelve o'clock, 

On reconsidering the subject a motion was made to go 
on which was carried unanimously. Accordingly we 
moved on and came to Chariton river in Char- proposition 
iton county, sixteen miles, and encamped Rejected. 
about four p. m. on the west side of the river. In the 
afternoon before we started from the place where we 
slopped to feed on the seven mile prairie, near Brother 
Kellog's, the militia volunteers began to go by on their 
return home, and we continued to meet them most of the 
afternoon. Most of them passed us civilly, but some of 
them were rather saucy, few replies, however, were made 
to them. We met some brethren from Far West during 
the day which confirmed what we had been told in the 
morning by Mr. Bend. Brother Nickerson overtook us 
having found his horses, and eight or ten wagons of 
brethren from Huron county, Ohio, and other places, also 
Ira 0. Thompson, who had formerly been with us as a 
member of the camp, stayed with us at night. Traveled 
sixteen miles this day. Distance from Kirtland, seven 
hundred and seventy-one miles. 

Thursday J September 27 . — Started in the morning in some 
confusion, owing to some misunderstanding, q^ Qj-and 
and came to Keatsville on a branch of the Ri'^er. 
Chariton, two miles, and about half a mile west of the 
town, which is the county seat of Chariton county. We 
left the state road and took the road to Chillicothe and 
went up on the east side of Grand river, crossed a prairie 
about eighteen miles, beautifully diversified with valleys 
and rolling swells which give it a truly picturesque appear- 
ance. It has been surveyed and allotted for military pur- 
poses, and for that reason is still unoccupied. We en- 
camped at night at the confluence of the forks of Yellow 
creek, having traveled twenty-two miles. 

Elder James Foster left us at Keatsville to go by the 

10 Vol. Ill, 


way of De Witt, to see his son-in-law, Jonathan Thomp- 
son. In the evening the Council met to settle some diffi- 
culties and set in order some things that seemed to 
require attention to enable us to move in order and in peace 
the remainder of the journey. Traveled twenty-two 
miles today. Distance from Kirtland, seven hundred and 
ninety-three miles. 

Friday^ Septemher 28. — Crossed Turkey creek, seven 
miles; Locus, four; and pitched our tents on the east 
side of Parson's creek, in Linn county, six miles from 
Locus creek, making seventeen miles. Distance from 
Kirtland, eight hundred and ten miles. 

Saturday^ Septemher 29. — Came to Mr. Gregory's on 
Madison creek, six miles; thence to Chillicothe, a town 
lately laid out for the county seat of Livingston county, 
eight miles; and encamped about a mile west toward 
Grand river. 

Thomas Carico's and J. H. Holmes' wagons were turned 
over in the coarse of the day, but no particular injury 
was done to any person. The road was new, and in some 
places rough, especially m the timbered land on the 
creeks. Traveled fifteen miles today. Distance from 
Kirtland, eight hundred and twenty-five miles. 

Sunday^ September 30. — Came to Grand river, two and 
one-half miles, crossed over and came to a small collec- 
tion of houses, called Utica; two and one-half miles, here 
we found Brother S liter from Kirtland, and some other 
brethren. From Utica we came through a rough and 
rolling country for ten miles to Brother Walker's, on 
Shoal creek, crossed the creek and camped on the west 
side near the prairie. Richard Blanchard, who joined 
the camp at Bath, left the camp and went to join his 
friends who lived near Chillicothe. Traveled fifteen miles 
today. Distance from Kirtland, eight hundred and forty 

Monday, October 1. — Came from Elder Walker's across 
the prairie, about nineteen miles, and encamped on 


Brushy creek. Joshua S. Holman, by permission of one 
or two of the Council, went on Sunday evening to visit 
Elder Jacob Myers, formerly from Richland county, Ohio, 
and early m the morning started on his way without 
waiting for the camp, disregarding the advice of the 
Council, and in the evening, at a meeting of the camp, 
his proceedings were condemned by a unanimous vote. 
Traveled twenty miles and encamped on Brushy fork of 
Shoal creek, on the prairie. The entire distance from 
Kirtland, eight hundred and sixty miles. 

Tuesday^ October 2. — Crossed Long, Log, and Goose 
creeks, and arrived in Far West about five p. m. Here 
we were received with joyful salutations by the brethren 
in that city. Five miles from the city we were met by the 
First Presidency of the Church of Latter-day Saints, 
Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith, 
together with Isaac Morley, Patriarch of Far West, and 
George W. Robinson, and by several other brethren be- 
tween there and the city, who received us with open arms, 
and escorted us into the city. We encamped on the pub- 
lic square round the foundation of the Temple. Traveled 
this day ten miles. Whole distance from Kirtland, eight 
hundred and seventy miles. 

[Here the camp journal's narrative ends. The two following entries 
which complete the history of this remarkable journey are taken from 
the Prophet's account of the proceedings relative to the camp on its ar- 

Wednesday^ October 3. — The camp continued their 
journey to Ambrosial creek, where they pitched their 
tents. I went with them a mile or two, to a beautiful 
spring, on the prairie, accompanied by Elder Rigdon, 
brother Hyrum and Brigham Young, with whom I re- 
turned to the city, where I spent the remainder of the 

Thursday^ October 4. — This is a day long to be remem- 
bered by that part of the Church of Jesus Christ of Lat- 
ter-day Saints, called the Camp, or Kirtland Camp No. 1, 


for they arrived at their destination and began to pitch 
their tents about sunset, when one of the brethren living 
in the place proclaimed with a loud voice: 

'■''Brethren^ your long and tedious journey is now ended; 
you are noiv on the public square of Adam-ondi-AJiman. 
This is the place where Adam hlessed his posterity, ivhen 
they rose up and called him Michael^ the Prince, the Arch- 
angel, and he heing full of the Holy Ghost predicted ivhat 
should befall his posterity to the latest generation.'''' — Doc- 
trine and Covenants. 





Wednesday, October 3. — Sister Alice Hodgin died at 
Preston on the 2nd of September, 1838. And it was 
such a wonderful thing for a Latter-day Saint vexatious 
to die in England, that Elder Willard Rich- ^^^^f,"""'' 

^, ' of WiUard 

ards was arraigned before the Mayor's Court Richards. 
at Preston, on the 3rd of October, charged with "killing 
and slaying" the said Alice with a "black stick," etc., 
but was discharged without being permitted to make his 
defense, as soon as it was discovered that the iniquity of 
his accusers was about to be made manifest. 

The mob continued to fire upon the brethren at De 

,„,,.. „ ^ Mob Move- 

The followmg is an extract from Greneral ments at oe 
Parks' express to General Atchison: 

Dear Sir: — I received this morning an affidavit from Carroll county. 
The following is a copy: "Henry Root, on his oath, states that on the 
night of the first of October, there was collected in the vicinity of De 
Witt, an armed force, consisting of from thirty to fifty persons, and on 
the morning of the second of October they came into the town of De 
Witt and fired on the civil inhabitants of that place. Thirteen of said 
individuals were seen by me in that place, and I believe there is actually 
an insurrection in that place. 

"Henry Root. 

"Subscribed and sworn to this 3rd day of October, 1838. 

"William B. Morton, J. P." 

In consequence of which information, and belief of an attack being 
made on said place, I have ordered out the two companies raised by 
your order, to be held in readiness under the commands of Captains 
Bogart an J Houston, to march for De Witt, in Carroll county, by eight 
o'clock tomorrow morning, armed and equipped as the law directs, with 


six days' provisions and fifty rounds of powder and ball. 1 will pro- 
ceed with these troops in person, leaving Colonel Thomas in command 
of Grand river. As soon as I reach De Witt, I will advise you of the 
state of affairs more fully. I will use all due precaution in the affair, 
and deeply regret the necessity of this recourse. 
H. G. Parks, 

Brigadier- General 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division. 

Thursday^ Octoher 4. — I spent most of this day with 
my family. 

The mob again fired upon the Saints at De Witt, who 
were compelled to return the fire in self-defense. 

To show how firebrands, arrows and death were scat- 
Scattering tered through the State, and that too by men 
Firebranda. j^^^j^ ^^ authority, and who were sworn to 

preserve the public peace, I quote the following from a 
communication of General Lucas to the governor dated 
Boonville, Missouri, October 4, 1838: 

Letter of General Lucas to Governor JBoggs. 

Dear Sir: — As we passed down the Missouri river, on Monday last, 
we saw a large force of Mormons at De Witt, in Carroll county, under 
arms. Their commander, Colonel Hinkle, formerly of Caldwell 
countj^ informed me that there were two hundred, and that they were 
hourly expecting an attack from the citizens of Carroll county, who 
he said were then encamped only six miles from there, waiting for a re- 
inforcement from Saline county. Hinkle said they had determined to 
fight. News had just been received at this place, through Dr. Scott of 
Fayette, that a fight took place on yesterday, and that several persons 
were killed. Dr. Scott informed me that he got his information from a 
gentleman of respectability, who had heard the filing of their guns as 
he passed down. If a fight has actually taken place, of which I have no 
doubt, it will create excitement in the whole of upper Missouri, and 
those base and degrade'd beings will be exterminated from the face of 
the earth. If one of the citizens of Carroll should be killed, before five 
days I believe that there will be from four to five thousand volunteers 
in the field against the Mormons, and nothing but their blood will satisfy 
them. It is an unpleasant state of affairs. The remedy I do not 
pretend to suggest to your Excellency. My troops of the Fourth Divi- 
sion were only dismissed subject to further orders, and can be called 
into the field at an hour's warning. 

Samuel D. Lucas. 


^''Base and degraded beings!'''' Whoever heard before of 
high-minded and honorable men condescending to sacri- 
fice their honor, by stooping to wage war, The Prophet's 
without cause or provocation, against "base (-'omment. 
and degraded beings." But General Lucas is ready with 
his whole Division, at "an hour's warning," to enter 
the field of battle on such degraded terms, if his own 
statement is true. But General Lucas knew better. He 
knew the Saints were an innocent, unoffending people, 
and would not fight, only in self-defense, and why write 
such a letter to the governor to influence his mind! Why 
not keep to truth and justice? Poor Lucas! The an- 
nals of eternity will unfold to you who are the "base 
beings," and what it will take to "satisfy" for the shed- 
ing of "Mormon blood." 

Friday^ October 5. — Report of the committee of Chari- 
ton county: 

The undersigned committee were appointed at a public meeting by 
the citizens of Chariton county, on the 3rd day of October for the pur- 
pose of repairing to De Witt, in Carroll county, to inquire into 
the nature of the difficulties between the citizens of Carroll and the 
Mormons. We arrived at the place of difficulties on the 4th of October, 
and found a large portion of the citizens of Carroll and the adjoining 
counties assembled near De Witt, well armed. We inquired into the 
nature of the difficulties. They said that there was a large portion of 
the people called Mormons embodied in De Witt, from different parts 
of the world. They were unwilling for them to remain there, which is 
the cause of their waging war against them. To use the gentlemen's 
language, "they were waging a war of extermination, or to remove 
them from the said county." We also went into De Witt, to see the 
situation of the Mormons. We found them in the act of defense, beg- 
ging for peace, and wishing for the civil authorities to repair there as 
early as possible, to settle the difficulties between the parties. Hostili- 
ties have commenced and will continue until they are stopped by the 
civil authorities. This we believe to be a correct statement of both 
parties. This the 5th day of October, 1838. 

John W. Price, 
Wm. H. Logan. 
Subscribed to and sworn before me, the undersigned, one of the 

152 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.. D. 1838 

Justices of the Peace within and for Chariton county, and State of Mis- 
souri, the 5th day of October, 1838. 

John Morse, J. P. 

This day also [October 5] General Atchison wrote the 
governor from Boonville, that in Carroll county the citi- 
zens were in arms for the pm'pose of driving the "Mor- 
mons" from that county. 

The third Quarterly Conference of the Church in Cald- 
well county was held at Far West, President Brigham 
Conference at Youug presiding. As there was not a sufficient 
Far West. number of members present to form a quorum 

for business, after singing and prayer, conference ad- 
journed till 2 p. m., when they met and opened as usual, 
Presidents Marsh and Young presiding. There was not 
a sufficient number of the members of the High Council 
or any other quorum to do business as a quarterly Con- 
ference. They voted to ordain a few Elders, appointed a 
few missions, and adjourned till tomorrow at ten o'clock 
a. m. 

About this time I took a journey in company with some 

others, to the lower part of the county of Caldwell, for 

the purpose of selecting a location for a town. 

News of iMob .^ . ^ 

Violence from While ou my ]ourney, 1 was met by one or 
^* ^"' the brethren from De Witt, in Carroll county, 

who stated that our people who had settled in that place 
were and had been some time, surrounded by a mob, who 
had threatened their lives, and had shot at them several 
times; and that he was on his way to Far West, to in- 
form the brethren there of the facts. 

I was surprised on receiving this intelligence, although 
there had, previous to this time, been some manifestations 
Thes Prophet's ^^ mobs, but I had hopcd that the good sense 
^opf^so^_^^ of the majority of the people, and their re- 
pointed, spect for the Constitution, would have put 
down any spirit of persecution which might have been 
manifested in that neighborhood. 

Immediately on receiving this intelligence I made prep- 


arations to go to that place, and endeavor, if possible, to 
allay the feelings of the citizens, and save the lives of my 
brethren who were thus exposed to their wrath. 

Saturday, October 6. — I arrived at De Witt, and found 
that the accounts of the situation of that place were 
correct; for it was with much difficulty, ^ 

' "^ ' The Prophet 

and by traveling unfrequented roads, that Arrives at De 
I was able to get there, all the princi- 
pal roads being strongly guarded by the mob, who 
refused all ingress as well as egress. I found my breth- 
ren, who were only a handful in comparison to the mob by 
which they were surrounded, in this situation, and their 
provisions nearly exhausted, and no prospect of obtain- 
ing any more. We thought it necessary to send immedi- 
ately to the governor, to inform him of the circumstances, 
hoping to receive from the executive the protection which 
we needed; and which was guaranteed to us in common 
with other citizens. Several gentlemen of standing and 
respectability, who lived in the immediate vicinity who 
were not in any way connected with the Church of Latter- 
day Saints, who had witnessed the proceedings of our 
enemies, came forward and made affidavits to the treat- 
ment we had received, and concerning our perilous situ- 
ation; and offered their services to go and present the 
case to the gov?rnor themselves. 

The Quarterly Conference convened at Far West this 
day [October 6th] at ten o'clock according to adjourn- 
ment, Presidents Marsh and Young presiding. ^ 

<=> i- <=> Continuance 

Elder Benjamin L. Clapp* said he had just of Far west 
returned from Kentucky, where he had been 

laboriner, and that many doors were open there. A call 

was made for volunteers to go into the vineyard and 

preach, when Elders James Carroll, James Galliher, Lu- 

* Benjamin L. Clapp, who afterwards became one of the First Council of Seventy, 
was born in the state of Alabama, August 19, 1814. He had joined the Church in 
an early day, and had already performed successful missions in the South, espe- 
cially in the state of Kentucky. 

15-4 HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. [A. D. 1838 

man A. Shurtliff, James Dana, Ahaz Cook, Isaac Decker, 
Cornelius P. Lott and Alpheus Gifford offered themselves. 
President Marsh instructed them not to go forth boast- 
ing of their faith, or of the judgments of the Lord, but 
to go in the spirit of meekness, and preach repentance.* 

Elder John Taylort from Canada, by request, gave a state- 
ment of his feelings respecting his having been appointed 
as one of the Twelve, saying that he was will- 
sustained to ing to do anything that God would require of 
pob e. ^^^^ ^ whereupon it was voted that Brother John 

* This missionary movement at a time when it may be said that the whole 
country was "up in arms" against the Church, and its fortunes were apparently 
jesperate, is truly an astonishing thing. And yet such missionary movements 
have become quite characteristic of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints. Its fortunes have never been at so low an ebb but what it could always 
undertake some great missionary enterprise. For example, when apostasy was rife 
in Kirtland, and the powers of darkness seemed massed for its overthrow, the 
Prophet, "to save the Church," organized and sent forth a mission to Great Brit- 
ain; and now from upper Missouri, when the whole organization seemed to be in 
danger of disintegration, a mission is nevertheless organized to go into the South- 
ern States to preach the Gospel. In later volumes of this work we shall also see 
that in 1850, when the whole body of the Mormon people had been expatriated from 
their country and fled into the desert wilderness of the Rocky mountain region, 
and when it was generally supposed that the world had practically seen the last of 
Mormonism, and when the Saints still had before them the task of subduing a wil- 
derness, and many thousands of their people yet to gather from the East .where they 
were in a scattered condition, and the very existence of the people to human eyes 
seemed precarious, lo! a world-wide mission was organized and members of the 
quorum of Apostles were sent from the Church in the wilderness, into Scandinavia, 
France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. This missionary spirit so characteristic 
of the Church, and to which it so staunchly adheres in all its fortunes, proclaims 
the genius of the work. The primary purpose of the Church's existence is to pro- 
claim the truth of which it is the sacred depository, and after that to perfect the 
lives of those who receive its message. In proportion to its devotion to these two 
grand objects of its existence, has been and always will be the measure of its suc- 

t John Taylor was born November 1st, 1808, in Milnthorp, a small town near the 
head of Morecombe bay, and not far from Windemere, the "Queen of English 
Lakes," in the county of Westmoreland, England. His father's name was James 
Taylor, whose forefathers for many genera ions had lived on an estate known as 
Craig Gate, in Aekenthwaite. John Taylor's mother's name was Agnes; her maiden 
name was also Taylor. Her grandfather, Christopher Taylor, lived to be ninety- 
seven years of age. His son John, father of Agnes, held an office in the excise 
under the government from his first setting out in life to the age of about sixty. 
The maiden name of Agnes Taylor's mother was Whi tington, a descendant of the 
family made famous by Richard Whittington, the younger son of Sir William Whit- 


Taylor fill one of the vacancies in the quorum of the 
Twelve. Stephen Chase was ordained president of the 
Elders' quorum in Far West. Isaac Laney, Horace Alex- 
ander and Albert Sloan weie ordained Elders under the 
hands of the presidents. Samuel Bent and Isaac Higbee 
were appointed to fill the places of John Murdock and 
George M. Hinkle in the High Council, the two last named 
brethren having removed to De Witt. Conference adjourned 
to the first Friday and Saturday in January next, at ten a. m. 

Ebenezer Eobinson, Clerk. 
There were seven cut off from the Church ^ 


in Preston, England, this day. 

General Parks wrote General Atchison from Brigade 
Headquarters, five miles from De Witt, Carroll _ 

^ ' ' De Witt. 

county : 

Communication of Clark to Atchison on Affairs at De Witt. 
Sir: — Immediately after my express to you by Mr. Warder was sent, 
I proceeded to this place, which I reached yesterday with two companies 
of mounted men from Ray county. I ordered Colonel Jones to call out 
three companies from this county, to hold themselves in readiness to 
join me at Carrolton on the fifth instant, which order has not been 
carried into effect. None of Carroll county regiment is with me. 

At the age of seventeen Elder Taylor was made a Methodist exhorter or local 
preacher, and was very actire and earnest in his ministerial labors. In 1832 he 
removed with his family to Toronto, upper Canada, and here engaged in preaching 
under the auspices of the Methodist church, 'Within a year after his arrival in 
Canada he married Leonora Cannon, daughter of Captain George Cannon (grand- 
father of the late George Q. Cannon). Leonora Cannon had come to Canada as the 
companion of the wife of Mr. Mason, the private secretary of Lord Aylmer, Gov- 
ernor-General of Canada. She was a devout Methodist, and through attendance 
upon church became acquainted with Mr. Taylor. While living in Toronto Elder 
Taylor associated himself with a number of gentlemen of education and refinement 
who were not quite satisfied with the doctrines of their respective churches, as 
those doctrines did not agree with the teachings of the Bible, through this organ- 
ization, they were seeking for greater religious light, and it was under these cir- 
cumstances that Elder Parley P. Pratt arrived in Toronto with a letter of intrfiduc- 
tion to Elder Taylor, and several times addressed this association of gentlemen 
who were seeking the truth. The end of the matter was that John Taylor accepted 
the Gospel under the ministration of Elder Pratt; and was soon afterwards ordained 
an Elder in the Church, and commenced his missionary labors. Of his journey to 
Kirtland and defense of the Prophet against the fulminations of apostates we have 
already spoken. [See vol. IT, p. 488— Note]. Elder Taylor had come to Missouri in 
response to the notification he had received that he was chosen an Apostle of the 
Lord Jesus Christ by revelation. (See revelation of 8th of July, 1838, pp. 40, 47). 


On arriving in the vicinity of De Witt, I found a body of armed men 
under the command of Dr. Austin, encamped near De Witt, besieging 
that place, to the number of two or three hundred, with a piece of artil- 
lery ready to attack the town of De Witt. On the other side, Hinkle 
has in that place three or four hundred Mormons to defend it, and says 
he will die before he will be driven from thence. 

On the 4th instant they had a skirmish — fifteen or thirty guns fired 
on both sides, one man from Saline county wounded in the hip. 

The Mormons are at this time too strong, and no attack is expected 
before Wednesday or Thursday next, at which time Dr. Austin hopes 
his forces will amount to five hundred men, when he will make a sec- 
ond attempt on the town of De Witt, with small arms and cannon. In 
this posture of affairs, I can do nothing but negotiate between the part- 
ies until further aid is sent me. 

I received your friendly letter of the 5th instant, by Mr. Warder, 
authorizing me to call on General Doniphan, which call I have made on 
him for five companies from Platte, Clay and Clinton counties, with two 
companies I ordered from Livingston, of which I doubt whether these 
last will come; if they do, I think I will have a force sufficient to man- 
age these belligerents. Should these troops arrive here in time, I hope 
to be able to prevent bloodshed. Nothing seems so much in demand 
here (to hear the Carroll county men talk) as Mormon scalps; as yet 
they are scarce. I believe Hinkle, with the present force and position, 
will beat Austin with five hundred of his troops. The Mormons say 
they will die before they will be driv^en out, etc. As yet they have acted 
on the defensive, as far as I can learn. It is my settled opinion, the 
Mormons will have no rest until they leave; whether they will or not, 
time only can tell. 

H. G. Parks. 

Under the same date, [October Gth] from the mob camp 
near De Witt, eleven blood- thh-sty fellows, viz., Congrave 
The.Mob's>p- Jackson, Larkiu H. Woods, Thomas Jackson, 
peal to How- Rolla M. Daviess, James Jackson, Jun., Johu- 

ard County ' ' ' 

for Help. ' son JacksoH, John L. Tomlin, Sidney S. 
Woods, Geo. Grimier. William L. Banks, and Whitfield Die- 
ken, wrote a most inflammatory, lying and murderous com- 
munication to the citizens of Howard county, calling upon 
them as friends and fellow citizens, to come to their im- 
mediate rescue, as the "Mormons" were then firing upon 
them and they would have to act on the defensive until 
they could procure more assistance. 


A. C. Woods, a citizen of Howard county, made a cer- 
tificate to the same lies, which he gathered in the mob 
camp ; he did not go into De Witt, or take any trouble to 
learn the truth of what he certified. While the people 
will lie and the authorities will uphold them, what just- 
ice can honest men expect? 

Tuesday^ October 9. — Gleneral Clark wrote the governor 
from Booiiville, that the names subscribed to the paper 
named above, are worthy, prudent and patri- General 
otic citizens of Howard county, yet these men dirlement' of 
would leave their families and everything dear, *'^® ^^°^- 
and go to a neighboring county to seek the blood of inno- 
cent men, women and children! If this constitutes "worth, 
pruience and patriotism," let me be worthless, imprud- 
ent and unpatriotic. 

The messenger, Mr. Caldwell, who had been dispatched 
to the governor for assistance, returned, but instead of 
receiving any aid or even sympathy from his ,^^^ 
Excellency, we were told that "the quarrel or's Answer 

, , ^ to the Saints. 

was between the Mormons and the mob, and 
that "we might fight it out." 

About this time a mob, commanded by Hyrum Standly, 
took Smith Humphrey's goods out of his house, and said 

Standly set fire to Humphrey's house and „ 

'' . House Burn- 

burned it before his eyes, and ordered him to ing and Rob- 
leave the place forthwith, which he did by 
fleeing from De Witt to Caldwell county. The mob had 
sent to Jackson county and got a cannon, powder and 
balls, and bodies of armed men had gathered in, to aid 
them, from Ray, Saline, Howard, Livingston, Clinton, 
Clay, Platte counties and other parts of the state, and a 
man by the name of Jackson, from Howard county, was 
appointed their leader. 

The Saints were forbidden to go out of the town under 
pain of death, and were shot at when they attempted to 
go out to get food, of which they were destitute. As fast 
as their cattle or horses got where the mob could get hold 


of them, they were taken as spoil, as also other kini? of 
property. By these outrages the brethren were obliged, 
most of them, to live in wagons or tents. 

Application had been made to the judge of the Circuit 
Court for protection, and he ordered out two companies 
Mob Leaders ^^ militia, oue Commanded by Captain Samuel 
Sande^Hf Bogart, a Methodist minister, and one of the 
Militia. worst of the mobocrats. The whole force 

was placed under the command of General Parks, an- 
other mobber, if his letter speaks his feelings, and his 
actions do not Ijelie him, for he never made the first 
attempt to disperse the mob, and when asked the reason 
of his conduct, he always replied that Bogart and his 
company were mutinous and mobocratic, that he dare 
not attempt a dispersion of the mob. Two other princi- 
pal men of the mob were Major Ashly, member of the 
Legislature, and Sashiel Woods, a Presbyterian clergy- 

General Parks informed us that a greater part of his 
men under Captain Bogart had mutinied, and that he 
would be obliged to draw them off from the place, for 
fear they would join the mob; consequently he could offer 
us no assistance. 

We had now no hopes whatever of successfully resist- 
ing the mob, who kept constantly increasing; our pro- 
Hardshiips of "^'isious werc entirely exhausted, and we were 
the Saints. wom out by contiuually standing on guard, 
and watching the movements of our enemies, who, during 
the time I was there, fired at us a groat many times. Some 
of the brethren perished from starvation ; and for once in 
my life, I had the pain of beholding some of my fellow 
creatures fall victims to the spirit of persecution, which 
did then, and has since, prevailed to such an extent in 
Upper Missouri. They were men, too, who were virtuous 
and against whom no legal process could for one moment 
be sustained, but who, in consequence of their love of 
God, attachment to His cause, and their determination to 

A. D. 1838] HISTOllY OF THE CHURCH. 159 

keep the faith, were thus brought to an untimely grave. 
In the meantime Henry Root and David Thomas, who had 
been the soul cause of the settlement of our people in DeWitt, 
solicited the Saints to leave the place. Thomas , , 

^ Proposals lor 

said he had assurances from the mob, that if the Departure 
they would leave the place they would not be 
hurt, and that they would be paid for all losses which 
they had sustained, and that they had come as mediators 
to accomplish this object, and that persons should be ap- 
pointed to set a value on the property which they had to 
leave, and that they should be paid for it. The Saints 
finally, through necessity, had to comply, and leave the 
place. Accordingly the committee was appointed — Judge 
Ei'ickson was one of the committee, and Major Florey, 
of Rutsville, another, the names of others are not remem- 
bered. They appraised the real estate, that was all. 

When the people came to start, many of their horses, 
oxen and cows were gone, and could not be found. It 
was known at the time, and the mob boasted ^ g^^ j^^j.. 
of it, that they had killed the oxen and lived °^^- 
on them. Many houses belonging to my brethren were 
burned, their cattle driven away, and a great quantity of 
their property was destroyed by the mob. The people of 
De Witt utterly failed to fulfill their pledge to pay the 
Saints for the losses they sustained. The governor hav- 
ing turned a deaf ear to our entreaties, the militia having 
mutinied, the greater part of them being ready to join 
the mob, the brethren, seeing no prospect of relief, came 
to the conclusion to leave that place, and seek a shelter 
elsewhere. Gathering up as many wagons as could be 
got ready, which was about seventy, with a remnant of the 
property they had been able to save from their ruthless foes, 
they left De Witt and started for Caldwell county on the 
atternoon of Thursday, October 11, 1838. They traveled 
that day about twelve miles, and encamped in a grove of 
timber near the road. 

That evening a woman, of the name of Jensen, who 


had some short time before given birth to a child, died in 
consequence of the exposure occasioned by the operations 
of the mob, and having to move before her strength would 
properly admit of it. She was buried in the grove, with- 
out a coffin. 

During our journey we were continually harassed and 
threatened by the mob, who shot at us several times, 
whilst several of our brethren died from the fatigue and 
privation which they had to endure, and we had to inter 
them by the wayside, without a coffin, and under circum- 
stances the most distressing. We arrived in Caldwell on 
the twelfth of October. 




No sooner had the brethren left De Witt than Sashiel 
Woods called the mob together, and made a speech to 
them to the effect that they must hasten to pj^^^ ^f the 
assist their friends in Daviess county. The ^^°^ ^^ ^,\^' 

•^ possess the 

land sales, he said, were coming on, and if saints. 
they could get the "Mormons" driven out, they could get 
all the lands entitled to pre-emptions, and that they must 
hasten to Daviess county in order to accomplish their ob- 
ject; that if they would join and drive out the Saints, the 
old settlers could get all the lands back again, as well as 
all the pay they had received for them. He assured the 
mob that they had nothing to fear from the state authori- 
ties in so doing, for they had now full proof that those 
authorities would not assist the "Mormons," and that 
they [the mob] might as well take their property from 
them as not. His proposition was agreed to, and accord- 
ingly the whole banditti started for Daviess county, tak- 
ing with them their cannon. 

In the meantime, Cornelius Gilliam was busily engaged 
in raising a mob in Platte and Clinton counties, to aid 
Woods in his effort to drive peaceable citizens from their 
homes and take their property. 

On my arrival in Caldwell, I was informed by General 
Doniphan, of Clay county, that a company of mobbers, 
eight hundred strong, were marching toward 

° ^' ^ Plans of Doni- 

a settlement of our people in Daviess county, ptan to Pro- 

He ordered out one of the officers to raise a 

force and march immediately to what he called Wight's 

11 vol III 


Town [ Adam-ondi- Ahman] , and defend our people from 
the attacks of the mob, until he should raise the militia 
in his [Clay] and the adjoining counties to put them down. 
A small company of militia, who were on their way to 
Daviess county, and who had passed through Far West, 
he ordered back again, stating that they were not to be 
depended upon, as many of them were disposed to join 
the mob, and to use his own expression, were "damned 
rotten hearted." 

Sunday^ October 14. — I preached to the brethren at Far 
West from the saying of the Savior: "Greater love hath 
no man than this, that he lay down his life for his breth- 
ren." At the close I called upon all that would stand by 
me to meet me on the public square the next day. 

There were seven cut off from the Church in Preston, 

England, this day. It was a general time of pruning in 

England. The powers of darkness raged, and 

state of Af- . ^ ^ , , r~i , p n t 7 • 1 

fairs in Eng- it scemed as thougli batan was lully determined 
to make an end of the work in that kingdom. 
Elders Joseph Fielding and Willard Richards had as much 
as they could do for some time, to see to the branches 
already planted, without planting new ones. 

3londai/, October 2.5.— The brethren assembled on the 
public square of Far West and formed a company of about 
r, ■ ,■ one hundred, who took up a line of march for 

Organization ' ^ 

for Defense. Adam- oudi- Ahman. Here let it be distinctly 
understood that this company were militia of the county 
of Caldwell, acting under Lieutenant- Colonel George M. 
Hinkle, agreeable to the order of General Doniphan, and the 
brethren were very careful in all their movements to act 
in strict accordance with the constitutional laws of the land. 
The special object of this march was to protect Adam- 
ondi- Ahman, and repel the attacks of the mob in Daviess 
count V. Having some property in that coun- 

Mob Depreda- ' , . ^ ^ ,.,-,. ^i 

tionsat ty, and having a house building there, i went 

'^ ™^°' up at the same time. While I was there a num- 
ber of houses belonging to our people were burned by the 


mob, who committed many other depredations, such as 
driving off horses, sheep, cattle, hogs, etc. A number of 
those whose houses were burned down, as well as those 
who lived in scattered and lonely situations, fled into the 
town for safety, and for shelter from the inclemency of 
the weather, as a considerable snowstorm took place on 
the 17tli and 18th. Women and children, some in the 
most delicate condition, were thus obliged to leave their 
homes and travel several miles in order to effect their es- 
cape. My feelings were such as I cannot describe when I 
saw them flock into the village, almost entirely destitute 
of clothes, and only escaping with their lives. 

During this state of affairs. General Parks arrived in 
Daviess county, and was at the house of Colonel Lyman 
Wight on the 18th, when the intelligence was Affairs at 
brought that the mob were burning houses ; Miiiport. 
and also when women and children were fleeing for safety, 
among whom was Agnes M. Smith, wife of my brother, 
Don Carlos Smith, who was absent on a mission in Ten- 
nessee. Her house had been plundered and burned by 
the mob, and she had traveled nearly three miles, carry- 
ing her two helpless babes, and had to wade Glrand river. 

Colonel Wight, who held a commission in the 59th regi- 
ment under his (Greneral Parks') command, asked what 
was to be done. Parks told him that he must Parks' order 
immediately call out his men and go and put to Wight to 

•' . Disperse the 

the mob down. Accordingly a force was im- Mob. 
mediately raised for the purpose of quelling the mob, and 
in a short time was on its march, with a determination to 
disperse the mob, or die in the attempt; as the people 
could bear such treatment as was being inflicted upon 
them no longer. 

The mob, having learned the orders of General Parks, 
and likewise being aware of the determination of the 
oppressed, broke up their encampment and strate-emof 
fled. The mob seeing that they could not t^eMob. 
succeed by force, now resorted to strategem; and after re- 


moving their property out of their houses, which were 
nothing but log cabins, they fired them, and then reported 
to the authorities of the state that the "Mormons" were 
burning and destroying all before them.* 

Friday^ October 19. — Elder William Clayton quitted his 

temporal business in England, and gave him- 

wm. Clay- sclf wholly to the ministry, and soon com- 

ton's Ministry , i . i i j.* • • tvt 

menced preachmg and baptizmg m Man- 

As I was driven away from Kirtland without the privi- 
lege of settling my business, I had, previous to this, em- 
vindicationof ploycd Coloucl Olivcr Granger as my agent, to 
the Prophet's closc all my affairs in the east: and as I have 

Business '' . , . 

Course in bccu accuscd of "runumg away, cheatmg my 

Kirtland. ... o l^ 

creditors, etc, I will insert one or the many 
cards and letters I have received from gentlemen who 
have had the best opportunity of knowing my busi- 

• It was a cunning piece of diabolism which prompted the mob of Daviess county 
to set fire to their own log cabins, destroy some of their own property and then 
charge the crime to the Saints. But it was not without a precedent in Missouri. 
Two years before that, something very similar occurred in Mercer county, just 
northeast of Daviess. In June of the year 183G, the Iowa Indians, then living near 
St. Josoph, made a friendly hunting excursion through the northern part of the 
state, and their line of travel led them through what was known as the "Heatherly 
settlement," in Mercer county. The Heatherlys, who were ruffians of the lowest 
type, took advantage of the excitement produced by the incursion of the Indians, 
and circulated a report that they were robbing and killing the whites. During the 
excitement these Heatherlys murdered a man by the name of Dunbar, and another 
man against whom they had a grudge, and then fled to the settlements along the 
Missouri river, representing that they were fleeing from the Indians for their lives. 
This produced great excitement in the settlements in the surrounding counties; the 
people not knowing at what hour the Indians might be upon them. The militia was 
called out for their protection; but it was soon ascertained that the alaim was a false 
one. The Heatherlys were arrested, tried for murder, and some of them sent to the 
penitentiary This circumstance occurring only two years before the action of the 
mob about Millport, and in a county adjacent to Daviess county, doubtless sug- 
gested the course pursued by the mob in burning their own houses and fleeing to 
all parts of the state with the report that the "Mormons" had done it, and were 
murdering and plundering the old settlers. These false rumors spread by the mob, 
were strengthened in the piablic ear by such men as Adam Black, Judge King of 
Richmond, and other prominent men who were continually writing inflammatory 
communications to the governor.— For the Heatherly incident, see "History of 
Livingston County, Missouri," written and compiled by the National Historical 
Company (188G), chapter 3, pp. 710, 713. 


ness transactions, and whose testimony comes unso- 
licited : 

A Card. 

Painsville, October 19, 1838. 
We, the undersigned, being personal acquaintances of Oliver Granger, 
firmly believe that the course which he has pursued in settling the 
claims, accounts, etc., against the former citizens of Kirtland township, 
has done much credit to himself, and all others that committed to him 
the care of adjusting their business with this community, which also 
furnishes evidence that there was no intention on their part of defraud- 
ing their creditors. 

[Signed] Thomas Griffith, 

John S. Seymour. 

About this time William Morgan, sheriff of Daviess 
county, Samuel Bogart, Colonel William P. Penniston, 
Doctor Samuel Venable, Jonathan J. Dryden, James 
Stone and Thomas J. Martin, made communi- 

<v» 1 • r> 1 n Crimes of the 

cations or affidavits of the most inflammatory Mob charged 
kind, charging upon the "Mormons" those 
depredations which had been committed by the mob, en- 
deavoring thereby to raise the anger of those in authority, 
rallying a sufficient force around their standard, and pro- 
duce a total overthrow, massacre, or banishment of the 
"Mormons" from the state. These and their associates 
were the ones who fired their own houses and then fled 
the country crying "fire and murder." 

It was reported in Far West today [October 19th] that 
Orson Hvde had left that place, the night ^ 

" . *- /.111 Departure of 

previous, leaving a letter for one of the breth- Orson Hyde 

1 . , ITT 1 n , f romFarWest. 

ren, which would develop the secret. 

Monday^ 22. — On the retreat of the mob from Daviess 
county, I returned to Caldwell, with a company of the 
brethren, and arrived at Far West about seven 

. . Return of the 

mthe evening, where 1 had hoped to enjoy some Prophet to 
respite from our enemies, at least for a short 
time; but upon my arrival there, I was informed that a 
mob had commenced hostilities on the borders of Cald- 


well county, adjoining Eay county, and that they had 
taken some of our brethren prisoners, burned some houses, 
and had committed depredations on the peaceable inhab- 

Tuesday, 23. — News came to Far West, this morning, 

that the brethren had found the cannon, which the mob 

brought from Independence, buried in the 

Flock into earth, and had secured it by order of General 

Fsii* West • 

Parks. The word of the Lord was given sev- 
eral months since, for the Saints to gather into the cities, 
but they have been slow to obey until the judgments were 
upon them, and now they are gathering by flight and 
haste, leaving all their effects, and are glad to get off at 
that. The city of Far West is literally crowded, and the 
brethren are gathering from all quarters. 

Fourteen citizens of Ray county, one of whom was a 
Mr. Hudgins, a postmaster, wrote the governor an inflam- 
matory epistle. Thomas C. Burch, of Eich- 
inflammatory Dioud, wi'otc a similar commuuication. Also 
Governor. thc citizcus of Ray couuty, in public meeting, 

appealed to the governor of the state, to give 
the people of Upper Missouri protection from the fearful 
body of "thieves and robbers;" while the fact is the 
Saints were minding their own business, only as they 
were driven from it by those who were crying thieves and 

The mail came in this evening, but not a single letter 
The Mail ^^ anybody, from which it is evident there is 

Robbed. j^q dcposit sacrcd to those marauders who are 

infesting the country and trying to destroy the Saints. 
Wednesday , 24. — Austin A. King and Adam Black re- 
newed their inflammatory communications to 

The Course of t i i • 

King and tlic govcmor, as did other citizens of Rich- 

mond, viz., C. R. Morehead, William Thorn- 
ton, and Jacob Gudgel, who scrupled at no falsehood or 
exaggeration, to raise the governor's anger against us. 
Thomas B. Marsh, formerly president of the Twelve, 


having apostatized, repaired to Richmond and made affi- 
davit before Henry Jacobs, justice of the peace, to all the 
vilest slanders, aspersions, lies and calumnies ^, . ^ 

' The Apostasy 

towards myself and the Church, that his of Thomas b. 
wicked heart could invent. He had been 
lifted up in pride by his exaltation to office and the rev- 
elations of heaven concerning him, until he was ready to 
be overthrown by the first adverse wind that should cross 
his track, and now he has fallen, lied and sworn falsely, 
and is ready to take the lives of his best friends. Let all 
men take warning by him, and learn that he who exalteth 
himself, God will abase. Orson Hyde was also at Eich- 
mond and testified to most of Marsh's statements.* 

*The chief points in the affidavit of Thomas B. Marsh, referred to in the text, 
are as follows : "They have among them a company, considered true Mormons, 
called the Daaites, who have taken an oath to support the heads of the Church in 
all things that they say or do, whether right or wrong. Many, however, of this 
band are much dissatisfied with this oath, as being against moral and religious 
principles. On Saturday last, I am informed by the Mormons, that they had a 
meeting at Par West, at which they appointed a company of twelve, by the name of 
the 'Destruction Company,' for the purpose of burning and destroying, and that 
if the people of Buncombe came to do mischief upon the people of Caldwell, and 
committed depredations upon the Mormons, they were to burn Buncombe; and if 
the people of Clay and Ray made any movement against them, this destroying com- 
pany were to burn Liberty and Richmond. * « * * The Prophet inculcates the 
notion, and it is believed by every true Mormon, that Smith's prophecies are supe- 
rior to the laws of the land. I have heard the Prophet say that he would yet tread down 
his enemies, and walk over their dead bodies; and if he was not let alone, he would 
be a second Mohammed to this generation, and that he would make it one gore of 
blood from the Rocky mountains to the Atlantic ocean; that like Mohammed, whose 
motto in treating for peace was, 'the Alcoran or the Sword.' So should it be 
eventually with us, 'Joseph Smith or the Sword.' These last statements were 
made during the last summer. The number of armed men at Adam-ondi-Ahman 
was between three and four hundred. 

"Thomas B. Maksh. 
"Sworn to and subscribed before me, the day herein written. 

"Henry Jacobs, 
"J. P. Ray county, Missouri. 
"Richmond. Missouri, October 24, 1838." 

"affidavit of ORSON HYIIE. 

"The most of the statements in the foregoing disclosure I know to be true; the 
remainder 1 believe to be true. 

"Orson Hyde. 
"Richmond, October 24, 1838. 
"Sworn to and subscribed before me, on the day above written. 

"Henry Jacobs, J. P." 
Of this testimony and the action of Marsh and Hyde the late President Taylor in 


The following letter, being a fair specimen of the "truth 
and honesty" of many others which I shall notice, I give 
it in full : 

Communication of Woods and Dickson to Governor Boggs, 

Carrolton, Missouri, October 24, 1838. 

Sir: — We were informed, last night, by an express from Ray county, 
that Captain Bogart and all his company, amounting to between fifty 
and sixty men were massacred by the Mormons at Buncombe, twelve 
miles north of Richmond, except three. This statement you may rely 
on as being true, and last night they expected Richmond to be laid in 
ashes this morning. We could distinctly hear cannon, and we know the 
Mormons had one in their possession. Richmond is about twenty-five 

his discourse on Succession in the Presidency, makes these pertinent remarks: 
"Testimonies from these sources are not always reliable, and it is to be hoped, for 
the sake of the two brethren, that some things were added by our enemies that they 
did not assert, but enough was said to make this default and apostasy rery terrible. 
I will here state that I was in Far West at the time these affidavits were made, and 
was mixed up with all prominent Church affa'rs. I was there when Thomas B. 
Marsh and Orson Hyde left there; and there are others present who were there at 
the same time. And 1 know that these things, referred to in the affidavits, are not 
true. I have heard a good deal about Danites, but I never heard of them among 
the Latter-day Saints. If there was such an organization, I never was made ac- 
quainted with it ***«•« Thomas B. Marsh was unquestionably insti- 
gated by the devil when he made this statement, which has been read in your 
hearing [the foregoing affidavit]. The consequence was, he was cut off from the 
Church. «•«*»* It would be here proper to state, however, that Orson 
Hyde had been sick with a violent fever for some time, and had not yet fully recov- 
ered therefrom, which, with th^ circumstances with which we were surrounded, 
and the influence of Thomas B. Marsh, may be offered as a slight palliation for his 
default. * * * * * * It may be proper here again to say a few words with 
regard to Brother Orson Hyde, whose endorsement of the terrible charges made by 
Thomas B. Marsh in his affidavit, has already been read. Suffice it to say, in addi- 
tion to what has previously b?en stated, he was cut off' from the Church, and of 
course lost his apostleship; and when he subsequently returned, and made all the 
satisfaction that was within his power, he was forgiven by the authorities and the 
people and was again re-instated in the quorum." 

Schuyler Colfax, vice-president of the United States, in his discussion with the 
late President John Taylor on the "Mormon Question," quoted this Marsh-Hyde 
affidavit, and Elder Taylor in reply said: 'I am sorry to say that Thomas B. Marsh 
did make that affi iavit, and that Orson Hyde stated that he knew part of it and be- 
lieved the other; and it would be disingenuous in me to deny it; but it is not true 
that these things existed, for I was there and knew to the contrary; and so did the 
people of Missouri, and so did the governor of Missouri. How do you account for 
their acts? Only on the score of the weakness of our common humanity. We were 
living in troublous times, and all men's nerves are not proof against such shocks 
as we then had t» endure." 


miles west of this place, on a straight line. We know not the hour or 
minute we will be laid in ashes — our country is ruined — for God's sake 
give us assistance as quick as possible. 

Yours, etc., 

Sashiel Woods, 
Joseph Dickson. 

These mobbers must have had very accute ears to hear 
cannon, (a six pounder) thh'ty-seven miles! So much 
for the lies of a priest of this world. Now 
for the truth of the case. This day about iL'temeBr^f 
noon, Captain Bogart, with some thirty or ^iSr'''''^'"^ 
forty men called on Brother Thoret Parsons, 
at the head of the east branch of Log creek, where he 
was living, aad warned him to be gone before next day at 
ten in the morning, declaring also that he would give Far 
West thunder and lightning before next day at noon, if 
he had good luck in meetin Neil Gillum, (Cornelius Gil- 
liam) who would camp about six miles west of Far West 
that night, and that he should camp on Crooked creek. 
He then departed towards Crooked creek. 

Brother Parsons dispatched a messenger with this news 
to Far West, and followed after Bogart to watch his 
movements. Brothers Joseph Holbrook and 

Raid on the 

David Juda, who went out this morning to Pmkham 
watch the movements of the enemy, saw eight 
armed mobbers call at the house of Brother Pinkham, 
where they took three prisoners, Nathan Pinkham, Broth- 
ers William Seely and Addison Green, and four horses, 
arms, etc. When departing they threatened Father Pink- 
ham that if he did not leave the state immediately they 
"would have his damned old scalp." Having leai'ned of 
Bogart' s movements the brethren returned to Far West 
near midnight, and reported their proceedings and those 
of the mob. 

On hearing the report. Judge Elias Higbee, the first 
judge of the county, ordered Lieutenant Colonel Hinkle, 
the highest officer in command in Far West, to send out 


a company to disperse the mob and retake their prison- 
ers, whom, it was reported, they intended to murder that 
Crooked night. The trumpet sounded, and ; the 

River Battle, brethren were assembled on the public square 
about midnight, when the facts were stated, and about 
seventy-five volunteered to obey the judge's order, under 
command of Captain David W. Patten, who immediately 
commenced their march on horseback, hoping without the 
loss of blood to surprise and scatter the camp, retake the 
prisoners and prevent the attack threatening Far West. 

Thursday^ 25. — Fifteen of the company were detached 
from the main body while sixty continued their march till 
they arrived near the ford of Crooked river, (or creek) 
where they dismounted, tied their horses, and leaving 
four or five men to guard them, proceeded towards the 
ford, not knowing the location of the encampment. It 
was just at the dawning of light in the east, when they 
were marching quietly along the road, and near the top of 
the hill which descends to the river that the report of a 
gun was heard, and young Patrick O'Banion reeled out of 
the ranks and fell mortally wounded. Thus the work of 
death commenced, when Captain Patten ordered a charge 
and rushed down the hill on a fast trot, and when within 
about fifty yards of the camp formed a line. The mob 
formed a line under the bank of the river, below their 
tents. It was yet so dark that little could be seen by 
looking at the west, while the mob looking towards the 
dawning light, could see Patten and his men, when they 
fired a broadside, and three or four of the brethren fell. 
Captain Patten ordered the fire returned, which was 
instantly obeyed, to great disadvantage in the darkness 
which yet continued. The fire was repeated by the mob, 
and returned by Captain Patten's company, who gave the 
watchword "God and Liberty." Captain Patten then 
ordered a charge, which was instantly obeyed. The 
parties immediately came in contact, with their swords, 
and the mob were soon put to flight, crossing the river at 


the ford and such places as they could get a chance. In 
the pursuit, one of the mob fled from behind a tree, 
wheeled, and shot Captain Patten, who mstantly fell, mor- 
tally wounded, having received a large ball in his 

The ground was soon cleared, and the brethren gath- 
ered up a wagon or two, and making beds therein of 
tents, etc, took their wounded and retreated 
towards Far West. Three brethren were titles'!' Death 
wounded in the bowels, one m the ueck, one o-Banion.^'''' 
in the shoulder, one through the hips, one 
through both thighs, one in the arms, all by musket shot. 
One had his arm broken by a sword. Brother Gideon 
Carter was shot in the head, and left dead on the ground 
so defaced that the brethren did not know him. Bogart 
reported that he had lost one man. The three prisoners 
were released and returned with the brethren to Far West. 
Captain Patten was carried some of the way in a litter, 
but it caused so much distress that he begged to be left 
by the way side. He was carried into Brother Winches- 
ter's, three miles from the city of Far West, where he 
died that night. Patrick O'Banion died soon after, and 
Brother Carter's body was also brought from Crooked 
river, when it was discovered who he was. 

1 went with my brother Hyrum and Lyman Wight to 
meet the brethren on their return, near Log creek, where 
I saw Captain Patten in a most distressing condition. 
His wound was incurable. 

Brother David Patten was a very worthy man, beloved 
by all good men who knew him. He was one of the 
Twelve Apostles, and died as he had lived, a man of God, 
and strong in the faith of a glorious resur- ^he Prophet's 
rection, in a world where mobs will have no Jl*^^^'',t*o"^ ''^ 

' . the Death of 

power or place. One of his last expressions David w. 
to his wife was — "Whatever you do else, 0! 
do not deny the faith." 
How different his fate to that of the apostate, Thomas 


B. Marsh, who this day vented all the lying spleen and 
malice of his heart towards the work of God, in a letter 
to Brother and Sister Abbot, to which was annexed an ad- 
denda by Orson Hyde. 

The following letter will show the state of public feeling 
in the country at this time : 

E. M. Hyland^s Letter to 3fessrs. Rees and Williams. 

Lexington, six o'clock p. m. 
October 25, 1838. 
To Messrs. Amos Rees and Wiley C. Williams: 

Gentlemen: — This letter is sent on after you on express by Mr. 
Bryant, of Ray county, since you left this morning. Mr. C. R. More- 
head came here on express for men to assist in repelling a threatened 
attack upon Richmond tonight. He brought news that the Mormon 
armed force had attacked Captain Bogartthis morning at daylight, and 
had cut off his whole company of fifty men. Since Mr. Morehead left 
Richmond, one of the company (Bogart's) has come in and reported 
that there were ten of his comrades killed and the remainder were taken 
prisoners, after many of them had been severely wounded; he stated 
further that Richmond would be sacked and burned by the Mormon 
banditti tonight. Nothing can exceed the consternation which this 
news gave rise to. The women and children are flying from Rich- 
mond in every direction. A number of them have repaired to Lexing- 
ton, amongst whom is Mrs. Rees. We will have sent from this county 
since one o'clock this evening about one hundred well-armed and dar- 
ing men, perhaps the most effective our county can boast of. They 
will certainly give them (the Mormons) a warm reception at Richmond 
tonight. You will see the necessity of hurrying on to the City of Jeffer- 
son, and also of imparting correct information to the public as you go 
along. My impression is, that j'ou had better send one of j'our number to 
Howard, Cooper and Boone counties, in order that volunteers may be 
getting ready and flocking to the scene of trouble as fast as possible. 
They must make haste and put a stop to the devastation which is men- 
aced by these infuriated fanatics, and they must go prepared and with 
the full determination to exterminate or expel them from the state en 
masse. Nothing but this can give tranquility to the public mind, and 
re-establish the supremacy of the laws. There must be no further de- 
laying with this question any where. The Mormons mu^t leave the 
state, or we will, one and all, and to this complexion it must come at 
last. We have great reliance upon your ability, discretion and fitness 


for the task you have undertaken, and we have only time to say, God 
speed you. 

Yours truly, 

E. M. Ryland, Judge. 

The brethren had not thong Jit of going to Richmond — it 
was a lie out of whole cloth. 

Governor Boggs'' Order to General John B. Clark. 

Friday, Headquarters of the Militia, 
City of Jefferson October 26, 1838. 

General John B. Clark, 1st Division Missouri Militia: 

Sir: — Application has been made to the commander-in-chief, by the 
citizens of Daviess county, in this state, for protection, and to be re- 
stored to their homes and property, with intelligence that the Mormons, 
with an armed force, have expelled the inhabitants of that county from 
their homes, have pillaged and burnt their dwellings, driven off their 
stock, and were destroying their crops; that they (the Mormons) have 
burnt to ashes the towns of Gallatin and Millport in said county; the 
former being the county seat of said county, and including the clerk's 
office and all the public records of the county, and that there is not now 
a civil officer within said county. The commander in-chief therefore 
orders that there be raised, from the 1st, 4th, 5th, 6th and 12th Divi- 
sions of the militia of this state, four hundred men each, to be mounted 
and armed as Infantry or Riflemen, each man to furnish himself with 
at least fifty rounds of ammunition, and at least fifteen days provisions. 
The troops from the 1st, 5th, 6th and 12th, will rendezvous at Fayette, 
in Howard county, on Saturday, the 3rd day of next month (November) 
at which point they will receive further instructions as to their line of 
march. You will therefore cause to be raised the quota of men re- 
quired of your division (four hundred men) without delay, either by 
volunteer or drafts, and rendezvous at Fayette, in Howard county, on 
Saturday, the third day of next month (November) and there join the 
troops from the 5th, 6th and 12th divisions. The troops from the 4th 
division will join you at Richmond in Ray county. You will cause the 
troops raised in your division, to be formed into companies according to 
law, and placed under officers already in commission. If volunteer 
companies are raised, they shall elect their own officers. The prefer- 
ence should always be given to volunteer companies already organized 
and commissioned. You will also detail the necessary field and staff 
officers. For the convenience of transporting the camp equipage, pro- 


visions and hospital stores for the troops under your command, you 
are authorized to employ two or three baggage wagons. 
By order of the Commander-in-Chief, 

B. M Lisle, Adj.-General. 

Letters of Horace Kingsbury and John W. Hawden on the Business 
Integrity of the Prophet and his Agents in Kirtland. 

To all persons that are or may be interested. I, Horace Kingsbury, 
of Painsville township, Geauga county, and state of Ohio, feeling the 
importance of recommending to remembrance every worthy citizen who 
has by his conduct commended himself to personal acquaintance 
by his course of strict integrity, and desire for truth and common 
justice, feel it my duty to state that Oliver Granger's management in 
the arrangement of the unfinished business of people that have moved 
to the Far West, in redeeming their pledges and thereby sustaining 
their integrity, has been truly praiseworthy, and has entitled him to 
my highest esteem, and ever grateful recollection. 

Horace Kingsbury. 

Painesville, October 26, 1838. 

To whom it may concern. This may certify that during the year of 
eighteen hundred and thirty-seven, I had dealings with Messrs. Joseph 
Smith, Junior, and Sidney Rigdon, together with other members of the 
[Mormon] society, to the amount of about three thousand dollars, and 
during the spring of eighteen hundred and thirty- eight, I have received 
my pay in full of Colonel Oliver Granger to my satisfaction. And I 
would here remark that it is due Messrs. Smith and Rigdon, and the 
[Mormon] society generally, to say that they have ever dealt honorably 
and fair with me: and I have received as good treatment from them as 
I have received from any other society in this vicinity; and so far as I 
have been correctly informed and made acquainted with their business 
transactions generally, they have, so far as I can judge, been honorable 
and honest, and have made every exertion to arrange and settle their 
affairs. And I would further state, that the closing up of my business 
with said society has been with their agent, Colonel Granger, appointed 
by them for that purpose; and I consider it highly due Colonel Granger 
from me, here to state that he has acted truly and honestly in all his 
business with me, and has accomplished more than I could reasonably 
have expected. And I have also been made acquainted with his business 
in that section; and wherever he has been called upon to act, he has 
done so and with good management he has accomplished and effected 
the close of a large amount of business for said societ3',and as I believe, 
to the entire satisfaction of all concerned. 

John W. Hawden. 

Painesville, Geauga county, Ohio, October 27, 1838. 


Saturday^ 27. — Brother Patten was buried this day at 
Far West, and before the funeral, I called at Brother 
Patten's house, and while meditating on the ^,^,^^^^10^ 
scene before me in presence of his friends, David w.Pat- 


I could not help pointing to his lifeless body 

and testifying, "There lies a man that has done just as 

he said he would — he has laid down his life for his 


Governor Boggs' Exterminating Order. 

Headquarters Militia, City of Jefferson, 

October 27, 1838. 

Sir: — Since the order of the morning to you, directing you to cause 
four hundred mounted men to be raised within your division, I have 
received by Amos Rees, Esq., and Wiley C. Williams, Esq., one of my 
aids, information of the most appalling character, which changes the 
whole face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of open and 
avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made open war upon the 
people of this state. Your orders are, therefore, to hasten your oper- 
ations and endeavor to reach Richmond, in Ray county, with all possi- 
ble speed. The Mormons must be treated as enemies and 7niist be exter- 
minated or driven from the state, if necessary for the public good. 
Their outrages are beyond all description. If you can increase your 
force, you are authorized to do so, to any extent you may think neces- 
sary. I have just issued orders to Major-General Wallock, of 
Marion county, to raise five hundred men, and to march them to the 
northern part of Daviess and there to unite with General Doni- 
phan, of Clay, who has been ordered with five hundred men to pro- 
ceed to the same point for the purpose of intercepting the retreat of 
the Mormons to the north. They have been directed to communicate 
with you by express; and you can also communicate with them if 
you find it necessary. Instead, therefore, of proceeding as at first 
directed, to reinstate the citizens of Daviess in their homes, you will 
proceed immediately to Richmond, and there operate against the 
Mormons. Brigadier-General Parks, of Ray, has been ordered to 
have four hundred men of his brigade in readiness to join you at Rich- 
mond. The whole force will be placed under your command. 


Governor and Commander-inChief. 

To General Clark. 

Great excitemet now prevailed, and mobs were heard 


of in every direction, who seemed determined on our de- 
struction. Tbey burned the houses in the 

Excitement m 

Upper Mis- couutry, and took off all the cattle they could 
find. They destroyed corn fields, took many 
prisoners, and threatened death to all the Mormons. 

The Appeal of Atchison and Lucas to Governor Boggs, Asking his 
Presence at the seat of War. 

Headquarters of the 3rd and 4th Division, Missouri 

Militia, Richmond, October 28, 1838. 

To the Commander-in-Chief, Missouri Militia: 

Sir: — From late outrages committed by the Mormons, civil war is in- 
evitable. They have set the laws of the country at defiance, and are 
in open rebellion. We have about two thousand men under arms to 
keep them in check. The presence of the commander-in-chief is 
deemed absolutely necessarj'-, and we most respectfully urge that your 
excellency be at the seat of toar as soon as possible. 

Your most obedient servants, 

David R. Atchison, M. G. 3rd Div.* 
Samuel D. Lucas, M. G. 4th Div. 

* It is to be regretted that General David R. Atchison joined with General 
Lucas in signing the above communication. Up to this time Major General At- 
chison had apparently exercised his influence counseling moderation in dealing 
with the "Mormons." He was a resident of Clay county when the Saints were 
driven into that county from Jackson. He, with General Doniphan and Amos 
Rees, had acted as counsel for the exiles, and had seen the doors of the temple of 
justice closed in their faces by mob violence, and all redress denied them. He 
was acquainted with the circumstances which led to their removal from Clay 
county, to the unsettled prairies of what afterwards became Caldwell county. He 
knew how deep and unreasonable the prejudices were against the Saints. Can it 
be possible that he did not know how utterly unjustifiable the present movement 
against them was? Whether he was blinded by the false reports about Millport 
and Gallatin and Crooked river, or whether his courage faltered, and he became 
afraid longer to defend a people against whom every man's hand was raised, I 
cannot now determine, but one or the other must have been the case. General 
Atchison, however, was afterwards "dismounted," to use a word of General Don- 
iphan's in relating the incident, and sent back to Liberty in Clay county by special 
order of Governor Boggs, on the ground that he was inclined to be too merciful to 
the "Mormons," so that he was not active in the operations about Far West. But 
how he could consent to join with Lucas in sending such an untruthful and infam- 
ous report to the governor about the situation in Upper Missouri, is diflBcult to de- 
termine. The Saints had not set the laws at defiance, nor were they in open rebel- 
lion. But when all the officers of the law refused to hear their complaints, and 
both civil and military authority delivered them into the hands of merciless mobs 
to be plundered and outraged at their brutal pleasure, and all petitions for protec- 
tion at the hands of the governor had been answered with : "It is a quarrel be- 


tween the Mormons and the mob, and they must fight it out," what was left for 
them to do but to arm themselves and stand in defense of their homes and fam- 
ilies? The movement on Gallatin by Captain Patten and that on Millport by 
Colonel Wight was ordered by General Parks, who called upon Colonel Wight to 
take command of his company of men, when the militia under Parks' command 
mutinied, and dispersed all mobs wherever he found them. Gallatin was not 
burned, nor were the records of the county court, if they were destroyed at all, 
destroyed by the Saints. What houses were burned in Millport had been set on 
fire by the mob. The expedition to Crooked river was ordered by Judge Higbee, 
the first judge in Caldwell county and the highest civil authority in Far West, and 
was undertaken for the purpose of dispersing a mob which had entered the house 
of a peaceable citizen — one Pinkham — and carried off three people prisoners, four 
horses and other property, and who had threatened to "give Far West hell before 
noon the next day." So that in their operations the acts of the Saints had been 
strictly within the law, and only in self defense. 

12 Vol. Ill 




LiLBURN W. BoGGS had become so hardened by mobbing 
The Prophet's ^^® Saints in Jackson county, and his con- 
loveTnor *^° sciencc SO "scarcd as with a hot iron," that he 
Boggs. -v^as considered a fit subject for the guberna- 

torial chair; and it was probably his hatred to truth and 
the "Mormons," and his blood-thirsty, murderous dispo- 
sition, that raised him to the station he occupied. His 
exterminating order of the twenty- seventh aroused every 
spirit in the state, of the like stamp of his own; and the 
Missouri mobocrats were flocking to the standard of Gen- 
eral Clark from almost every quarter. 

Clark, although not the ranking officer, was selected by 

Oovernor Boggs as the most fit instrument to carry out his 

murderous designs; for bad as they were in 

fieneral Clark *= ' -^ 

Missouri, very few commanding officers were 
yet sufficiently hardened to go all lengths with Boggs in 
this contemplated inhuman butchery, and expulsion from 
one of the should-be free and independent states of the 
Republic of North America, where the Constitution de- 
clares, that ^^ every )7ian shall have the j^t'i^'Hege of tvorship- 
ing God according to the dictates of his own conscience ;^^ 
and this was all the offense the Saints had been guilty of. 
And here 1 would stats, that while the evil spirits were 
raging up and down in the state to raise mobs against the 
Doctor Samp- "Mormous," Satau himself was no less busy 
aon Avard. jjj striving to stir up mischief in the camp of 
the Saints : and among the most conspicuous of his will- 
ing devotees was one Doctor Sampson Avard, who had 


been in the Church but a short time, and who, although 
he had generally behaved with a tolerable degree of ex- 
ternal decorum, was secretly aspiring to be the greatest 
of the great, and become the leader of the people. This 
was his pride and his folly, but as he had no hopes of ac- 
complishing it by gaining the hearts of the people openly 
he watched his opportunity with the brethren — at a time 
when mobs oppressed, robbed, whipped, burned, plun- 
dered and slew, till forbearance seemed no longer a vir- 
tue, and nothing but the grace of God without measure 
could support men under such trials — to form a secret com- 
bination by which he might rise a mighty conqueror, at 
the expense and the overthrow of the Church. This he 
tried to accomplish by his smooth, flattering, and winning 
speeches, which he frequently made to his associates, 
while his room was well guarded by some of his followers, 
ready to give him the signal on the approach of anyone 
who would not approve of his measures. 

In these proceedings he stated that he had the sanction 
of the heads of the Church for what he was about to do ; 
and by his smiles and flattery, persuaded them ^yard's i)an- 
to believe it, and proceeded to administer to **®^- 
the few under his control, an oath, binding them to ever- 
lasting secrecy to everything which should be communi- 
cated to them by himself. Thus Avard initiated members 
into his band, firmly binding them, by all that was sacred, 
in the protecting of each other in all things that were law- 
ful; and was careful to picture out a great glory that was 
then hovering over the Church, and would soon burst upon 
the Saints as a cloud by day, and a pillar of fire by night, 
and would soon unveil the slumbering mysteries of 
heaven, which would gladden the hearts and arouse the 
stupid spirits of the Saints of the latter-day, and fill their 
hearts with that love which is unspeakable and full of glory, 
and arm them with power, that the gates of hell could not 
prevail against them ; and would often affirm to his com- 
pany that the principal men of the Church had put him 


forward as a spokesman, and a leader of this band, which 
he named Danites. 

Thus he duped many, which gave him the opportunity 
of figuring as a person of importance. He held his meet- 
ings daily, and carried on his crafty work in 

Avard's Man- fe J ' J 

nerof Pro- gi'cat haste, to prevcut mature reflection upon 
the matter by his followers, until he had them 
bound under the penalties of death to keep the secrets 
and certain signs of the organization ,by which they were 
to know each other by day or night. 

After those performances, he held meetings to organize 
his men into companies of tens and fifties, appointing a 
captain over each company. After completing this organ- 
ization, he went on to teach the members of it their duty 
under the orders of their captains ; he then called his cap- 
tains together and taught them in a secluded place, as 
follows : 

Aiard''s Instructions to His Captains. 

My brethren, as you have been chosen to be our leading men, our 
captains to rule over this last kingdom of Jesus Christ — and you have 
been organized after the ancient order — I have called upon you here 
today to teach you, and instruct you in the things that pertain to your 
duty, and to show you what your privileges are, and what they soon 
will be. Know ye not, brethren, that it soon will be your privilege to 
take your respective companies and go out on a scout on the borders of 
the settlements, and take to yourselves spoils of the goods of the un- 
godly Gentiles? for it is written, the riches of the Gentiles shall be 
consecrated to my people, the house of Israel; and Ihus ^oi3,-wTlt~waste 
away the-G-entiles by robbing and plundering them of their property; 
and in this waj' we will build up the kingdom of God, and roll forth 
the little stone that Daniel saw cut out of the mountain without hands, 
and roll forth until it filled the whole earth. For this is the very way 
that God destines to build up His kingdom in the last days.' If any of 
us should be recognized, who can harm us? for we will stand by each 
other and defend one another in all things. If our enemies swear 
against us, we can swear also. [The captains were confounded at 
this, but Avard continued]. Why do you startle at this, brethren? As 
the Lord liveth, I would swear to a lie to clear any of you; and if this 
would not do, I would put them or him under the sand as Moses did the 
Egyptian; and in this way we will consecrate much unto the Lord, and 


build up His kingdom ; and who can stand against us? And if any of us 
transgress, we will deal with him amongst ourselves. And if any one 
of this Danite society reveals any of these thisgs, I will put him where 
the dogs cannot bite him. 

At this lecture all of the officers revolted, and said it 
would not do, they would not go into any such measures, 
and it would not do to name any such thing: 

- , , , . IT,. . , . ' Revolt of 

"such proceedings would be m open violation Avard's om- 
of the laws of our country, would be robbing 
our fellow citizens of their rights, and are not according 
to the language and doctrine of Christ, or of the Church of 
Latter-day Saints." 

Avard replied, and said there was no laws that were 
executed in justice, and he cared not for them, this being 
a different dispensation, a dispensation of the fullness 
of times; in this dispensation he learned from the Scrip- 
tures that the kingdom of God was to put down all other 
kingdoms, and the Lord Himself was to reign, and His 
laws alone were the laws that would exist. 

Avard's teachings were still manfully rejected by all. 
Avard then said that they had better drop the subject, al- 
though he had received his authority from 
Sidney Rigdon the evening before. The Teachings 
meeting then broke up ; the eyes of those ^^^^ ^ 
present were opened, Avard's craft was no longer in the 
dark, and but very little confidence was placed in him, 
even by the warmest of the members of his Danite 

When a knowledge of Avard's rascality came to the 
Presidency of the Church, he was cutoff from the Church, 
and every means proper used to destroy his in- j^^^^^ Excom- 
flaence, at which he was highly incensed, and municated. 
went about whispering his evil insinuations, but finding 
every effort unavailing, he again turned conspirator, and 
sought to make friends with the mob. 

And here let it be distinctly understood, that these com- 
panies of tens and fifties got up by Avard, were alto- 



gether separate and distinct from those companies of 
tens and fifties orsranized by the brethren for 

Distinction m 

Organization self defense, m case of an attack from the 
mob. This latter organization was called into 
existence more particularly that in this time of alarm no 
family or person might be neglected; therefore, one com- 
pany would be engaged in drawing wood, another in cut- 
ting it, another in gathering corn, another in grinding, 
another in butchering, another in distributing meat, etc., 
etc., so that all should be employed in turn, and no one 
lack the necessaries of life. Therefore, let no one here- 
after, by mistake or design, confound this organization 
of the Church for good and righteous purposes, with the 
organization of the "Danites," of the apostate Avard, 
which died almost before it had existed. 

The mob began to encamp at Richmond on the twenty- 
sixth, and by this time amounted to about two thousand 
men, all ready to fulfill the exterminating order, 
the Mob at and joiu the standard of the governor. They 
took up a line of march for Far West, travel- 
ing but part way, where they encamped for the 

Tuesday^ October 80. — The advance guard of the mob 
were patrolling the country and taking many prisoners, 
among whom were Brother Stephen Winchester, and 
Brother Carey, whose skull they laid open by a blow 
from a rifle barrel. In this mangled condition, the mob 
laid him in their wagon and went on their way, denying 
him every comfort, and thus he remained that afternoon 
and night. 

General Clark was in camp at Chariton under a forced 
r, ni 1 . march to Richmond, with about a thou- 

bren. Clark s ' 

Movements. saud men, and the governor's exterminat- 
ing order. 

for the history of this day at Haun's Mills, on Shoal 
creek, I quote the following aflBdavit of Elder Joseph 
Young, First President of the Seventies: 

A. D. 18:58] ' HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 183 

Joseph Young''s Narrative of the Massacre at Haunts Mills. 

On the sixth day of July last, I started with my family from Kirt- 
land, Ohio, for the state of Missouri, the county of Caldwell, in the 
upper part of the state, being the place of my destination. 

On the thirteenth day of October I crossed the Mississippi at Louisi- 
ana, at which place I heard vague reports of the disturbances in the 
upper country, but nothing that could be relied upon. I continued my 
course westward till I crossed Grand river, at a place called Compton'g 
Ferry, at which place I heard, for the first time, that if I proceeded 
any farther on my journey, I would be in danger of being stopped by a 
body of armed men. I was not willing, however, while treading my 
native soil, and breathing republican air, to abandon my object, which 
was to locate myself and family in a fine, healthy country, where we 
could enjoy the society of our friends and connections. Consequently, 
I prosecuted my journey till I came to Whitney's Mills, situated ou 
Shoal creek, in the eastern part of Caldwell county. 

After crossing the creek and going about three miles, we met a party 
of the mob, about forty in number, armed with rifles, and mounted on 
horses, who informed us that we could go no farther west, threatening 
us with instant death if we proceeded any farther. I asked them the 
reason of this prohibition; to which they replied, that we were "Mor- 
mons;" that everyone who adhered to our religious faith, would have 
to leave the state in ten days, or renounce their religion. Accordingly 
they drove us back to the mills above mentioned. 

Here we tarried three days; and, on Friday, the twenty- sixth, we re- 
crqssed the creek, and following up its banks, we succeeded in eluding 
the mob for the time being, and gained the residence of a friend in 
Myer's settlement. 

On Sunday, twenty-eighth October, we arrived about twelve o'clock, 
at Haun's Mills, where we found a number of our friends collected to- 
gether, who were holding a council, and deliberating on the best course 
for them to pursue, to defend themselves against the mob, who were 
collecting in the neighborhood under the command of Colonel Jennings 
of Livingston county, and threatening them with house burning and kill- 
ing. The decision of the council was, that our friends there should place 
themselves in an attitude of self defense. Accordingly about twenty- 
eight of our men armed themselves, and were in constant readiness for 
an attack of any small body of men that might come down upon them- 

The same evening, for some reason best known to themselves the 
mob sent one of their number to enter into a treaty with our friends 
which was accepted, on the condition of mutual forbearance on both 
sides, and that each party, as far as their influence extended, should 
exert themselves to prevent any further hostilities upon either party. 


At this time, however, there was another mob collecting on Grand 
river, at William Mann's, who were threatening us, consequently we 
remained under arms. 

Monday passed away without molestation from any quarter. 

On Tuesday, the 30th, that bloody tragedy was acted, the scene of 
which I shall never forget. More than three-fourths of the day had 
passed in tranquility, as smiling as the preceding one. I think there 
was no individual of our company that was apprised of the sudden 
and awful fate that hung over our heads like an overwhelming torrent, 
which was to change the prospects, the feelings and the circumstances 
of about thirty families. The banks of Shoal creek on either side 
teemed with children sporting and playing, while their mothers were 
engaged in domestic employments, and their fathers employed in guard- 
ing the mills and other property, while others were engaged in gather- 
ing in their crops for their winter consumption. The weather was very 
pleasant, the sun shone clear, all was tranquil, and no one expressed 
any apprehension of the awful crisis that was near us — even at our 

It was about four o'clock, while sitting in my cabin with my babe in 
my arms, and my wife standing by my side, the door being open, I cast 
my eyes on the opposite bank of Shoal creek and saw a large company 
of armed men, on horses, directing their course towards the mills with 
all possible speed. As they advanced through the scattering trees that 
stood on the edge of the prairie they seemed to form themselves into a 
three square position, forming a vanguard in front. 

At this moment, David Evans, seeing the superiority of their num- 
bers, (there being two hundred and forty of them, according to their own 
account), swung his hat, and cried for peace. This not being heeded, 
they continued to advance, and their leader, Mr. Nehemiah Comstock, 
fired a gun, which was followed by a solemn pause of ten or twelve 
seconds, when, all at once, they discharged about one hundred rifles, 
aiming at a blacksmith shop into which our friends had fled for safety; 
and charged up to the shop, the cracks of which between the logs were 
sufficiently large to enable them to aim directly at the bodies of those 
who had there fled for refuge from the fire of their murderers. There 
were several families tented in the rear of the shop, whose lives were 
exposed, and amidst a shower of bullets fled to the woods in different 

After standing and gazing on this bloody scene for a few minutes, 
and finding myself in the uttermost danger, the bullets having reached 
the house where I was living, I committed my family to the protection 
of heaven, and leaving the house on the opposite side, I took a path 
which led up the hill, following in the trail of three of my brethren 


that had fled from the shop. While ascending the hill we were dis- 
covered by the mob, who immediately fired at us, and continued so to 
do till we reached the summit. In descending the hill, I secreted my- 
self in a thicket of bushes, where I lay till eight o'clock in the evening, 
at which time I heard a female voice calling my name in an under tone, 
telling me that the mob had gone and there was no danger. I im- 
mediately left the thicket, and went to the house of Benjamin Lewis, 
where I found my family (who had fled there) in safety, and two of 
my friends mortally wounded, one of whom died before morning. Here 
we passed the painful night in deep and awful reflections on the scenes 
of the preceding evening. 

After daylight appeared, some four or five men, who with myself, 
had escaped with our lives from the horrid massacre, and who repaired 
as soon as possible to the mills, to learn the condition of our friends, 
whose fate we had but too truly anticipated. When we arrived at the 
house of Mr, Haun, we found Mr. Merrick's body lying in the rear of 
the house, Mr. McBride's in front, literally mangled from head to 
foot. We were informed by Miss Rebecca Judd, who was an eye wit- 
ness, that he was shot with his own gun, after he had given it up, and 
then cut to pieces with a corn cutter by a Mr. Rogers of Daviess coun- 
ty, who keeps a ferry on Grand river, and who has since repeatedly 
boasted of this act of savage barbarity. Mr, York's body we found in 
the house, and after viewing these corpses, we immediately went to the 
blacksmith's shop, where we found nine of our friends, eight of whom 
were already dead; the other, Mr. Cox, of Indiana, struggling in the 
agonies of death and soon expired. We immediately prepared and 
carried them to the place of interment. The last office of kindness 
due to the remains of departed friends, was not attended with the cus- 
tomary ceremonies or decency, for we were in jeopardy, every moment 
expecting to be fired upon by the mob, who, we supposed, were lying 
in ambush, waiting for the first opportunity to despatch the remaining 
few who were providentially preserved from the slaughter of the pre- 
ceding day. However, we accomplished without molestation this 
painful task. The place of burying was a vault in the ground, formerly 
intended for a well, into which we threw the bodies of our friends pro- 
miscuously. Among those slain I will mention Sardius Smith, son of 
Warren Smith, about nine years old, who, through fear, had crawled 
under the bellows in the shop, whei-e he remained till the massacre was 
over, when he was discovered by a Mr. Glaze, of Carroll county, who 
presented his rifle near the boy's head, and literally blowed off the 
upper part of it. Mr. Stanley, of Carroll, told me afterwards that 
Glaze boasted of this fiend- like murder and heroic deed all over the 


The number killed and mortally wounded in this wanton slaughter 
was eighteen or nineteen, whose names as far as I recollect were as 
follows: Thomas McBride, Levi N. Merrick, Ellas Banner, Josiah 
Fuller, Benjamin Lewis, Alexander Campbell, Warren Smith, 
Sardius Smith, George S, Richards, Mr. William Napier, Augustine 
Harmer, Simon Cox, Mr. [Hiram] Abbott, John York, 
Charles Merrick, (a boy eight or nine nears old) , [John Lee, John 
Byers], and three or four others, whose names I do not recollect, as 
they were strangers, to me. Among the wounded who recovered were 
Isaac Laney. Nathan K. Knight, Mr. [William] Yokum, two brothers 
by the name of [Jacob and George] Myers, Tarlton Lewis, Mr. [Jacob] 
Haun, and several others, [Jacob Foutz, Jacob Potts, Charles Jimison, 
John Walker, Alma Smith, aged about nine years]. Miss Mary Sted- 
well, while fleeing, was shot through the hand, and, fainting, fell over 
a log, into which they shot upwards of twenty balls. 

To finish their work of destruction, this band of murderers, com- 
posed of men from Daviess, Livingston, Ray, Carroll, and Chariton 
counties, led by some of the principal men of that section of the upper 
country, (among whom I am informed were Mr. Ashby, of Chariton, 
member of the state legislature; Colonel Jennings, of Ijivingston 
county, Thomas O. Bryon, clerk of Livingston county; Mr. Whitney, 
Dr. Randall, and many others), proceeded to rob the houses, wagons, 
and tents, of bedding and clothing; drove off horses and wagons, 
leaving widows and orphans destitute of the necessaries of life; and 
even stripped the clothing from the bodies of the slain. According to 
their own account, they fired seven rounds in this awful butchery, mak- 
ing upwards of sixteen hundred shots at a little company of men, about 
thirty in number. I hereby certify the above to be a true statement of 
facts, according to the best of my knowledge. 

Joseph Young. 

State of Illinois, ) 

(* ss 

County of Adams. J 

I hereby certify that Joseph Young this day came before me, and 
made oath in due form of law, that the statements contained in the 
foregoing sheet are true, according to the best of his knowledge and 
belief. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and afl^ed 
the seal of the Circuit Court at Quincy, this fourth day of June, in the 
year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine. 

C. M. Woods, 

Clerk Circuit Court, Adams Co., 111. 

A younger brother of the boy here killed, aged ei,^ht, 
was shot through the hip. The little fellow himself states 


that seeing his father and brother both killed, he thought 
they would shoot him again if he stirred, _,. . 

•' " Additional 

and so feigned himself dead, and lay per- Events of the 
fectly still, till he heard his mother call 
him after dark. 

Nathan K. Knight saw a Missourian cut down Father 
McBride with a corn-cutter, and also saw them stripping 
the dying, and heard the boys crying for mercy. Brother 
Knight made his escape across the mill-dam, after receiv- 
ing wounds through his lungs and finger. After the mas- 
sacre was over, he was led to a house by a woman, and 
whilst lying there wounded he heard Mr. Jesse Maupin 
say that he blew one of the boys' brains out- Some time 
later whilst walking the streets of Far West Brother 
Knight was met by three Missourians who threatened to 
butcher him, and one of them by the name of Rogers 
drew a butcher knife, and said that he had not got his 
corn-cutter with him, that he cut down McBride with, 

"but by 1 have got something that will do as well:" 

but by a great chance Brother Knight made his escape 
from the ruffian. 

General Atchison withdrew from the army at Richmond 
as soon as the governor's extermination order Atchison 
was received. Up to this time we were ig- J^o^j^^yf^f. 
norant at Far West of the movements of the litia.'i. 
mob at Richmond, and the governor's order of extermi- 

On the 30th of October a large company of armed sol- 
diers were seen approaching Far West. They came up 
near to the town, and then drew back about . . , ^ 

' . Ai rival of 

a mile, and encamped for the night. We more Mob- 

. ' ^ - , „. . , , Militia. 

were mrormed that they were militia, ordered 
out by the governor for the purpose of stopping our pro- 
ceedings, it having been represented to his excellency, by 
wicked and designing men from Daviess that we were the 
aggressors, and had committed outrages in Daviess 
county. They had not yet got the governor's order of 



extermination, which I believe did not arrive till the next 

Wednesday, October 31. — The militia of Far West 
guarded the city the past night, and arranged a tempor- 
prepartions ^^T fortificatioH of wagons, timber, etc., on 
for a Battle, thc south. Tlic sistcrs, many of them, were 
engaged in gathering up their most valuable effects, fear- 
ing a terrible battle in the morning, and that the houses 
might be fired and they obliged to flee. The enemy was 
five to one against us. 

About eight o'clock a flag of truce was sent from the 
enemy, which was met by several of our people, and it 
Col Hinkie's ^^^ hopcd that matters would be satisfactorily 
Treachery. arranged after the officers had heard a true 
statement of all the circumstances. Colonel Hinkle went 
to meet the flag, and secretly made the following engage- 
ment: First, to give up their [the Church's] leaders to 
be tried and punished ; second, to make an appropriation 
of the property of all who had taken up arms, for the pay- 
ment of their debts, and indemnify for the damage done 
by them; third, that the remainder of the Saints should 
leave the state, and be protected while doing so by the 
militia ; but they were to be permitted to remain under 
protection until further orders were received from the 
commander-in-chief; fourth, to give up their arms of 
every description, which would be receipted for. 

The enemy was reinforced by about one thousand 
five hundred men today, and news of the 

Reinforce- • n 

raent of the dcstructiou of propcrtv by the mob reached 

Mob. „ 

US irom every quarter. 
Towards evening I was waited upon by Colonel Hinkle, 
who stated that the officers of the militia desired to have 
an interview with me and some others, hoping 

Betrayal of -,• .n ^ • • ^ ^ i i • 

the Prophet that the difficulties might be settled without 
having occasion to carry into effect the exter- 
minating orders which they had received from the gov- 
ernor. I immediately complied with the request, and in 


company with Elders Sidney Rigdon and Parley P. Pratt, 
Colonel Wight and George W. Robinson, went into the 
camp of the militia. But judge of my surprise, when, 
instead of being treated with that respect which is due 
from one citizen to another, we were taken as prisoners 
of war, and treated with the utmost contempt.* The 
officers would not converse with us, and the soldiers, al- 
most to a man, insulted us as much as they felt disposed, 
breathing out threats against me and my companions. I 

* Elder Parley P. Pratt in his Autobio^raph}' referring to this betrayal cf the 
brethren on the part of Hinkle and their reception and treatment by the mob, eays: 
"Colonel George M. Hinkle, who was at that time the highest officer of the 
militia assembled for the defense of Far West, waited on Messrs. Joseph Smith, 
Sidney Rigdon, Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, George W. Robinson and myself, 
with a request from General Lucas that we would repair to his camp, with the as- 
surance that as soon as peaceable arrangements could be entered into we should be 
released. We had no confidence in the word of a murderer and robber, but there 
was no alternative but to put ourselves into the hands of such monsters, or to have 
the city attackfd, and men, women and children massacred. We, therefore, com- 
mended ourselves to the Lord, and voluntarily surrendered as sheep into the hands 
of wolves. As we approached the camp of the enemy General Lucas rode out to 
meet us with a guard of several hundred men. The haughty general rode up, 
and, without speaking to us, instantly ordered his guards to surround us. They 
did so very abruptly, and we were marched into camp surrounded by thousands of 
savage looking beings, many of whom were dressed and painted like Indian war- 
riors. These all set up a constant yell, like so many bloodhounds let loose upon 
their prey, as if they had achieved one of the most miraculous victories that ever 
graced the annals of the world. If the vision of the infernal regions could sud- 
denly open to the mind, with thousands of malicious fiends, all clamoring, exult- 
ing, deriding, blaspheming, mocking, railing, raging and foaming like a troubled 
sea, then could some idea be formed of the hell which we had entered. 

In camp we were placed under a strong guard, and were without shelter during 
the night, lying on the ground in the open air, in the midst of a great rain. The 
guards during the whole night kept up a constant tirade of mockery, and the most 
obscene blackguardism and abuse. They blasphemed God; mocked Jesus Christ; 
swore the most dreadful oaths; taunted Brother Joseph and others; demanded 
miracles; wanted signs, such as 'Come, Mr. Smith, show us an angel.' 'Give us 
one of your revelations.' 'Show us a miracle.' 'Come, there is one of your 
brethren here in camp whom we took prisoner yesterday in his own house, and 
knocked his brains out with his own rifle, which we found hanging over his fire- 
place; belays speechless and dying; speak the word and heal him, and then we 
will all believe ' 'Or, if you are Apostles or men of God, deliver yourselves, and 
then we will be Mormons" Next would be a volley of oaths and blasphemies ;then 
a tumultuous tirade of lewd boastings of having defiled virgins and wives by 
force, etc., much of which I dare not write; and, indeed, language would fail me 
to attempt more than a faint description. Thus passed this dreadful night, and 
before morning several other captives were added to our number, among whom 
was Brother Amasa Lyman." — Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 203-20.5. 



cannot begin to tell the scene which I thei'e witnessed. 
The loud cries and yells of more than one thousand voices, 
which rent the air and could be heard for miles, and the 
horrid and blasphemous threats and curses which were 
poured upon us in torrents, were enough to appall the 
stoutest heart. In the evening we had to lie down on the 
cold ground, surrounded by a strong guard, who were 
only kept back by the po;sver of God from depriving us of 
life. We petitioned the officers to know why we were 
thus treated, but they utterly refused to give us any an- 
swer, or to converse with us. After we arrived in the 
camp. Brother Stephen Winchester and eleven other 
brethren who were prisoners, volunteered, with permis- 
sion of the officers, to carry Brother Carey into the city 
to his family, he having lain exposed to the weather for 
a show to the inhuman wretches, without having his 
wound dressed or being nourished in any manner. He 
died soon after he reached home. 

Thursday, Noventher 1. — Brothers Hyum Smith and 
^^ „ , Amasa Lyman were brought prisoners into 

The Prophet -^ o r- 

and compan- camp. The officcrs of the militia held a court 
demned to be martial, and sentenced us to be shot, on Fri- 
day morning, on the public square of Far 
West as a warning to the "Mormons."* However, not- 
withstanding their sentence and determination, they were 

* This incident of sentencing the Prophet and his companion prisoners to be shot 
on the public square at Far West is also referred to in the History of Caldwell 
county, compiled by the St. Louis National Historical Company, and the formal 
orders of General Lucas to Brigadier-General Doniphan and also Doniphan's reply 
are given. 1 quote the following: "Yielding to the pressure upon him, it is al- 
leged that General Lucas, at about midnight, issued the following order to General 
Doniphan, in whose keeping the hostages were: 

" 'Brigadier-General Doniphan: 

"'Sir: — You will take Joseph Smith and the other prisoners into the public square 
of Far West, and shoot them at 9 o'clock to-morow morning. 

" 'Samuel D. 1jUua.s, 

" 'Major-General Commanding.' 

But General Doniphan, in great and righteous indignation, promptly returned 
the following reply to his superior: 

" 'It is cold-Vjlooded murder. I will not obey your order. My brigade shall march 


not permitted to carry their murderous sentence into exe- 
cution. Having an opportunity of speaking to General 
Wilson, I inquired of him why I was thus treated. I 
told him I was not aware of having done anything 
worthy of such treatment ; that I had always been a sup- 
porter of the Constitution and of democracy. His an- 
swer was, "1 know it, and that is the reason why I want 
to kill you, or have you killed." 

The militia went into the town, and without any restraint 
whatever, plundered the houses, and abused Robbings of 
the innocent and unoffending nihabitants and *^® Miutia. 
left many destitute. They went to my house, drove my 
family out of doors, carried away most of my property. 
General Doniphan declared he would have nothing to do 
with such cold-blooded murder, and that he would with- 
draw his brigade in the morning. 

Governor Boggs wrote General Clark from Jefferson 
City, that he considered full and ample powers were 

for Liberty tomorrow morning, at 8 o'clock; and if you execute these men, I will 
hold you responsible before an earthly tribunal, so help me God. 

" 'A. W. Doniphan, 

" 'Brigadier-General.' 

"The prisoners somehow heard of the order, and kneeled in prayer, and prayed 
fervently that it might not be executed. And it was not. Flagrantly insubordi- 
nate as was General Doniphan's refusal, he was never called to account for it. The 
■•Mormons' have always remembered General Doniphan's humanity on this occa- 
sion, as well as on others, and when, in 1873, he went to Salt Lake City, he was 
received with much feeling, and shown evcy regard and attention by Brigham 
Young and the other authorities of the Church and city, and by even the masses 
of the people." — (History of Caldwell County, p. 137). 

Parley P. Pratt, referring to this incident, says: "We were informed that the 
general officers held a secret council during most of the night, which was dignified 
by the name of court martial; in which, without a hearing, or, without even being 
brought before it, we were all sentenced to be shot. The day and hour was also 
appointed for the execution of this sentence, viz., next morning at 8 o'clock, in the 
public square at Far West. Of this we were informed by Brigadier-General 
Doniphan, who was one of the council, but who was so violently opposed to this 
«old-blooded murder that he assured the council that he would revolt and withdraw 
his whole brigade, and march them back to Clay county as .soon as it was light, if 
they persisted in so dreadful an undertaking. Said he, 'It is coldblooded murder, 
and I wash my hands of it.' His firm remonstrance, and that of a few others, so 
alarmed the haughty murderer and his accomplices that they dare not put the de- 
cree in execution." 


vested in him [Clark] to carry into effect the forrrier orders; 
says Bog^s : 

Excerpt Jrom Governor Boggs'' Communication to General Lucas. 

The case is now a very plain one — the "Mormons" must be subdued; 
and peace restored to the community; you will therefore proceed with- 
out delay to execute the former orders. Full confidence is reposed in 
your ability to do so; your force will be amply sufficient to accomplish 
the object. Should you need the aid of artillery, I would suggfest that 
an application be made to the commandiag officer of Fort Leavenworth, 
for such as j^ou may need. You are authorized to request the loan of 
it in the name of the state of Missouri. The ringleaders of this re- 
bellion should be made an example of; and if it should become neces- 
sary for the public peace, the "Mormons" should be exterminated, or 
expelled from the state. 

This morning General Lucas ordered the Caldwell 
militia to give up their arms. Hinkle, having 
Far West Dis- made a treaty with the mob on his own respon- 
sibility, to carry out his treachery, marched 
the troops out of the city, and the brethren gave up their 
arms, their own property, which no government on earth 
had a right to require. 

The mob (called Governor's troops) then marched into 
rr. , ,. . town, and under pretense of searching for 

High Handed ' ^ " 

Procedure of arms, torc up floors, upset haystacks, plun- 
dered the most valuable effects they could 
lay their hands on, wantonly wasted and destroyed a great 
amount of property, compelled the brethren at the point 
of the bayonet to sign deeds of trust to pay the expenses 
of the mob, even while the place was desecrated by the 
chastity of women being violated. About eighty men 
were taken prisoners, the remainder were ordered to leave 
the state, and were forbidden, under threat of being shot 
Ijy the mob to assemble more than three in a place. 

Friday, Novemher 2. — About this time Sampson Avard 
Avard's ^^^ fouud by thc mob secreted in the hazel 

Treachery. brush somc milcs from Far West, and brought 
into camp, where he and they were "hail fellows well 

A. D. 1s:J8| history OF THE CHURCH. 193 

met ; ' ' for Avard told them that Daniteism was an order 
of the Chm-ch, and by his lying tried to make the Church 
a scape-goat for his sins. 

Myself and fellow prisoners were taken to the town, 
into the public square, and before our departure we, 
after much entreaty, were suffered to see our families, 
being attended all the while by a strong guard. I found 
my wife and children in tears, who feared we had been 
shot by those who had sworn to take our lives, and that 
they would see me no more. When I entered my house, 
they clung to my garments, their eyes streaming with 
tears, while mingled emotions of joy and sorrow were 
manifested in their countenances. I requested to have 
a private interview with them a few minutes, but this 
privilege was denied me by the guard. I was then 
obliged to take my departure. Who can realize the 
feelings which I experienced at that time, to be thus 
torn from my companion, and leave her surrounded 
with monsters in the shape of men, and my children, too, 
not knowing how their wants would be supplied; while I 
was to be taken far from them in order that my enemies 
might destroy me when they thought proper to do so. My 
partner wept, my children clung to me, until they were 
thrust from me by the swords of the guards. I felt over- 
whelmed while I witnessed the scene, and could only rec- 
ommend them to the care of that God whose kindness 
had followed me to the present time, and who alone could 
protect them, and deliver me from the hands of my ene- 
mies, and restore me to my family.* 

*0f these scenes connected with the separation of the prisoners from their 
families. Parley P. Pratt writes as follows: "We were now marched to Far West, 
under the conduct of the whole arm}'; and while they halted in the public square, 
we were permitted to go with a guard for a change of linen, and to take final leave 
of our families, in order to depart as prisoners to Jackson county, a distance of 
sixty miles. 

"This was the most trying scene of all. I went to my house, being guarded by 
two or three soldiers, the cold rain wa» pouring down without, and on entering ray 
little cottage, there lay my wife sick of a fever, with which slie had been for some 
time confined. At her breast was our son Nathan, an infant of three months, and 

13 Vol III 

194 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. is;!8 

After this painful scene I was taken back to the camp, 
and with the rest of my brethren, namely, Sidney Rig- 
don, Hyrum Smith, Parley P. Pratt, Lyman Wight, 
Amasa Lyman, and George W. Robinson, started off for 

\>y her side a little girl of five years. On the foot of the same bed lay a woman in 
travail, who had been driven from her house in the night, and had taken momen- 
tary shelter in my hut of ten feet square — my larger hou<e having been torn down. 
I stepped to the bed; my wife burst into tears; I spoke a few words of comfort, 
telling her to try to live for my sake and the children's; and expressing a hope 
that we should meet again though years might separate us. She promised to try 
to live. I then embraced and kissed the little babies and departed. Till now 1 
had refrained from weeping; but, to be forced from so helpless a family, who 
were destitute of provisions and fuel, and deprived almost of shelter in a bleak 
prairie, with none to assist them, exposed to a lawless banditti who were utter 
•strangers to humanity, and this at the approach of winter, was more than nature 
-could well endure. I went to General Moses Wilson in tears, and stated the cir- 
■cumstances of my sick, heart-broken and destitute family in tears which wouhl 
have moved any heart that had a latent spark of humanity yet remaining. But I 
was only answered with an exultant laugh, and a taunt of reproach by this hardened 
murderer. As I returned from my house towards the troops in the square, 1 
halted with the guard at the door of Hyrum Smith, and heard the sobs and groans 
-of his wife, at his parting words. She was then near confinement; and needed 
more than ever the comfort and consolation of a husband's presence. As we re- 
turned to the wagon we saw Sidney Rigdon taking leave of his wife and daughters. 
who stood at a little distance, in tears of anguish indescribable. In the wagon sat 
■Joseph Smith, while his aged father and venerable mother came up overwhelmed 
•with tears, and took each of the prisoners by the hand with a silence of grief too 
great for utterance. In the meantime hundreds of the brethren crowded around 
XLS, anxious to take a parting look, or a silent shake of the hand; for feelings were 
i;oo intense to allow of speech. In the midst of these scenes orders were given and 
-we moved slowly away, under the conduct of General Wilson and his whole brig- 
ade."— Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 207, 208. 

1 The Prophet's mother describes these scenes of sorrow and parting in the fol- 
lowing vivid manner: 

"At the time when Joseph went into the enemy's camp, Mr. Smith and myself 
stood in the door of the house in which we were then living, and could distinctly 
hear their horrid yellings. Not knowing the cause, we supposed they were murder- 
ing him. Soon after the screaming commenced, five or sis guns were discharged. 
At this, Mr. Smith, folding his arms tight across his heart, cried out, 'Oh, my 
■God! my God! they have killed my son! they have murdered him! and I must die. 
for I cannot live without him?' 

"1 had no word of consolation to give him, for my heart was broken within me — 
my agony was unutterable. I assisted him to the bed and he fell hack upon it 
helpless as a child, for he had not strength to stand upon his feet. The shrieking 
• continued; no tongue can describe the sound which was conveyed to our ears; no 
heart can imagine the sensation of our breasts, as we listened to those awful 
screams. Had the army Vjeen composed of so many bloodhounds, wolves, and 
panthers, they could not have made a sound more terrible. « * * * 

"When they | the division of the mob in charge of the prisoners] were about 
^8tarting from Far West, a messenger came and told us that if we ever saw our 
rsons alive, we must go immediately to them, for they were in a wagon that would 


Independence, Jackson county, and encamped at night 
on Crooked river, under a strong guard commanded by 
Generals Lucas and Wilson. 

The following letter gives the particulars relating to the 
movements of the governor's troops in conjunction with 
the mob: 

Report of General S. D. Lucas to Governor Boggs. 

Headquarters, Camp Near Far West, 

November 2, 1838. 

To His Excellency, L. W. Boggs, Commander-in-Chief , Missouri Militia: 
Sir: — On Monday, October 29th, the troops ordered out by Major- 
Oeneral Atchison and myself (as per our report to you of said date), 
took up their line of march from camp near Richmond, for Far West. 
We encamped on the night of the 29th at Linville's creek (a short dis- 
tance from the road), about sixteen miles from Far West, at which 
point we received an express from Brigadier-General Doniphan, inform- 
ing us that he was then encamped on Lofj creek with a force of five 
hundred men, and that he would join us at the crossing of said creek, 
on the road from Richmond to Far West, by ten o'clock the next morn- 

start in a few minutes for Independence, and in all probability they would never 
return alive. Receiving this intimation, Lucy and myself set out directly for the 
place. On coming within about a hundred yards of the wagon, we were compelled 
to stop, for we could press no further through the crowd. I therefore appealed to 
those around me, exclaiming, 'I am the mother of the Prophet— is there not a gen- 
tleman here who will assist me to that wagon, that I may take a last look at my 
•children, and speak to them once more before 1 die?' Upon this, one individual 
volunteered to make a pathway through the army, and we passed on, threatened 
with death at every step, till at length we arrived at the wagon. The man who led 
us through the crowd spoke to Hyrura, who was sitting in front, and, telling him 
that his mother had come to see him. requested that he should reach his hand to 
me. He did so, but I was not allowed to see him; the cover was of strong cloth , 
and nailed down so close that he could hardly get his hand through. We had 
merely shaken hands with him, when we were ordered away by the mob, who for- 
bade any conversation between us, and, threatening to shoot us, they ordered the 
teamster to drive over us. Our friend then conducted us to the back part of the 
wagon, where Joseph sat, and said, "Mr. Smith, your mother and sister are here, 
and wish to shake hands with you.' Joseph crowded his hand through between 
the cover and wagon, an i we caught hold of it; bat he spoke not to either of us, 
until I said, 'Joseph, do speak to your poor mother once more — I cannot bear to go 
till I hear your voice.' 'God bless you, mother!' he sobbed out. Then a cry was 
raised, and the w«gon dashed oif, tearing him from us just as Lucy pressed his 
hand to her lips, to bestow upon it a sister's last kiss — for he was then sentenced 
to be shot." — History of the Prophet Joseph by his Mother, Lucy Smith, pp. 
249, 250. 

196 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 18.',8 

On the 30th of October, the troops got together at the last named point , 
when we mustered about eighteen hundred men. Whilst at this place 
we received your orders of the 26th ultimo, and I received an order of 
the 27th ultimo, and a letter from you of the same date. At this point 
Major- General Atchison left me for Liberty, when I was left in sole 
command. I then took up my line of march for Goose creek, one mile 
south of Far West, which point we reached about one hour by sun in 
the evening. Just as the troops were encamping, I received intelli- 
gence from General Doniphan, from his position on the right, that he 
had discovered a party of mounted Mormons approaching Far West 
from the east, and requested permission to intercept them, if possible. 
Leave was granted, and his brigade started off at nearly full speed to 
accomplish the order, but the Mormons succeeded in reaching the 
fort. General Doniphan approached within two hundred yards of 
their fortress, when they displayed a force of about eight hundred 
[150] men. At this juncture, I ordei'ed General Graham's brigade 
(holding General Parks' and part of General Wilson's mounted in re- 
serve) to march full speed to the relief of the First Brigade, Third 
Division, but from the inequalitj' of the force of the first detachment, 
(being only two hundred and fifty strong at that time, and the "Mor- 
mons eight hundred [150] it was considered prudent to withdraw the 
troops, and march against them in the morning, which was accordingly 
done, and they all returned, as dark set in, to camp. At this place I 
established my headquarters, and continued there during the expedi- 
tion against the Mormons. The detachment under General Wilson 
returned about nine o'clock p. m. 

The next morning, 31st of October, I received a message from Colo- 
nel Hinkle, the commander of the Mormon forces [Caldwell militia], 
requesting an interview with me on an eminence near Far West, which 
he would designate by hoisting a white flag. I sent him word I would meet 
him at two o'clock p. m., being so much engaged in receiving and en- 
camping fresh troops, who were hourly coming in, that I could not 
attend before. Accordingly at that time, I started with my staff offi- 
cers and Brigadier-Generals Wilson, Doniphan and Graham, General 
Parks being left in command. We met him and some other Mor- 
mons at the point before mentioned. He stated that his object in 
asking me to meet him there, was to know if there could not be some 
compromise or settlement of the difficulty without a resort to arms. 

After giving him to understand the nature of your orders, I made 
him the following propositions, which I furnished him a copj' of, also a 
copy of your order, viz. : 

"First —To give up their [the Church's] leaders to be tried and pun- 


"Second — To make an appropriation of their property, all who have 
taken up arms, to the payment of their debts, and indemnify for dam- 
ages done by them. 

'"Third — That the balance should leave the state, and be protected 
out by the militia, but to be permitted to remain under protection until 
further orders were received from the commander-in-chief. 

"Fourth — To give up the arms of every description, to be receipted 

Colonel Hinkle agreed to the proposition readily, but wished to post- 
pone the matter until morning. I then told him that I would require 
Joseph Smith, Jun., Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Parley P. Pratt, 
and George W. Robinson, as hostage for his faithful compliance with 
the terms, and would pledge myself and each one of the oflBcers pres- 
ent, that in case he, after reflecting and consulting upon the proposi- 
tion during the night, declined acceding to them, that the hostages 
should be returned to him in the morning, at the same point they were 
received, but it was understood in case they did comply, they were to 
be held for trial as part of the leaders called for by the first stipula- 
tion; I then gave him until one hour by sun in the evening to pro- 
duce and deliver them. We then returned to camp, and I directed 
the troops to make preparations to march to Far West by an hour and 
a half by the sun, with a determination in case the hostages were not 
produced to make an attack upon the town forthwith. 

I directed General Parks' brigade to be mounted, and to form on the 
right of the division, to act as flankers if necessary, and if required to 
pass entirely around the town, and form on the north side, with in- 
structions to make the attack at the report of the cannon, which was 
to be the signal for the general attack. General Graham's brigade was 
mounted, and formed on the extreme left to act as flankers, and if re- 
quired to form the line on the west side, with similar instructions as to 
the commencement of the attack. 

General Doniphan's brigade was ordered to parade on foot, and to 
form on the left of General Parks, with instructions to form the line of 
battle on the south side, with the same instructions as to commence- 
ment of attack. 

The artillery company, with one piece of ordnance, was placed at 
the head of General Doniphan's and General Wilson's brigade, with in- 
structions to occupy an eminence within three hundred yards of the 

The army being disposed of in this manner, at the appointed time I 
took up the line of march in direction of Far West. When the troops 
got within about six hundred yards, I discovered the flag and the hos- 
tages advancing. I immediately halted the army, and rode out and 


met them, received the hostages, ard placed a guard over them for 
their safety and protection, and ordered the forces back to our encamp- 
ment. T cannot forbear, at this point, expressing my gratification and 
approbation of the good conduct and gallant bravery* evinced bv all 
the officers and men under my command. They marched up with as 
much determination and deliberation as old veterans — not knowing but 
that the charge would be sounded every moment for surrounding the 
town.t There was no noise or confusion, nothing but an eager anxiety 
upon the countenance of every man to get at the work. 

When the hostages were received, the troops, with some slight excep- 
tions, marched back! in profound silence. 

November 1st. I ord^^red the whole forces, amounting to two thou- 
sand five hundred men. to parade at nine o'clock a. m., and to take up 
the line of march for Far West at half-past nine o'clock, to receive the 
prisoners and their arms. 

The troops marched out and formed in the prairie about two hundred 
yards southeast of the town. General Wilson's brigade formed the 
west line, General Doniphan's the east line, General Graham and Gen- 
eral Parks the south line, with the artillery company and the cannon in 
the center of the two latter, leaving one side of the square open. 

The "Mormon" army, reduced to about six hundred men by deser- 
tion and otherwise, under their commander. Colonel Hinkle marched out 
of their town through the space into our square, formed a hollow 
square, and grounded their arms. Colonel Hinkle then rode forward 
and delivered up to me his sword and pistols. 

I then directed a company from the respective brigades to form a 
front, rear, right and left flank guards, and to march the prisoners 
back to Far West, and protect and take charge of them until the next 
moi'ning. I then detailed a company from General Doniphan's com- 
mand to take charge of the arms. Then, in order to gratifj' the army 
and to let the "Mormons" see our forces, marched around the town, 
and through the principal streets and back to headquarters. 

*0n this passage the Prophet makes the following comments: 

"Gallant bravery," that some thousands of men should be so anxious to wash 
their hands in the blood of five hundred poor Saints? 1 claim not the honor of 
commanding such a brave armj-. 

t Again the Prophet comments: 

"The wicked flee when no man pursueth " This saying was truly verified in the 
first retreat of this army — they fled precipitately through fear and a great pro- 
portion of the men were anxious to get back to the creek, where they could dis- 
pense with some of their clothing and wash themselves in the water. 

J "Profound silence." It might have been silence to the general for aught I 
know; for the shoutings, bellowings and yells of this army of mobocrats was suf- 
ficient to deafen anyone, not guarded by some higher spirit, and could only be 
equalled in the savage war whoop, and the veils of the damned. 

A. 1). 18:58] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 199 

Considering the war at an end in this place I issued orders for Gen- 
eral Doniphan's brigade, with the exception of one company, and 
General Graham's brigade, to take up their line of march for their re- 
spective headquarters and dismiss their men, and directed General Wil- 
son to take charge of the prisoners (demanded for trial) and arms, and 
to mirch them to my headquarters at Independence, to await further- 
orders, and to dismiss all except a guard for the prisoners and arms. 

November 2nd. I relieved the guard placed over the prisoners at 
Far West by four companies of General Parks' brigade, and placed 
them under tha command of Colonel Thompson, Second brigade. Third 
division, with instructions to report to General Clark. The balance of 
General Parks' brigade, with Captain Gillium's company of General 
Doniphan's brigade, under the command of General Parks, I ordered i 
to Adam-ondi-Ahman, a Mormon town in Daviess county, with in- 
structions to disarm the Mormon forces at that place and to leave a 
guard of fifty men for the protection of prisoners, and to report to^ 
General Clark. 

In order to carry the treaty and stipulations into effect I have re- 
quired your aid-de-camp. Colonel Williams, together with Colonel 
Burch, and Major A. Rees, of Ray, to attend to drawing up the 
papers legally, and directed Colonel Thompson to wait on them with a 
portion of his command, and to cause all their orders and requirements,, 
consistent with the stipulations, to be carried into effect. 

This day, about twelve o'clock, there was a battalion of one hundred 
men from Platte arrived at Far West, which I ordered back, having 
understood that Major-General Clark would be on in a day or two with 
sufficient force to operate in Daviess and Livingston, and for any ser~ 
vice that may be required. 

Samuel D. Lucas, 





Saturday^ 3. — We continued our march and arrived at 
Rival Efforts ^^^ Missouri rivei', which separated us from 
for Possession Jacksou countv, where we were hurried 

of the Prison- '' 

ers. across the ferry when but few troops had 

passed.* The truth was, General Clark had sent an ex- 
press from Eichmond to General Lucas, to have the 
prisoners sent to him, and thus prevent our going to Jack- 
son county, both armies being competitors for the honor 
of possessing "the royal prisoners." Clark wanted the 
privilege of putting us to death himself, and Lucas and 
his troops were desirous of exhibiting us in the streets of 
Independence, t 

Sunday^ 4. — We were visited by some ladies and gen- 
tlemen. One of the women came up, and very candidly 
inquired of the troops which of the prisoners was the Lord 

* It was during this march between Crooked river and the Missouri that the 
Prophet predicted that none of the prisoners would lose their lives during their 
captivity. The incident is thus related by Parley P. Pratt: "Aswearose and com- 
menced our march on the morning of the 3rd of November, Joseph Smith spoke to 
me and the other prisoners, in a low, but cheerful and confidential tone; said he: 
*Be of good cheer, brethren; the word of the Lord came to me last night that our 
lives should be given us, and that whatever we may suffer during this captivity, 
not one of our lives shall be taken.' Of this prophecy 1 testify in the name of the 
Lord, and, though spoken in secret, its public fulfillment and the miraculous es- 
cape of each one of us is too notorious to need my testimony." — Autobiography of 
Parley P. Pratt, p. 210. 

tOn this matter of competition for possession of the prisoners Parley P. Pratt, 
one of the prisoners, repeats a statement made by General Wilson as follows: "It 
was repeatedly insinuated, by the other officers and troops that we should hang 
you prisoners on the first tree we came to on the way to Independence. But I'll be 

d dif anybody shall hurt you. We just intend to exhibit you in Independence, 

let the people look at you, and see what a d d set of fine fellows you are. And, 

more particularly, to keep you from that old bigot of a General Clark and his troops, 
from down country who are so stuffed with lies and prejudice that they would 
shoot you down in a moment." — Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 209. 

A. D. 18:!8] HISTOKY OF THE CHUKCH. 201 

whom the "Mormons" worshiped! One of the guard 
pointed to me with a significant smile, and said, 

f,_, ..-,,.„, ^ , . Prophet's In- 

"This IS he. The woman then turning to terview with 
me inquired whether I professed to be the " ^ ^' 
Lord and Savior? 1 replied, that I professed to be noth- 
ing but a man, and a minister of salvation, sent by Jesus 
Christ to preach the Gospel. 

This answer so surprised the woman that she began to 
inquire into our doctrine, and I preached a discourse, 
both to her and her companions, and to the wondering 
soldiers, who listened with almost breathless attention 
while I set forth the doctrine of faith in Jesus Christ, and 
repentance, and baptism for remission of sins, with the 
promise of the -Holy Grhost, as recorded in the second 
chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. 

The woman was satisfied, and praised God in the hear- 
ing of the soldiers, and went away, praying that God 
would protect and deliver us. Thus was fulfilled a 
prophecy which had been spoken publicly by me, a few 
months previous — that a sermon should be preached in 
Jackson county by one of our Elders, before the close of 

□ The troops having crossed the river about ten o'clock, 
we proceeded on and arrived at Independence, past noon, 
in the midst of a great rain, and a multitude 

, , , 1 1 T Arrival of the 

of spectators who had assembled to see us. Prisoners in 
and hear the bugles sound a blast of tri- ° "^^^^ ^"''^ 
umphant joy, which echoed through the camp. We were 
ushered into a vacant house prepared for our reception, 
with a floor for our beds and blocks of wood for our pil- 

General Clark arrived at Far West with one thousand 
six hundred men, and five hundred more were within 
eight miles of the city. 

Thus, Far West has been visited by six thousand men 
in one week, when the militia of the city (before any 
were taken prisoners) amounted only to about five hun- 


dred. After depriving these of their arms the mob cou- 
Overwheim- tiiiued to huiit the brethren like wild beasts, 
*^^»^K™liM''* and shot several, ravished the women, and 

of Mob jlili- ' _ ' 

tia- killed one near the city. Xo Saint was per- 

mitted to go in or out of the city; and meantime the- 
Saints lived on parched corn. 

General Clark ordered General Lucas, who had previ- 
ously gone to Adam-ondi-Aham with his troops, "to take 
the whole of the men of the 'Mormons' prisoners, and 
place such a guard around them and the town as will pro- 
tect the prisoners and secure them until they can be dealt 
with properly," and secure all their property, till the best 
means could be adopted for paying the damages the citi- 
zens had sustained. 

Monday, 5. — We were kept under a small guard, and 
., . were treated with some degree of hospitality 

Seventy in ox./ 

the Treatment r^^^ politencss, wliilc many flocked to see us. 

of Prisoners '^ ' . . 

Modified. We spcut most oi our time m preaching and 

conversation, explanatory of our doctrines and practice, 
which removed mountains of prejudice, and enlisted the 
populace in our favor, notwithstanding their old hatred 
and wickedness towards our society. 

The brethren at Far West were ordered by General 

Clark to form a line, when the names of fifty- 

ditio^nar Fri's- six prcscut wcrc callcd and made prisoners to 

*'°^'^^' await their trial for something they knew not 

what. They were kept under a close guard. 

Tuesday, 6. — General Clark paraded the brethren at 
Fai; West, and then addressed them as follows. 

General Clark^s Uarrangue to the Brethren. 

Gentlemen, vou whose names are not attached to this list of names, 
will now have the privilege of going to your fields and providing corn, 
wood, etc., for your families. Those who are now taken will go from 
this to prison, be tried, and receive the due demerit of their crimes. 
But you (except such as charges may hereafter be preferred against) 
are .now at liberty, as soon as the troops are removed that now guard 
the place, which I shall cause to be done immediately. It now devolves 


upon you to fulfill the treaty that you have entered into, the leading 
items of which I shall now lay before you: 

The first requires that your leading men be given up to be tried ac- 
cording to law; this you have already complied with. 

The second is, that you deliver up your arms; this has been at- 
tended to. 

The third stipulation is, that you sign over your properties to defi'ay 
the expenses of the war; this you have also done. 

Another article yet remains for you to comply with, and that is, that 
you leave the state forthwith ; and whatever may be your feelings con- 
cerning this, or whatever your innocence, it is nothing to me; General 
Luea'<, who is equal in authority with me, has made this treaty with 
you — I approve of it — I should have done the same had I been here — I 
am therefore determined to see it fulfilled. The character of this state 
has suffered almost beyond redemption, from the character, conduct 
and influence that you have exerted, and we deem it an act of justice 
to restore her character to its former standing among the states, by 
every proper means. 

The orders of the governor to me were, that you should be extermi- 
nated, and not allowed to remain in the state, and had your leaders not 
been given up, and the terms of the treaty complied with, before this^ 
you and your families would have been destroyed and j'our houses in 

There is a discretionary power vested in ray hands which 1 shall ex 
ercise in your favor for a season; for this lenity you are indebted to vii/ 
clemency. I do not say that you shall go now, but you must not think 
of staying here another season, or of plotting in crops, for the moment 
you do this the citizens will be upon you. If I am called here again, 
in case of a non-compliance of a treaty made, do not think that I shall 
act any more as I have done — you need not expect any mercy, but ex- 
termination, for I am determined the governor's order shall be exe- 
cuted. As for your leaders, do not once think — do not imagine for 
a moment — do not let it enter your mind that they will be delivered, 
or that you will see their faces again, for their /«^e is fixed — their die is 
cast — their doom is sealed. 

I am sorry, gentlemen, to see so great a number of apparently intel- 
ligent men found ii the situation that you are; and oh! that I could 
invoke that Great Spirit, the unknown God, to res^ upon you, and make 
you sufficiently intelligent to break that chain of superstition, and 
liberate you from those fetters of fanaticism with which you are bound 
— that you no longer worship a man. 

I would advise you to scatter abroad, and never again organize your- 
selves with Bishops, Presidents, etc., lest you excite the jealousies of 

204 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH [A. i>. 18:i8 

the people, and subject yourselves to the same calamities that have now 
come upon you. 

You have always been the aggressors — you have brought upon your- 
selves these difficulties by being disaffected and not being subject to 
rule — and my advice is, that you become as other citizens, lest by a 
recurrence of these events you bring upon yourselves irretrievable 

The govornor wrote General Clark as follows: 

It will also be necessary that you hold a military court of inquiry in 
Daviess county, and arrest the Mormons who have been guilty of the 
late outrages, committed tov/ards the inhabitants of said county. My 
instructions to you are to settle this whole matter completely, if possi- 
ble, before you disband your forces; if the Mormons ai'e disposed 
voluntarily to leave the state, of course it would be advisable in you to 
promote that object, in any way deemed proper. The rinqleaders oj 
this rebellion, though, ought by no means to be permitted to escape the pun- 
ishment they merit. 

The prisoners at Far West were started off for Rich- 
mond, under a strong guard. 

Wednesday, 7. — The following order was issued at Far 
West by General Clark: 

Brigadier- General Robert Wilson will take up the line of march with 
his brigade on this morning for Adam-ondi-Ahman, in Daviess county, 
and take possession of the prisoners at that place, and proceed to as- 
certain those who committed crimes, and when done, to put them un- 
der close guard, and when he moves, take them to Keytesville, after 
having them recognized by the proper authority. 

Thursday, 8. — There was a severe snowstorm yesterday 
and today. General Wilson arrived at Adam-ondi-Ah- 
man; he placed guards around the town so that no persons 

* This speech of General Clark's is to be found in the "History of Caldwell and 
Livingston counties, Missouri, written and compiled by the St. Louis National Histori- 
cal Company." I88G, and is introduced as follows: "Afew days after his arrival Gen- 
eral Clark removed a portion of the restraint he had imposed upon the Mormons' 
allowing them to go out for wood, provisions, etc. He assembled the multitude on 
the temple square and delivered to them a wrif'en speech, a copy of which is here 
given. It goes far to prove that General Clark was ordered to 'exterminate' the 
Mormons, not excepting the women and children, and burn their houses and other- 
wise destroy their property." — History of Caldwell and Livington Counties, p. 1-10. 

A. D. 1838] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. " 205 

might pass out or in without permission. All the men in 
town were then taken and put under guard, „ 

■^ . Progress of 

and a court of inquiry was instituted, with Affairs at 
Adam Black on the bench; the said Adam 
Black belonged to the mob, and was one of the leaders 
of it from the time mobbing first commenced in Daviess 
county. The attorney belonged to General Clark's army. 
Shortly after our arrival in Jackson county, Colonel 
Sterling Price, from the army of General ^, „ , 

01 y-i ^^^ Prophet 

Clark, came with orders from General Clark, andhisPeiiow 


who was commander-in-chief of the expe- Sent to kich- 
dition, to have us forwarded forthwith to ™ '^ ' 
Richmond. Accordingly, on Thursday morning, we started 
with three guards only, and they had been obtained with 
great difficulty, after laboring all the previous day to get 
them. Between Independence and Roy's Ferry, on the 
Missouri river, they all got drunk, and we got possession of 
their arms and horses. 

It was late in the afternoon, near the setting of the sun. 
We traveled about half a mile after we crossed the river, 
and put up for the night. 

Friday^ 9. — This morning there came a number of men, 
some of them armed. Their threatenings and prisoners not 
savage appearance were such as to make us prS^cted' b 
afraid to proceed without more guards. A Guards. 
messenger was therefore dispatched to Richmond to ob- 
tain them. We started before their arrival, but had not 
gone far before we met Colonel Price with a guard of 
about seventy- four men, and were conducted by them to 
Richmond, and put into an old vacant house, and a guard set. 

Some time through the course of that day General Clark 
came in, and we were introduced to him. We ,^ . 

' Meeting of the 

inquired of him the reason why we had been Prophet and 
thus carried from our homes, and what were 
the charges against us . He said that he was not then 
able to determine, but would be in a short time; and with 
ver}'^ little more conversation withdrew. 


Some short time after he had withdrawn Colonel Price 
came in with two chains in his hands, and a number of 
The Prison- padlocks. The two chains he fastened to- 
f'rs Chained. p^ether. He had with him ten men, armed, 
who stood at the time of these operations with a thumb 
upon the cock of their guns. They first nailed down the 
windows, then came and ordered a man by the name 
of John Fulkerson, whom he had with him, to chain us to- 
gether with chains and padlocks, being seven in number. 
After that he searched us, examining our pockets to see 
if we had any arms. He found nothing but pocket 
knives, but these he took away with him. 

Saturday, Novemher 10. — The following is a true speci- 
men of Missouri liberty. 

Form oj Permit. 

I permit David Holman to remove from Daviess to Caldwell county, 
there to remain during the winter, or to pass out of the state. 

R. Wilson, Brigadier- General. 
By F. G. CoCKNU, Aid. 
November 10, 1838. 

General Clark had spent his time since our arrival at 
Richmond in searching the laws to find authority for try- 
Generai Clark ^^S ^^ ^y court martial. Had he not been 
thePropiTeSy ^ lawycr of cmineuce, I should have sup- 
Court Martial, poscd it uo vcry difficult task to decide that 
quiet, peaceful unoffending, and private citizens too, ex- 
cept as ministers of the Gospel, were not amenable to a 
militanj tribunal, in a country governed by civil laws. 
But be this as it may, General Clark wrote the governor 
that he had — 

General Clark''s Report to Governor Boggs. 

Detained General White and his field offices here a day or two for the 
purpose of holding a court martial, if necessary. I this day made out 
charges against the prisoners, and called on Judge King to try them as 
a committing court; and 1 am now busily engaged in procuring wit" 
nesses and submitting facts. There being no civil officers in Caldwell, 

A. 1). 1838] HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. '207 

I have to use the military to get witnesses from there, which I do with- 
out reserve. The most of the prisoners here I consider guilty of 
treason; and I believe will be convicted; and the only difficulty in law 
is, can they be tried in any county but Caldwell? If not, they cannot be 
there indicted, until a change of population. In the event the latter 
view is taken by the civil courts, I suggest the propriety of trying Jo 
Smith and those leaders taken by General Lucas, by a court martial, 
for mutiny. This I am in favor of only as dernier resort. I would 
have taken this course with Smith at any rate; but it being doubtful 
whether a court martial has jurisdiction or not in the present case — 
that is, whether these people are to be treated as in time of war, and 
the mutineers as having mutinied in time of war — and I would here 
^sk you to forward to me the attorney-general's opinion on this point. 
It will not do to allow these leaders to return to their treasonable work 
again, on account of their not being indicted in Caldwell. They have 
committed treason, murder, arson, Imrglary, robbery, larceny, and j)er- 

The three days' investigation having closed at Adam- 
ondi-Ahman, every man was honorably acquitted, Adam 
Black being judge. 

General Wilson then ordered every family to be out of 
Diahman in ten days, with permission to go Hardships in- 
to Caldwell, and there tarry until spring, and woJahmrn'''^ 
then leave the state under pain of extermina- Saints. 
lion. The weather is very cold, more so than usual for this 
season of the year. 

In keeping the order of General Wilson the Saints 
had to leave their crops and houses, and to live in tents 
And wagons, in this inclement season of the year. As for 
their flocks and herds, the mob had relieved them from 
the trouble of taking care of them, or from the pain of 
seeing them starve to death— by stealing them. 

An arrangement was made in which it was stipulated 
that a committee of twelve, which had been previously 
appointed, should have the privilege of going from Far 
West to Daviess county, for the term of four weeks, for 
the purpose of conveying their crops from Daviess to 
Caldwell. The committee were to wear white badges on 
their hats for protection. 


About thirty of the brethren have been killed, many 
Casualties of ^voundecl, about a hundred are missing, and 
the Mobbing, about sixty at Richmond awaiting their 
trial — for what they know not. 

Sunday^ 11. — While in Richmond we were under the 
charge of Colonel Price from Chariton county, who al- 
lowed all manner of abuses to be heaped upon us. Dur- 
ing this time my afflictions were great, and our situation 
was truly painful.* 

* It was during this time that the very remarkable circumstance of the Prophet 
rebuking the prison guards occurred. The matter is related by Elder Parley P. 
Pratt in his Autobiography. It appears that during the imprisonment at Rich- 
mond Elder Rigdon was taken very ill from the hardships and exposure he had tO' 
endure. He was chained ne.xt to his son-in-law, George W. Robinson, and com- 
pelled to sleep o!i the hard floor notwithstanding his delirium, the result of fever. 
Mrs. Robinson, the daughter of Elder Rigdon, had accompanied her husband and 
father into the prison for the purpose of caring for the latter during his illness; 
She is represented as being a very delicate woman with an infant at the breast. She- 
continued by the side of her father until he recovered from his illness notwith- 
standing the loathsomeness of the prison and the vileness of the guards. And 
now the story of the rebuke as related by Elder Pratt: "In one of those tedious, 
nights we had lain as if in sleep till the hour of midnight had passed, and our ears- 
and hearts had been pained, while we had listened for hours to the obscene jests,, 
the horrid oaths, the dreadful blasphemies and filthy language of our guards,. 
Colonel Price at their head, as the}' recounted to each other their deeds of rapine, 
murder, robbery, etc., which they had committed among the "Mormons" while at 
Far West and vicinity. They even boasted of defiling by force wives, daughters 
and virgins, and of shooting or dashing out the brains of men, women and chil 
dien. I had listened till 1 became so disgusted, shocked, horrified, and so filled 
with the spirit of indignant justice that I could scarcely refrain from rising upon 
ray feet and rebuking the guards; but had said nothing to Joseph, or anyone else, 
although 1 lay next to him and knew he was awake. On a sudden he arose to his 
feet, and spoke in a voice of thunder, or as the roaring lion, uttering, as nearly as 1 
can recollect, the following words: 

" 'Silence, ye fiends of the infernal pit! In the name of Jesus Christ 1 rebuke 
you, and command you to be still; I will not live another minute and hear such 
language. Ceae such talk, or you or I die thin instavt/' 

He ceased to speak. He stood erect in terrible majesty. Chained, and without 
a weapon; calm, unruffled and dignified as an angel, he looked upon the quailing- 
guards, whose weapons were lowered or dropped to the ground; whose kuee& 
smote together, and who, shrh-iking into a corner, or crouching at his feet, begged 
his _>ar(lon, and remained quiet till a change of guards. 

"I have seen the ministers of justice, clothed in magisterial robes, and criminals 
arraigned before them, while life was suspended on a breath, in the courts of Eng- 
land ; I have witnessed a Congress in solemn session to give laws to nations; 1 have 
tried to conceive of kings, of royal courts, of thrones and crowns; and of em- 
perors assembled to decide the fate of kingdoms; but dignity and majesty have 1 
seen but once, as it stood in chains, at midnight in a dungeon, in an obscure vil- 
lage in Missouri."— Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, pp. 228-2.S0. 


General Clark informed us that he would turn us over 
to the civil authorities for trial. Joseph Smith, Jun., 
Hyrum Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Parley P. ^ist of the 
Pratt, Lyman Wight, Amasa Lyman, George i^ri^oners. 
W. Robinson, Caleb Baldwin, Alanson Ripley, Washing- 
ton Voorhees, Sidney Turner, John Buchanan, Jacob 
Gates, Chandler Holbrook, George W. Harris, Jesse D. 
Hunter, Andrew Whitlock, Martin C Allred, William All- 
red, George D. Grant, Darwin Chase, Elijah Newman, 
Alvin G. Tippets, Zedekiah Owens, Isaac Morley, Thomas 
Beck, Moses Clawson, John J. Tanner, Daniel Shearer, 
Daniel S. Thomas, Alexander McRae, Elisha Edwards, 
John S. Higbee, Ebenezer Page, Benjamin Covey, Ebe- 
nezer Robinson, Luman Gibbs, James M. Henderson, 
David Pettegrew, Edward Partridge, Francis Higbee, 
David Frampton, George Kimball, Joseph W. Younger, 
Henry Zobriskie, Allen J. Stout, Sheffield Daniels, Silas 
Maynard, Anthony Head, Benjamin Jones, Daniel 
Garn, John T. Earl, and Norman Shearer, were 
brought before Austin A. King, at Richmond, for 
trial, charged with the several crimes of high trea- 
son against the state, murder, burglary, arson, rob- 
bery, and larceny. 

Monday, 12. — The first act of the court was to send out a 
body of armed men, without a civil process, to obtain 

Tuesday, 13. — We were placed at the bar, Austin A. 
King presiding, and Thomas C. Burch, the state's 
attorney. Witnesses were called and sworn at the point of 
the bayonet. 

Dr. Sampson Avard was the first brought before the 
court. He had previously told Mr. Oliver r^j^^ vniainy 
Olney that if he [Olney] wished to save him- «^ ^^'^^<^- 
self, he must swear hard against the heads of the Church, 
as they were the ones the court wanted to criminate ; and 
if he could swear hard against them, they would not (that 
is, neither court nor mob) disturb him. "I intend to do 

14 Vol. Ill 

210 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A.. D. 1838 

it," said he, "in order to escape, for if I do not, they 
will take my life." 

This introduction is sufficient to show the character of 
his testimony, and he swore just according to the state- 
ment he had made, doubtless thinking it a wise course to 
ingratiate himself into the good graces of the mob. 

The following witnesses were examined in behalf of the 
state, many of whom, if we may judge from 
nllles ^" their testimony, swore upon the same princi- 
slintf *^^ P^® ^^ Avard, they were: Wyatt Cravens, Ne- 
hemiah Odle, Captain Samuel Bogart, Morris 
Phelps, John Corrill, Eobert Snodgrass, George Walton, 
George M. Hinkle, James C. Owens, Nathaniel Carr, 
Abner Scovil, John Cleminson, Reed Peck, James C. 
Owens (re-examined), William Splawn, Thomas M. Odle, 
John Raglin, Allen Rathbun, Jeremiah Myers, Andrew J. 
Job, Freeburn H. Gardner, Burr Riggs, Elisha Camron, 
Charles Bleckley, James Cobb, Jesse Kelly, Addison 
Price, Samuel Kimball, William W. Phelps, John Whit- 
mer, James B. Turner, George W. Worthington, Joseph 
H. McGee, John Lockhart, Porter Yale, Benjamin Slade, 
Ezra Williams, Addison Green, John Taylor, Timothy 
Lewis, and Patrich Lynch. 

Sunday, 18. — While our suit was going forward General 
Wilson gave the following permit, in Daviess county: 


I permit the following persons, as a committee on the part of the 
Mormons, to pass and re-pass in and through the county of Daviess 
during the winter, to-wit.: William Huntington, John Reed, Benja- 
min S. Wilbur, Mayhew Hillman, Z. Wilson, E. B. Gaylord, Henry 
Herriman, Daniel Stanton, Oliver Sqow, William Earl, Jonathan H. 
Hale, Henry Humphrey — upon all lawful business. 

R. Wilson, Brig.- Gen. Commanding. 
By F. G. CocKNU, Aid. 
November 18, 1838. 

We Were called upon for our witnesses, and we gave the 
names of some forty or fifty. Captain Bogart was de- 


spatched with a company of militia to procure them. 
He arrested all he could find, thrust them 

Treatment of 

into prison, and we were not allowed to witnesses for 

, , the Defense. 

see them. 

During the week we were again called upon most taunt- 
ingly for witnesses; we gave the names of some others, 
and they were thrust into prison, so many as were to be found. 

In the meantime Malinda Porter, Delia F. Pine, Nancy 
Rigdon, Jonathan W. Barlow, Thoret Parsons, Ezra 
Chipman, and Arza Judd, Jun., volunteered, and were 
sworn, on the defense, but were prevented as much as 
possible by threats from telling the truth. We saw a 
man at the window by the name of Allen, and beckoned 
him to come in, and had him sworn, but when he did not 
testify to please the court, several rushed upon him with 
their bayonets, and he fled the place; three men took 
after him with loaded guns, and he barely escaped with 
his life. It was of no use to get any more witnesses, even 
if we could have done so. 

Thus this mock investigation continued from day to 

day, till Saturday, when several of the ^ 

•' ' •' ^ . Some Prison- 

brethren were discharged by Judge King, ers Dis- 


as follows — 

Defendants against whom nothing? is proven, viz., Amasa Lyman, 
John Buchanan, Andrew Whitlock, Alvah L. Tippets, Jedediah Owens, 
Isaac Morley, John J. Tanner, Daniel S. Thomas, Elisha Edwards, 
Benjamin Covey, David Frampton, Henry Zobriskie, Allen J. Stout, 
SheflSield Daniels, Silas Maynard, Anthony Head, John T, Earl, Ebe- 
nezer Brown, James Newberry, Sylvester Hulett, Chandler Holbrook, 
Martin C. Allred, William AUred. The above defendants have been 
discharged oy me, there being no evidence against them. 

Austin A. King, Judge, etc. 

November 24, 1838. 

Our Church organization was converted, by the testi- 
mony of the apostates, into a temporal king- Misconcep- 
dom, which was to fill the whole earth, chur*!:! Gr- 
and subdue all other kingdoms. ganization. 


The judge, who by the by was a Methodist, asked much 
concerning our views of the prophecy of Daniel: "In the 
days of tnese kings shall the God of heaven set up a 
kingdom which shall break in pieces all other kingdoms, 
and stand forever," * * * * "and the kingdom and 
the greatness of the kingdom, under the whole heaven, 
shall be given to the Saints of the Most High." As if it 
were treason to believe the Bible.* ^^ ilj^\<i^'\\^** "^Q W^l ^^ 

Wednesday^ 5(S.-^aniel Ashb ^^a member of the state 
senate, wrote GeneraPClark that he was in the battle 
Ashby's Re- [massacrc] at Haun's Mills, that thirty-one 
portofHaun's "Mormous" wd'c killed, and seven of his 

Mills Massa- ' 

ere. party wounded. 

The remaining prisoners were all released or admitted 
to bail, except Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum 

Smith, Alexander McRae, Sidney Rigdon, and 
charge.! and mysclf , who wcrc scut to Liberty, Clay 
*" ^^^^ ' county, to jail, to stand our trial for treason 

and murder. Our treason consisted of having whipped 
the mob out of Daviess county, and taking their cannon 
from them ; the murder, of killing the man in the Bogart 
battle; also Parley P. Pratt, Morris Phelps, Luman 
Gibbs, Darwin Chase, and Norman Shearer, who were 
put into Richmond jail to stand their trial for the same 

During the investigation we were confined in chains 
and received much abuse. The matter of driving away 

witnesses or casting them into prison, or 

Legal Advice , . i n ji , • i 

to Cease De- chasiug them out ot the county, was carried 
to such length that our lawyers, General Doni- 
phan and Amos Rees, told us not to bring our witnesses 

* Respecting this inquiry concerning the passage in Daniel's prophecy, Elder 
Parley I'. Pratt writes: "This court of inquisition inquired diligei tly into our be- 
lief of the seventh chapter of Daniel concerning the kingdom of God, which 
should subdue all other kingdoms and stand forever. And when told that we be- 
lieved in that prophecv, the court turned to the clerk and said: 'Write that down; 
it is a strong point for tresson.' Our lawyer observed as follows: 'Judge, you had 
better make the Bible treason.' The court made no reply." — Autobiography of 
Parley P. Pratt, p. 230. 


there at all; for if we did, there would not be one of 
them left for final trial; for no sooner would Bogart and his 
men know who they were, than they would put them out 
of the country. 

As to making any impression on King, Doniphan said, 
if a cohort of angels were to come down, and declare we 
were innocent, it would all be the same; for he (King) 
had determined from the beginning to cast us into prison. 
We never got the privilege of introducing our witnesses 
at all; if we had, we could have disproved all the evidence 
of our enemies. 

31. Arthur, Esq., to the Representatives from Clay County. 

Liberty, November 29, 1838. 

Respected Friends: — Humanity to an injured people prompts me 
at present to address you tlius: You were aware of the treatment (to 
some extent before you left home) received by that unfortunate race of 
beings called the Mormons, from Daviess, in the form of human beings 
inhabiting Daviess, Livingston, and part of Ray counties; not being 
satisfied with the relinquishment of all their rights as citizens and hu- 
man beings, in the treaty forced upon them by General Lucas, by giv- 
ing up their arms, and throwing themselves upon the mercy of the state, 
and their fellow citizens generally, hoping thereby protection of their 
lives and property, they are now receiving treatment from those demons, 
that makes humanity shudder, and the cold chills run over any man, not 
entirely destitute of the feelings of humanity. These demons are now 
constantly strolling up and down Caldwell county, in small companies 
armed, insulting the women in any way and every way, and plundering 
the poor devils of all the means of subsistence (scan<;y as it was) left 
them, and driving off their horses, cattle, hogs, etc., and rifling their 
houses and farms of everything therein, taking beds, bedding, ward- 
robes, and such things as they see they want, leaving the poor Mor- 
mons in a starving and naked condition. 

These are facts I have from authority that cannot be questioned, and 
can be maintained and substantiated at any time. There is now a 
petition afloat in our town, signed by the citizens of all parties and 
grades, which will be sent you in a few days, praying the legislature to 
make some speedy enactment applicable to their case. They are en- 
tirely willing to leave our state, so soon as this inclement season is 
over; and a number have already left, and are leaving daily, scatter- 
ing themselves to the four winds of the earth. 


Now, sirs, I do not want by any means to dictate to you the course to 
be pursued, but one fact I will merely suggest. I this day was con- 
versing with Mr. George M. Pryer, who is just from Far West, relating 
the outrages there committed daily. I suggested to him the propriety 
of the legislature's placing a guard to patrol on the lines of Caldwell 
county, say, of about twenty- five men, and give them, say, about one 
dollar or one and a half per day, each man, and find their provisions, 
etc., until, say, the first day of June next; these men rendering that 
protection necessary to the Mormons, and allowing them to follow and 
bring to justice any individuals who have heretofore or will hereafter 
be guilty of plundering or any violation of the laws. I would suggest 
that George M. Prj-er be appointed captain of said guard, and that he 
be allowed to raise his own men, if he is willing thus to act. He is a 
man of correct habits, and will do justice to all sides, and I'ender due 

Should this course not be approved of, I would recommend the res- 
toration of their [the Mormons'] arms for their own pi'otectiou. One 
or the other of these suggestions is certainly due the Mormons from 
the state. She has now their leaders prisoners, to the number of lafty or 
sixty, and I apprehend no danger from the remainder in any way until 
they will leave the state. 

M. Arthur. 

Mr. Arthur is not a "Mormon," but a friend of man. 

Attested Copy of the Mittimus under ivhich Joseph Smith, Jun., and 
Others, icere sent from Judge King to the Jailer of Liberty Prison, in 
Clay County, Missouri. 

State of Missouri, | 
Ray County. ) 

To the Keeper of the Jail of Clay County: 

Greeting: — Whereas, Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Lyman 
Wight, Alexander McRae, and Caleb Baldwin, as also Sidney Rigdon, 
have been brought before me, Austin A. King, judge of the fifth 
judicial circuit in the state of Missouri, and charged with the offense 
of treason against the state of Missouri, and the said defendants, on 
their examination before me, being held to answer further to said 
charge, the said Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Lyman Wight, 
^Alexander McRae, and Caleb Buldwin, to answer in the county of 
Daviess, and the said Sidney Rigdon to answer further in the county 
of Caldwell, for said charge of treason, and there being no jail in 
said counties; these are therefore to command that yoxi receive the said 
Joseph Smith, Jun., Hj-rum Smith, Lyman Wight, Alexander 

A. D. 18:{8] HISTORY OF THE CHUECH. 215 

McRae, Caleb Baldwin, and Sidney Rigdon into your custody in the 
jail of the said county of Clay, there to remain until they be delivered 
therefrom by due course of law. 

Given under my hand and seal the 29th day of November, 1838. 

Austin A. King. 

State of Missouri, Count.y of Clay. 

I, Samuel Hadley, sheiiff of Clay county, do hereby certify that the 
above is a true copy of the mittimus to me, directed in the cases there- 
in nauied. 

Samuel Hadley, Jailer. 
By Samuel Tillerv, Deputy Jailer. 
Clay County, Missouri. 

Friday, SO. — About this time those of us who had been 
sentenced thereto, were conveyed to Liberty ^^ Liberty 
jail, put in close confinement, and all com- I'r'son. 
munication with our friends cut oft'. 

Dnriii,e: our trial William E, McLellin, accompanied by 
Burr Riggs and others, at times were busy in course of 
plundering and robbing the houses of Sidney )^'"?: ^- ^'^^ 

>- <^ J Lelhn and 

Rigdon, George Morey, the widow Phebe Ann BurrRiggs. 
Patten, and others, under preteuse or color of law, on an 
order from General Clark, as testified to by the members 
of the different families robbed.* 

Saturday, Decemler 1, 1838. — A committee on the part 

• Further concerning the apostasy and conduct of William E. McLellin, soon after 
the Prophet Hnd his associates were taken prisoners at Far West, Parley P. Pratt 
says: "While thus confined. William E. McLellin, once my fellow laborer in the Gos- 
pel, but n<»w a Judas, with hostile weapon in hand to destroy the Saints, came to me 
and observed: 'Well, Parley, you have now got where you are certain never to es- 
cape; how do you feel as to the course you have taken in religion?' I answered, 
that I had taken the course which I should take if I had my life to live over 
again. He seemed thoughtful for a moment, and then replied: 'Well, I think, if 
I were you, I shoiild die as 1 had lived; at any rate, I see no possibility of escape 
for you and your friends.' "—Autobiography of Parley P. Pratt, p. 20C. 

While the brethren were imprisoned at Richmond it is said that "IVIcLellin, who 
was a Ifirge and active man, went to the sheriff and asked for the privilege of Hog- 
ging the Prophet. Permission was granted on condition that Joseph would fight. 
The sheriff made known to Joseph McLellin's earnest request, to which Joseph 
consented, if his irons were taken off. McLellin then refused to fight unless he 
could have h club, to which Joseph was perfectly willing; but the sheriff would 
not allow thf-m to fight on such unequal terms. McLellin was a man of superficial 
education, though he had a good flow of language. He adopted the profession of 
medicine." — Mill. Star, vol, xxxvi: pp. 808,809. 

216 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [-^- D. 1838 

oi the "Mormons" and a like committee on the part of 
the citizens of Daviess county, met at Adam-ondi- 
Ahman, on the first of December, 1838, the following 
propositions by the "Mormon" committee were made and 
agreed to by the Dayiess county committee: 

First — That the Mormon committee be allowed to employ, say- 
twenty teamsters for the purpose of hauling off their property. 

Second — That the Mormon committee collect whatever stock they 
may have in Daviess county at some point, and some two or three of 
the Daviess county committee be notified to attend for the purpose of 
examining said stock, and convey or attend the Mormon committee out 
of the limits of the county; and it is further understood, that the Mor- 
mon committee is not to drive or take from this county any stock of 
any description, at any other time, nor under any other circum- 
stances, than these mentioned. 
Afc witness our hands, 

William P. Peniston, 
Dr. K. Kerr, 
Adam Black, 

The above propositions were made and agreed to by the undersigned 
committee on the part of the Mormons. 

William Huntington, 
B. S. Wilbur, 
J. H. Hale, 
Henry Herriman, 
Z. Wilson. 





Wednesday, December 5 . — The Missouri Legislature hav- 
ing assembled, Goveruor Boggs laid before the Reportof gov- 
House of Representatives all the information the^LfJifiT-^^ 
in his possession relative to the difficulties t^*"^- 
between the mob and the "Mormons." 

Monday, Decemher 10. — 

Memorial of a Committee to the State Legislature of Missouri in Belialf 
of the Citizens of Caldwell County. 

To the Honorable Legislature of the State of Missouri in Senate and 
House of Representatives convened: 

We, the undersigned petitioners and inhabitants of Caldwell county, 
Missouri, in consequence of the late calamity that has come upon us 
taken in connection with former afflictions, feel it a dutj'^ we owe to 
ourselves and our country to lay our case before your honorable body 
for consideration. It is a well known fact, that a society of our people 
commenced settling in Jackson county, Missouri, in the summer of 
1831, where they, according to their ability, purchased lands, and set- 
tled upon them, with the intention and expectation of becoming per- 
manent citizens in common with others. 

Soon after the settlement began, persecution commenced; and as 
the society increased, persecution also increased, until the society at 
last was compelled to leave the county; and although an account of 
these persecutions has been published to the world, yet we feel that it 
will not be improper to notice a few of the most prominent items in this 

On the 20th of July, 1833, a mob convened at Independence — a com- 
mittee of which called upon a few of the men of our Church there, and 


stated to them that the store, printing office, and indeed all other me- 
chanic shops must be closed forthwith, and the society leave the 
county immediately. 

These propositions were so unexpected, that a certain time was asked for 
to consider on the subject, before an answer should be returned, which 
was refused, and our men being individually interrogated, each one 
answered that he could not consent to comply with their propositions. 
One of the mob replied that he was sorry, for the work of destruction 
would commence immediately. 

In a short time the printing-office, which was a two story brick 
building, was assailed by the mob and soon thrown down, and with it 
much valuable property destroyed. Next they went to the store for the 
same purpose; but M^. Gilbert, one of the owners, agreeing to close it, 
they abandoned their design. Their next move was the dragging of 
Bishop Partridge from his house and family to the public square, 
where, surrounded by hundreds, they partially stripped him of his 
clothes, and tarred and feathered him from head to foot. A man by 
the name of Allen was also tarred at the same time. This was 
Saturday, and the mob agreed to meet the following Tuesday, to ac- 
complish their purpose of driving or massacring the society. 

Tuesday came, and the mob came also, bearing with them a red 
flag in token of blood. Some two or three of the principal men of the 
society offered their lives, if that would appease the wrath of the mob, 
so that the rest of the society might dwell in peace upon their lands. 
The answer was, that unless the society would leave en masse, every ■ 
man should die for himself. Being in a defenseless situation, to save 
a general massacre, it was agreed that one half of the society 
should leave the county by the first of the next January, and the re- 
mainder by the first of the following April. A treaty was entered into 
and ratified, and all things went on smoothly for awhile. But some- 
time in October, the wrath of the mob began again to be kindled, inso- 
much that they shot at some of our people, whipped others, and threw 
down their houses, and committed many other depredations; indeed 
the society of Saints were harassed for some time both day and night; 
their houses were brick-batted and broken open and women and chil- 
dren insulted. The store-house of A. S. Gilbert and Company was 
broken open, ransacked, and some of the goods stre\ved in the streets. 

These abuses, with many others of a very aggravated nature, so 
stirred up the indignant feelings of our people, that when a party of 
them, say about thirty, met a company of the mob of about double their 
number, a skirmish took place, in which some two or three of the mob, 
and one of our people, were killed. This raised, as it were, the# 
whole county in arms, and nothing would satisfy the mob but an im ■ 


mediate surrender of the arms of our people, who forthwith were to 
leave the county. Fifty-one guns were given up, which have never 
been returned, or paid for, to this day. The next day, parties of the 
mob, from fifty to seventy, headed by priests, went from house to 
house, threatening women and children with death if they were not 
gone before they returned. This so alarmed our people that they fled 
in different directions; some took shelter in the woods, while others 
wandered in the prairies till their feet bled; and the weather being very 
cold, their sufferings in other respects were great. 

The society made their escape to Clay county as fast as they possiblj' 
could, where the people received them kindly, and administered to their 
wants. After the society had left Jackson county, their buildings, 
amounting to about two hundred, were either burned or otherwise de- 
stroyed, and much of their crops, as well as furniture and stock; which 
if properly estimated would make a large sum, for the loss of which 
they have not as yet received any femuneration. 

The society remained in Clay county nearly three years; when, at 
the suggestion of the people there, they removed to that section of the 
state known as Caldwell county. Here the people bought out most 
of the former inhabitants, and also entered much of the wild land. 
Many soon owned a number of eighties [eighty acres] while there was 
scarcely a man who did not secure to himself at least a forty [forty 
acrfcs] . Here we were permitted to enjoy peace for a season ; but as 
our society increased in numbers, and settlements were made in Daviess 
and Carroll counties, the mob spirit spread iiself again. For months 
previous to our giving up our arms to General Lucas' army, we heard 
little else than rumors of mobs collecting in different places and threat- 
ening our people. It is well known that the people of our Church, who 
had located themselves at De Witt, had to give up to a mob, and leave 
the place, notwithstanding the militia were called out for their protec- 

From De Witt the mob went towaids Daviess county, and while on 
their way there they took two of our men prisoners, and made them 
ride upon the cannon, and told them that they would drive the "Mor- 
mons" from Daviess to Caldwell, and from Caldwell to hell; and that 
they would give them no quarter, only at the cannon's mouth. The 
threats of the mob induced some of our people to go to Daviess to help 
to protect their brethren who had settled at Adam-oudi-Ahman, on 
Grand river. The mob soon fled from Daviess county; and after they 
were dispersed and the cannon taken, during which time no blood was 
shed, the people of Caldwell returned to their homes, in hopes of enjoy- 
ing peace and quiet; but in this they were disappointed; for a large 
mob was soon found to be collecting on the Grindstone fork of Grand 


river from ten to fifteen miles off, under tlje command of Cornelius 
Gillium,a scouting party of which came within four miles of Far West, 
in open daylight, and drove off stock belonging to our people. 

About this time, word came to Far West that a party of the mob had 
come into Caldwell county to the south of Far West; that they were 
taking horses and cattle, burning houses and ordering the inhabitants 
to leave their homes immediately; and that they had then actually in 
their possession three men prisoners. This report reached Far West in 
the evening, and was confirmed about midnight. A company of about 
sixty men went forth under the command of David W. Patten to dis- 
perse the mob, as they supposed. A battle was the result, in which 
Captain Patten and three of his men were killed, and others wounded. 
Bogart, it appears, had but one killed and others wounded. 
Notwithstanding the unlawful acts committed by Captain Bogart's men 
previous to the battle, it is now asserted and claimed that he was regu- 
larly ordered out as a militia captain, to preserve the peace along the 
line of Ray and Caldwell counties. The battle was fought four or five 
days previous to the arrival of General Lucas and his army. About the 
time of the battle with Captain Bogart, a number of our people who 
were living near Haun's mill, on Shoal creek, about twenty miles be- 
low Far West, together with a number of emigrants who had been 
stopped there in consequence of the excitement, made an agreement 
with the mob in that vicinity that neither party should molest the other, 
but dwell in peace. Shortly after this agreement was made, a mob 
party of from two to three hundred, many of whom are supposed to be 
from Chariton county, some from Daviess, and also those who had 
agreed to dwell in peace, came upon our people there, whose number 
in men was about forty, at a time they little expected any such thing, 
and without any ceremony, notwithstanding they begged for quarter, 
shot them down as they would tigers or panthers. Some few made 
their escape by fleeing. Eighteen were killed and a number more were 
severely wounded. 

This tragedy was conducted m the most brutal and savage manner. 
Au old man [Father Thomas McBride] after the massacre was partially 
over, threw himself into their hands and begged for quarter, when he 
was instantly shot down; that not killing him. they took an old corn 
cutter and literally mangled him to pieces.* A lad of ten years of age, 
after being shot down, also begged to be spared, when one of the mob 
placed the muzzle of his gun to the boy's head and blew out his brains. 

* This barbarous deed is vividly described by President John Taylor in his con- 
troversy with Mr. Schuyler Colfax, Vice-President of the United States, 1870: 
"My mind wanders back upwards of thirty years ago, when, in the state of Mis- 
souri, Mr. McBride, an old, grey- haired, venerable veteran of the Revolution, with 


The slaughter of these not satisfying the mob, they then proceeded to 
rob and plunder. The scene that presented itself after the massacre, 
to the widows and orphans of the killed, is beyond description. It was 
truly a time of weeping, mourning and lamentation. 

As yet we have not heard of any one being arrested for these mur- 
ders, notwithstanding there are men boasting about the country that 
they did kill on that occasion more than one "Mormon;" whereas all 
our people who were in the battle with Captain Patten against Bogart, 
that can be found, have been arrested, and are now confined in jail to 
await their trial for murder. 

When General Lucas arrived near Far West, and presented the Gov- 
ernor's order, we were greatly surprised; yet we felt willing to submit 
to the authorities of the state. We gave up our arms without reluct- 
ance. We were then made prisoners, and confined to the limits of the 
town for about a week, during which time the men from the country 
were not permitted to go to their families, many of whom were in a 
suffering condition for want of food and firewood, the weather be- 
ing very cold and stormy. 

Much property was destroyed by the troops in town during their stay 
there, such as burning house logs, rails, corn-cribs, boards; the using 
of corn and hay, the plundering of houses, the killing of cattle, sheep 
and hogs, and also the taking of horses not their own; and all this with- 
out regard to owners, or asking leave of any one. In the meantime 
men were abused, women insulted and abused by the troops; and all 
this while we were kept prisoners. 

Whilst the town was guarded, we were called together by the order 
of General Lucas, and a guard placed close around us, and in that situ- 
ation we were compelled to sign a deed of trust for the purpose of making 
our individual property, all holden, as they said, to pay all the debts of 
every individual belonging to the Church, and also to pay for all dam- 
ages the old inhabitants of Daviess may have sustained in consequence 
of the late difficulties in that county. 

General Clark had now arrived, and the first important move made by 
him was the collecting of our men together on the square and selecting 
about fifty of them, whom he immediately marched into a house, and 
placed in close confinement. This was done without the aid of the 

feeble frame and tottering steps, cried to a Missouri patriot: 'Spare ray life, 1 am a 
Revolutionary soldier, I fought for liberty. Would you murder me? What is 
my offense, I believe in God and revelation?' This frenzied disciple of misplaced 

faith said: 'Take that, you Mormon,' and with the butt of his gun he 

dashed his brains out, and he lay quivering there,-his white locks clotted with 
his own brains and gore, on that soil that he had heretofore shed his blood to re- 
deem-a sacrifice at the shrine of liberty! Shades of Franklin, Jefferson and 
Washington, were you there? Did you gaze on this deed of blood? Did you see 
your companion in arms thus massacred?" 


sheriff, or any legal process. The next day forty-six of those taken, 
were driven off to Richmond, like a parcel of menial slaves, not know- 
ing why they were taken, or what they were taken for. After being 
confined in Richmond more than two weeks, about one half were 
liberated; the rest, after another week's confinement, were required to 
appear at court, and have since been let to bail. Since General Clark 
withdrew his troops from Far West, parties of armed men have gone 
through the country, drivins: off horses, sheep and cattle, and also plun- 
dering houses; the barbarity of General Lucas' troops ought not to be 
passed over in silence. They shot our cattle and hogs merely for the sake 
of destroying them, leaving them for the ravens to eat. They took pris- 
oner an aged man by the name of John Tanner, and without any reason 
for it, he was struck over the head with a gun, which laid his skull 
bare. Another man by the name of Carey was also taken prisoner by 
them, and without any provocation had his brains dashed out by a gun. 
He was laid in a wagon and there permitted to remain for the space of 
twenty-four hours; during which time no one was permitted to admin- 
ister to him comfort or consolation; and after he was removed from that 
situation, he lived but a few hours. 

The destruction of property at and about Far West is very great. 
Many are stripped bare, as it were, and others partially so; indeed take 
us as a body at this time, we are a poor and afflicted people; ard if we 
are compelled to leave the state in the Spring, many, 5'es a large portion 
of our society, will have to be removed at the expense of the state; as 
those who might have helped them are now debarred that privilege in 
consequence of the deed of trust we were compelled to sign; which 
deed so operated upon our real estate, that it will sell for but little or 
nothing at this time. 

We have now made a brief statement of some of the most prominent 
features of the troubles that have befallen our people since our first 
settlement in this state; and we believe that these persecutions have 
come in consequence of our religious faith, and noc for any immorality 
on our part. That instances have been, of late, where individuals have 
trespassed upon the rights of others, and thereby broken the laws of 
the land, we will not pretend to deny; but yet we do believe that no 
crime can be substantiated against any of the people who have a stand- 
ing in our Church of an earlier date than the difficulties in Daviess 
county. And when it is considered that the rights of this people have 
been trampled upon from time to time with impunit3% and abuses 
almost innumerable heaped upon them it ought in some degree to palliate 
for anj' infraction of the law which may have been made on the part of 
our people. 

The late order of Governor Boggs to drive us from the state, or exter- 


minate us, is a thing so novel, unlawful, tyrannical, and oppressive, that 
we have been induced to draw up this memorial, and present this statement 
of our case to your honorable body, praying that a law may be passed, 
rescinding the order of the governor to drive us from the state, and also 
giving us the sanction of the legislature to possess our lands in peace. 
We ask an expression of the legislature, disapproving the conduct of 
those who compelled us to sign a deed of trust, and also disapproving 
of any man or set of men taking our property in consequence of that 
deed of trust, and appropriating it to the payment of debts not con- 
tracted by us or for the payment of damages sustained in consequence 
of trespasses committed by others. 

We have no common stock; our property is individual property, and 
we feel willing to pay our debts as other individuals do; but we are not 
willing to be bound for other people's debts. The arms which were 
taken from us here, which we understand to be about six hundred and 
thirty, besides swords and pistols, we care not so much about, as we do 
the pay for them; only we are bound to do military duty, which we are 
willing to do, and which we think was sufficiently manifested by the 
raising of a volunteer company last fall at Far West when called upon 
by General Parks to raise troops for the frontier. 

The arms given up by us, we consider wei'e worth between twelve 
and fifteen thousand dollars; but we understand they have been greatly 
damaged since taken, and at this time probably would not bring near 
their former value. And as they were, both here and in Jackson 
county, taken by the militia, and consequently by the authority of the 
state, we therefore ask j'our honorable body to cause an appropriation 
to be made by law, whereby we may be paid for them, or otherwise 
have them returned to us, and the damages made good. 

The losses sustained by our people in leaving Jackson county are 
such that it is impossible to obtain any compensation for them by law, 
because those who have sustained them are unable to prove those 
trespasses upon individuals. That the facts do exist that the buildings, 
crops, stock, furniture, rails, timber, etc., of the society have 
been destroyed in Jackson county, is not doubted by those who are ac- 
quainted in this upper country [the part of the state north of the Mis- 
souri river was so called] ; and since these trespasses cannot be proven 
upon individuals, we ask your honorable body to consider this case ; and 
if in your liberality and wisdom you can conceive it to be proper to 
make an appropriation by law to these sufferers, many of whom are 
still pressed down with poverty m consequence of their losses, they 
would be able to pay their debts, and also in some degree be relieved 
from povertv and woe; whilst the widow's heart would be made to re- 
joice, and the orphan's tear measurably dried up, and the prayers of a 


grateful people ascend on high, with thanksgiving and praise to the 
Author of our existence for such beneficent act. 

In lajing our ease before your honorable body, we say that we are 
willing, and ever have been, to conform to the Constitution and laws of 
the United States, and of this state. We ask, in common with others, 
the protection o^' the laws. We ask for the privilege guaranteed to all 
free citizens of the United States, and of this state, to be extended to 
us that we may be permitted to settle and live where we please, and 
worship God according to the dictates of our conscience without moles- 
tation. And while we ask for ourselves this privilege, we are willing 
all others should enjoy the same. 

We now lay our case at the feet of you legislators, and ask your 
honorable body to consider it. and do for us, after mature deliberation, 
that which your wisdom, patriotism and philanthropy may dictate. And 
we, as in duty bound, will ever prav. 

Edward Partridge, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
John Taylor, 
Theodore Turley, 
Brigham Young, 
Isaac Morley, 
George W. Harris, 
John Murdoch, 
John M. Burk. 
A committee appointed by the citizens of Caldwell county, 
to draft the memorial and sign it in their behalf. 
Far West, Caldwell county, Missouri, December 10, 1838. 

Minutes of a High Council Held at Far West, lluirsday, December 

13, 1S3S. 

Agreeable to appointment, the standing High Council met, when it 
was found that several were absent, who, (some of them) have had to 
flee for their lives; therefore it being necessary that those vacancies be 
filled, the meeting was called for that purpose, and also to express each 
other's feelings respecting the word of the Lord; President Brigham 
Young presiding. 

The council was opened by prayer by Elder Kimball. After prayer. 
President Young made a few remarks, saying he thought it all import- 
ant to have the Council reorganized, and prepared to do business. He 
advised the councilors to be wise and judicious in all their movements, 
and not hasty in their transactions. As for his faith, it was the same 
as ever; and he fellowshiped all such as loved the Gospel of our Lord 
and Savior Jesus Christ, in act as well as word. 


Elder Kimball arose and said he felt as formerly, for he had endeav- 
ored to keep a straightforward course; but wherein he had been out of 
the way in any manner, he meant to mend in that thing; and he was 
determined, as far as possible, to do as he would be done by; and his 
faith was as g-ood as ever; he was in fellowship with all who wanted to 
do right. 

Simeon Carter said, as to his faith in the M'ork it was the same as 
ever; he did not think that Joseph was a fallen Prophet, but he believed 
in every revelation that had come through him ; still he thought that 
perhaps Joseph had not acted in all things according to the best wis- 
dom; yet how far he had been unwise he could not say. He did not 
think that Joseph would be removed and another planted in his stead; 
but he believed that he would still perform his work. He was still de- 
teraiined to persevere and act in righteousness in all things, so that he 
might at last gain a crown of glory, and reign in the kingdom of God. 

Jared Carter, responded to President Brigham Young's feelings, and 
wished all to walk with the brethren. 

Thomas Grover said he was firm in the faith, and he believed the 
time would come when Joseph would stand before kings, and speak 
marvelous words. 

David Dort expressed his feelings in a similar manner. 

Levi Jackman says his faith is the same as ever, and he has confi- 
dence in Brother Joseph, as ever. 

Solomon Hanco«k says be is a firm believer in the Book of Mormon 
and Doctrine and Covenants, and that Brother Joseph is not a fallen 
prophet, but will yet be exalted and become very high. 

John Badger says his confidence in the work is the same as ever, and 
his faith, if possible, is stronger than ever. He believes that it was 
necessary that these scourges should come. 

George W. Harris says that, as it respects the scourges which have 
come upon us, the hand of God was in it. 

Samuel Bent says that his faith is as it ever was, and that he feels 
to praise God in prisons and in dungeons, and in all circumstances. 

After some consultation it was thought expedient to nominate High 
Priests to fill the vacancies. 

The Council was organized as follows: Simeon Carter, No. 1; Jared 
Carter, 2; Thomas Grover 3; David Dort, 4; Levi Jackman, 5; Solo- 
mon Hancock, 6; John Badger, 7; John Murdock, 8; John E. Page, 
9; George W. Harris, 10; John Taylor, 11; Samuel Bent, 12. 

Voted that John Murdock fill the vacancy of John P. Greene, No. 
4, and David Dort the place of Elias Higbee, No. 11, and John Badger 
the place of George Morey, No. 7, and Lyman Sherman the place of 
Newel Knight, until he returns. 

15 vol III 


Council adjourned until Friday evening, six o'clock. Closed by 
prayer by President Brigham Young:. 

E. Robinson, Clerk. 

Isaac Eussell, who had become connected with a small 
camp of the Saints, of about thirty families, going west, 
turned from his course at Louisiana, and led them north 
ten miles on the Spanish claims, where they built huts or 
lived in tents through the winter in great suffering. Rus- 
sell turned prophet (apostate). He !?aid Joseph had fallen 
and he was appointed to lead the people. 

Chandler Eogers, who was moving west, was met by 
a mob at Huntsville, and compelled to turn back, and 
fell in with Russell's camp. Russell said he was "the 
chosen of the Lord;" and when they left the place, they 
would have to go on foot, and take nothing ^vith them, 
and they must sell their teams. Some would not sell and 
he cursed them. 

Sunday^ December 16. — 1 wrote the following letter : 

The Prophet's Letter to the Church. 

Liberty Jail, Missouri, 

December 16, 1838. 

To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in Caldwell 
county, and all the Saints who are scattered abroad, who are perse- 
cuted, and made desolate, and who are afflicted in divers manners for 
Christ's sake and the Gospel's, by the hands of a cruel mob and the 
tyrannical disposition of the authorities of this state ; and whose perils 
are grreatly au.^mented by the wickedness and corruption of false 
brethren, grreeting: 

May grace, mercy, and the peace of God be and abide with you; 
and notwithstanding all your sufferings, we assure you that you have 
our prayers and fervent desires for your welfare, day and night. We 
believe that that God who seeth us in this solitary place, will hear our 
prayers, and reward you openly. 

Know assuredly, dear brethren, that it is for the testimony of Jesus 
that we are in bonds and in prison. But we say unto you, that we con- 
sider that our condition is better (notwithstanding our sufferings) than 
that of those who have persecuted us, and smitten us, and born 3 false 
witness against us; and we most assuredly believe that those who do 
bear false witness against us, do seem to have a great triumph over us 


for the present. But we want you to remember Haman and Mordecai: 
you know that Haman could not be satisfied so long as he saw Mordecai 
at the king's gate, and he sought the life of Mordecai and the destruc- 
tion of the people of the Jews. But the Lord so ordered it, that Ha- 
man was hanged upon his own gallows. 

So shall it come to pass with poor Haman in the last days, and those 
who have sought by unbelief and wickedness and by the principle of 
mobocracy to destroy us and the people of God, by killing and scat- 
tering them abroad, and wilfully and maliciously delivering us into the 
hands of murderers, desiring us to be put to death, thereby having us 
dragged about in chains and cast into prison. And for what cause? It 
is because we were honest men, and were determined to defend the 
lives of the Saints at the expense of our own. I say unto you, that 
those who have thus vilely treated us, like Haman, shall, be hanged 
upoa their own gallows; or, in other words, shall fall into their own 
gin, and snare, and ditch, and trap, which they have prepared for us, 
and shall go backwards and stumble and fall, and their name shall be 
blotted out, and God shall reward them according to all their abomi- 

Dear brethren, do not think that our hearts faint, as though some 
strange thing had happened unto us, for we have seen and been as- 
sured of all these things beforehand, and have an assurance of a bet- 
ter hope than that of our persecutors. Therefore God hath made broad 
our shoulders for the burden. We glory in our tribulation, because 
we know that God is with us, that He is our friend, and that He will 
save our souls. We do not care for them that cau kill the body; they 
cannot harm our souls. We ask no favors at the hands of mobs, nor of 
the world, nor of the devil, nor of his emissaries the dissenters, and 
those who love, and make, and swear falsehoods, to take away our 
lives. We have never dissembled, nor will we for the sake of our 

Forasmuch, then, as we know that we have been endeavoring with 
all our mind, might, and strength, to do the will of God, and all things 
whatsoever He has commanded us; and as to our light speeches, which 
may have escaped our lips from time to time, they have nothing to do 
with the fixed purposes of our hearts; therefore it sufficeth us to say, 
that our souls were vexed from day to day. We refer you to Isaiah, 
who considers those who make a man an offender for a word, and lay a 
snare for him that reproveth in the gate. We believe that the old 
Prophet verily told the truth: and we have no retraction to make. We 
have reproved in the gate, and men have laid snares for us. We have 
spoken words, and men have made us offenders. And notwithstand- 
ing all this, our minds are not yet darkened, but feel strong in the 


Lord. But behold the words of the Savior: "If the light which is in 
you become darkness, behold how great is that darkness." Look at 
the dissenters. Again, "If j'ou were of the world the world would 
love its own." Look at Mr. Hinkle — a wolf in sheep's clothing. Look 
at his brother John Corrill. Look at the beloved brother Reed Peck, 
who aided him in leading us, as the Savior was led, into the camp of 
His enemies, as a lamb prepared for the slaughter, as a slieep dumb 
before his shearers; so we opened not our mouths. 

But these men, like Balaam, being greedy for reward, sold us into 
the hands of those who loved them, for the world loves his own. I 
would remember William E. McLellin, who comes up to us as one of 
Job's comforters. God suffered such kind of beings to afflict Job — 
but it never entered into their hearts that Job would get out of it all. 
This poor man who professes to be much of a proj^het, has no other 
dumb ass to ride but David Whitmer,* to forbid his madness when he 
goes up to curse Israel; and this ass not being of the same kind as 
Balaam's, therefore, the angel notwithstanding appeared unto him, yet 
he could not penetrate his understanding sufficiently, but that he brays 
out cursings instead of blessings. Poor ass I Whoever lives to see it, 
will see him and his rider perish like those who perished in the gain- 
saying of Korah, or after the same condemnation. Now as for these 
and the rest of their company, we will not presume to say that the 
world loves them; but we presume to say they love the world, and we 
classify them in the error of Balaam, and in the gain-sayings of Korah, 
and with the company of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram. 

Perhaps our brethren will say, because we thus write, that we are 
offended at these characters. If we are, it is not for a word, neither 
because they reproved in the gate — but because they have b^n the 
means of shedding innocent blood. Are they not murderers then at 
heart? Are not their consciences seared as with a hot iron? We con- 
fess that we are offended; but the Savior said, "It must needs be that 
offenses come, but woe unto them by whom they come." And again, 
"Blessed are ye when men shall revile you, and persecute you, and 
shall say all manner of evil against you falsely for my sake; rejoice 
and be exceeding glad, for great is your reward in heaven, for so per- 
secuted they the Prophets which were before you." 

Now, dear brethren, if any men ever had reason to claim this 
promise, we are the rden; for we know that the world not onlj' hate us, 

*ln order to appreciate the allusions here made to David Whitmer it will be nec- 
essary to remember that William E M'Lellin claimed that President Joseph Smith 
was a fallen prophet and himself sought to bring into existence a re-organized 
church with David Whitmer as the president thereof. See foot note in this volume 
at pages 31, 32. 


but they speak all manner of evil of us falsely, for no other reason 
than that we have been endeavoring to teach the fullness of the Gospel 
of Jesus Christ. 

After we were bartered away by Hinkle, and were taken into the 
militia camp, we had all the evidence we could have asked for that the 
world hated us. If there were priests among them of all the different 
sects, they hated us, and that most cordially too. If there were gen- 
erals, they hated us; if there were colonels, they hated us; and the 
soldiers, and officers of every kind, hated us; and the most profane, 
blasphemous, and drunkards; and whoremongers, hated us — they all 
hated us, most cordially. And now what did they hate us for? Purely 
because of the testimony of Jesus Christ. Was it because we were 
liars? We know that it has been so reported by some, but it has been 
reported falsely. Was it because we have committed treason against 
the government in Daviess county, or burglary, or larceny, or arson, 
or any other unlawful act in Daviess county? We know that we have 
been so reported by priests, and certain lawyers, and certain judges, 
who are the instigators, aiders, and abettors of a certain gang of 
murderers and robbers, who have been carrying on a scheme of mob- 
ocracy to uphold their priestcraft, against the Saints of the last days; 
and for a number of years have tried, by a well contemplated and pre- 
meditated scheme, to put down by physical power a system of religion 
that all the world, by their mutual attainments, and by any fair means 
whatever, were not able to resist. 

Hence mobbers were encouraged by priests and Levites, by the Phari- 
sees, by the Sadducees, and Essenes, and Herodians, and the most 
worthless, abandoned, and debauched, lawless, and inhuman, and the 
most beastly set of men that the earth can boast of — and indeed a 
parallel cannot be found anywhere else — to gather together to steal, to 
plunder, to starve, and to exterminate, and burn the houses of the 

These are characters that, by their treasonable and overt acts, have 
desolated and laid waste Daviess county. These are the characters 
that would fain make all the world believe that we are guilty of the 
above named acts. But they represent us falsely; we stood in our own 
defense, and we believe that no man of us acted only in a just, a law- 
ful, and a righteous retaliation against such marauders. 

We say unto you, that we have not committed treason, nor any other 
unlawful act in Daviess county. Was it for murder in Ray county, 
against mob-militia; who was as a wolf in the first instance, hide and 
hair, teeth, legs and tail, who afterwards put on a militia sheep skin 
with the wool on; who could sally forth, in the day time, into the flock, 
and snarl, and show his teeth, and scatter and devour the flock, and 


satiate himself upon his prey, and then sneak back into the bramble in 
order that he might conceal himself in his well tried skin with the wool 

We are well aware that there is a certain set of priests and satellites, 
and mobbers that would fain make all the world believe that we were 
guilty of the doings of this howling wolf that made such havoc among 
the sheep, who, when he retreated, howled and bleated at such a des- 
perate rate, that if one could have been there, he would have thought 
that all the wolves, whether wrapped up in sheep skins or in goat skins, 
or in some other skins, and in fine all the beasts of the forest, were 
awfully alarmed, and catching the scent of innocent blood, they sallied 
forth with one tremendous howl and crying of all sorts; and such a 
howling, and such a tremendous havoc never was known before; such 
inhumanity, and relentless cruelty and barbarity as were practiced 
against the Saints in Missouri can scarcely be found in the annals of 

Now those characters if allowed to would make the world believe 
that we had committed murder, by making an attack upon this howling 
wolf, while the fact is we were at home and in our bed, and asleep, and 
knew nothing of that transaction any more than we know what is go- 
ing on in China while we are within these walls. Therefore we say 
again unto you, we ai'e innocent of these things, and they have repre- 
__sent ed us falsely. 

Was it for committing adultery that we were assailed? We are aware 
that that false slander has gone abroad, for it has been reiterated in 
our ears. These are falsehoods also. Renegade ''Mormon" dissenters 
are running througli the world and spreading vai'ious foul and libelous 
reports against us, thinking thereby to gain the friendship of the world, 
because they know that we are not of the world, and that the world 
hates us; therefore they [the world] make a tool of these fellows [the 
dissenters] ; and by them try to do all the injury they can, and after 
that they hate them worse than they do us, because they find them to 
be base traitors and sycophants. 

Such characters God hates; we cannot love them. The world hates 
them, and we sometimes think that the devil ought to be ashamed of 

We have heard that it is reported by some, that some of us should 
have said, that we not only dedicated our property, but our families 
also to the Lord; and Satan, taking advantage of this, has perverted it 
into licentiousness, such as a community of wives, which is an abomi- 
nation in the sight of God. 

When we consecrate our property to the Lord it is to administer to 
the wants of the poor and needy, for this is the law of God; it is not 


for the benefit of the rich, those who have no need; and when a man 
consecrates or dedicates his wife and children, he does not give them 
to his brother, or to his neighbor, for there is no such law: for the law 
of God is, Thou shalt not commit adultery. Thou shalt not covet thy 
neighbor's wife. He that looketh upon a woman to lust after her, has 
committed adultery already in his heart. Now for a man to consecrate 
his property, wife and children, to the Lord, is nothing more nor les& 
than to feed the hungry, clothe the naked, visit the widow and father- 
less, the sick and afflicted, and do all he can to administer to their re- 
lief in their afflictions, and for him and his house to serve the Lord. In 
order to do this, he and all his house must be virtuous, and must shun 
the very appearance of evil. 

Now if any person has represented anything otherwise than what we 
now write, he or she is a liar, and has represented us falsely — and this 
is another manner of evil which is spoken against us falsely. 

We have learned also since we have been prisoners, that many false 
and pernicious things, which were calculated to lead the Saints far 
astray and to do great injury, have been taught by Dr. Avard as com- 
ing from the Presidency, and we have reason to fear that many other 
designing and corrupt characters like unto himself, have been teaching 
many things which the Presidency never knew were being taught in 
the Church by anybody until after they were made prisoners. Had; 
they known of such things they would have spurned them and their 
authors as they would the gates of hell. Thus we find that there have 
been frauds and secret abominations and evil works of darkness going 
on, leading the minds of the weak and unwary into confusion and dis- 
traction, and all the time palming it off upon the Presidency, while- 
the Presidency were ignorant as well as innocent of those things 
which those persons were practicing in the Church in their name. 
Meantime the Presidency were attending to their own secular and fami- 
ly concerns, weighed down with sorrow, in debt, in poverty, in hunger, 
essaying to be fed, yet finding [^. e. supporting] themselves. They 
occasionally received deeds of charity, it is true; but these were inade- 
quate to their subsistence; and because they received those deeds, 
they were envied and hated by those who professed to be their friends. 

But notwithstanding we thus speak, we honor the Church, when we 
speak of the Church as a Church, for their liberality, kindness, 
patience, and long suffering, and their continual kindness towards us. 

And now, brethren, we say unto you — what more can we enumerate*? 
Is not all manner of evil of every description spoken ot us falsely, yea, 
we say unto you falsely. We have been misrepresented and misunder- 
stood, and belied, and the purity and integrity and uprightness of our 
hearts have not been known— aP'* it is through ignorance — yea, the 

23'2 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1838 

very depths of ignorance is the cause of it; and not only i<jnorance, but 
on the part of some, gross wickedness and hypocrisy also; for some, 
by a long face and sanctimonious prayers, and very pious sermons, 
had power to lead the minds of the ignorant and unwary, and thereby 
obtain such influence that when we appioached their iniquities the 
devil gained great advantage — would bring great trouble and sorrow 
upon our heads; and, in fine, we have waded through an ocean of tribu- 
lation and mean abuse, practiced upon us by the ill bred and the ignor- 
ant, such as Hinkle, Corrill, Phelps, Avard, Reed Peck, Cleminson, 
and various others, who are so very ignorant that they cannot appear 
respectable in any decent and civilized societj^ and whose eyes are full 
of adulter J', and cannot cease fi'om sin. Such characters as McLellin, 
John Whitmer, David Whitmer, Oliver Cowdery, and Martin Harris, are 
too mean to mention; and we had liked to have forgotten them. Marsh 
and "another,'' whose hearts are full of corruption, whose cloak of 
hypocrisy was not sufficient to shield them or to hold them up in the 
hour of trouble, who after having escaped the pollutions of the world 
through the knowledge of their Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, became 
again entangled and overcome — their latter end is worse than the first. 
But it has happened unto them according to the word of the Scripture: 
"The dog has returned to his vomit, and the sow that was washed to 
her wallowing in the mire." 

Again, if men sin wilfully after they have received the knowledge of 
the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sin, but a certain 
fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation to come, which 
shall devour these adversaries. For he who despised Moses' law died 
without mercy under two or three witnesses. Of how much more 
severe punisbment suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath 
sold his brother, and denied the new and everlasting covenant by 
which he was sanctified, calling it an unholy thing, and doing despite 
to the Spirit of grace. 

And again we say unto you, that inasmuch as there is virtue in us, 
and the Holy Priesthood has been conferred upon us — and the keys of 
the kingdom have not been taken from us, for verily thus saith the 
Lord, "Be of good cheer, for the keys that I gave unto you are yet 
with you" — therefore we say unto you, dear bi-ethren, in the name of 
the Lord Jesus Christ, we deliver these characters unto the buffetings 
of Satan until the day of redemption, that they may be dealt with ac- 
cording TO their works; and from henceforth their works shall be made 

And now dear and well beloved brethren — and when we say brethren, 
we mean those who have continued faithful in Christ, men, women and 
children — we feel to exhort you in the name of the Lord Jesus, to be 

A. D. 18381 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. '28*j 

strong in the faith in the new and everlastinj? covenant, and nothing 
frightened at your enemies. For what has happened unto us is an evi- 
dent token to them of damnation; but unto us, of salvation, and that 
of God. Therefore hold on even unto death; for "he that seeks to 
save his life shall lose it; and he that loses his life for my sake, and the 
Gospel's, shall find it," saith Jesus Christ. 

Brethren, from henceforth, let truth and righteousness prevail and 
abound in you; and in all things be temperate; abstain from drunken, 
ness, and from swearing, and from all profane language, and from 
everything which is unrighteous or unholy; also from enmity, and 
hatred, and covetousness, and from every unholy desire. Be honest 
one with another, for it seems that some have come short of these 
things, and some have been uncharitable, and have manifested greedi- 
ness because of their debts towards those who have been persecuted 
and dragged about with chains without cause, and imprisoned. Such 
characters God hates — and they shall have their turn of sorrow in the 
rolling of the great wheel, for it rolleth and none can hinder. Zion 
shall yet live, though she seem to be dead. 

Remember that whatsoever measure you mete out to others, it shall 
be measured to you again. We say unto you, brethren, be not afraid 
of your adversaries; contend earnestly against mobs, and the unlawful 
works of dissenters and of darkness. 

And the very God of peace shall be with you, and make a way for 
your escape from the adversary of your souls. We commend you to 
God and the word of His grace, which is able to make us wise unto 
salvation. Amen. 

Joseph Smith, Jun. 




This daj^ [16th December] Elder David H. Redfield ar- 
variedRe- I'lved in Jeffersoii City, and on Monday, 17th, 
ports as to the presented the petition of the brethren to Gen- 

Inteutions of ^ '- 

the Saints. eral David E.. Atchison and others, who were 
very anxious to hear from Caldwell, as there were many 
reports in circulation, such as "the Mormons kept up the 
Danite system," "were going to build the Lord's 
house," and "more blood would be spilled before they left 
the state," which created a hardness in the minds of the 

In the afternoon Brother Redfield had an interview with 
Governor Boggs,who inquired about our people and prop- 
erty with as much apjDarent interest as though 
ween David his wholc soul was cugagcd for our welfare ; 
and Governor and Said that hc had heard that "the citizens 
°^^'' were committing depredations on the 'Mor- 

mons,' and driving off their stock." 

Brother Redfield informed him that armed forces came 
in the place and abused men, women and children, stole 
horses, drove off cattle, and plundered houses of every- 
thing that pleased their fancy. 

Governor Boggs said that he would write Judge King 
and Colonel Price, to go to Far West, and put down every 
hostile appearance. He also stated that "the stipulations 
entered into by the 'Mormons' to leave the state, and 
to sign the deed of trust, were unconstitutional, and not 

Brother Redfield replied, "We want the legislature to 
pass a law to that effect, showing that the stipulations 


and deeds of trust are not valid and are unconstitutional ; 
and unless you do pass such a law, we shall not consider 
ourselves safe in the state. You say there has been a 
stain upon the character of the state, and now is the time 
to pass some law to that effect; and unless you do, fare- 
well to the virtue of the state ; farewell to her honor and 
good name; farewell to her Christian virtue, until she 
shall be peopled by a different race of men ; farewell to 
every name that binds man to man; farewell to a fine 
soil and a glorious home; they are gone, they are rent 
from us by a lawless banditti." 

Tuesday^ December 18. — Mr. Turner, from the joint 
committee on the "Mormon" investigation, submitted ^ 
report, preamble and resolutions, as follows: 

Ihe Turner Committee Beport to the Missouri Legislature * 

In Senate, Tuesday, December 18, 1838. 

Mr. Turner, from the joint committee on the Mormon investigation, 
submitted the following report, preamble and resolutions: 

The joint committee to whom was referred so much of the governor's 
message as relates to the recent difficulties between the people called 
Mormons, and a part of the people of this state, with instructions to 
inquire into the causes of said disturbances, and the conduct of the 
military operations in suppressing them, have taken the same under con- 
sideration, and would respectfully submit the following report and 

They have thought it unwise and injudicious under all the existing 
circumstances of this case, to predicate a report upon the papers, docu- 
ments, etc., purporting to be copies of the evidence taken before an 
examining court, held in Richmond, in Ray county, for the purpose of 
inquiring into the charges alleged against the people called Mormons, 
growing out of the late difficulties between that people and other citi- 
zens of this state. 

They consider the evidence adduced m the examination there 
held, in a great degree, exparte, and not of the character which should 
be desired for the basis of a fair and candid investigation. More- 
over, the papers, documents, etc., have not been certified in such man- 
ner as to satisfy the committee of their authenticity. 

* In the previous publication of this history only part of this report is given, but 
here the whole document is inserted. 


It has been represented to them that the examining court has sent 
on for further trial, many of that class of citizens called Mormons, 
charged with various crimes and offenses; under the charge of treason, 
six; for murder and as accessories thereto, before and after the fact, 
eight; and for other felonies, twenty-seven. Special terms of the circuit 
court are expected to be held in the several counties, in which the 
above mentioned crimes are represented to haye been committed. 
Grand juries will then have these charges asrainst said people before 
them, and must act upon the same documentary evidence which the 
committee would necessarily be compelled to examine, by which cir- 
cumstance two co-ordinate branches of this government may be 
brought into collision — a contingency that should be studiously avoided 
and cautiously guarded against. 

Another insuperable objection that has pi-eseuted itself to the mind 
o^ the committee, and which would induce them to suspend an investi- 
gation, under present and existing circumstances, would be the conse- 
quences likely to result from a publication of their report. Those per- 
sons who have been sent on for further trial, have guaranteed to them 
the sacred and constitutional i-iaht of "a speedy trial by an impartial 
jury of the vicinage," and if the guilt of the accused should be con- 
firmed by the report of the committee, it would so prejudice public 
sentiment against them, as to deprive them of that right, which should 
not be taken away by any consideration involved in this inquiry. 

If the committee were to find it necessary in the prosecution of their 
object, to have access to the papers, documents, etc., connected with 
this difficultj^ the probable interference of the several courts being 
in session, might seriously interrupt their views. It might reason- 
ably be expected that all the evidence of every description, would be 
in the possession of the courts, to be used on the final trial, and by 
that means the investigation would be protracted to a much greater 
length than would be necessary under different circumstances. They 
would therefore recommend, in order to avoid all the difiiculties that 
have been presented, that a committee, after the adjournment of the 
general assembly, go into the vicinity of the scene of difficulties, and 
make their investigation, and report at such time, and in such manner, 
as the legislature may direct. If this course should be adopted, the 
committee believe that the session would be much shortened, and 
heavy expenses saved to the state, which otherwise would necessarily 
be incurred in sending for witnesses, and bringing them from so great 
a distance. By a resolution of both houses, the special message of the 
governor in relation to the subject of inquirj^ with the accompanying 
documents, was referred to the committee, with instructions to select 
such documents as in their opinion ought to be published with the 


messaije, and report to their i*espective houses. The committee after 
a full consideratioa of tlie subject, with due regard to its importauce, 
are of opinion that it is inexpedient at this time, to publish any of 
the documents, under the authoritj^ of the general assembly, and sub- 
mit to the two houses the leading reasons for that opinion. 

The documents may be divided into several classes: 

First — The affidavits and correspondence preceding each series of 
authorized military operations. 

Second — The orders issued upon such evidence. 

Third — The military operations and correspondence consequent 
thereon; and 

Fourth — The evidence taken before a court of inquiry, held for the 
investigation of criminal charges against individuals. 

It was found by the joint committee, at an early period after their 
organization, that, in order to a full and satisfactory investigation of 
the subjects referred to them, a mass of additional testimony, oral and 
written, would be required. This becomes apparent to the committee, 
from the contents of the documents referred to them. These docu- 
ments, although they are serviceable in giving direction to the courts 
of inquiry, are none of them, except the official orders and correspond- 
ence, such as ought to be received as conclusive evidence of the facts 
stated; nor are their contents such as would, without the aid of further 
evidence, enable the committee to form a satisfactory opinion in relation 
to the material points, of the inquiry. 

The copy of the examination taken before the criminal court of in- 
quiry, is manifestly not such evidence as ought to be received by the 

First — Because it is not authenticated; and 

Second — It is confined chiefly to the object of that inquiry; namely: 
the investigation of criminal charges against individuals under arrest; 
for these reasons, but above all, for the reason that it would be a direct 
interference with the administration of justice, this document ought 
not to be published, with the sanction of the legislature. 

The committee conclude, that it would not be proper to publish the 
official orders and correspondence between the officers in command, 
and the executive, without the evidence on which they were founded; 
and that evidence is not sufficiently full and satisfactory to authorize 
its publication. To publish the whole together might tend to give a 
direction to the public mind, prejudicial to an impartial administration 
of justice in pending cases, while it will not afford the means of 
forming any satisfactory conclusion as to the cause of the late dis- 
turbances, or the conduct of the military operations in suppressing 


The committee therefore recommead to each house to adopt the fol- 
lowing resoIutioDs: 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient at this time, to prosecute further the 
inquiry into the causes of the late disturbances and the conduct of the 
militarj' operations in suppressing them. 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient to publish at this time, any of the 
•documents accompanying the governor's message in relation to the late 

Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint a joint committee, com- 
posed of senators, and representatives, to investigate the 

cause of said disturbances, and the conduct of the military operations 
in suppressing them, to meet at suen time, and to be invested with such 
powers as may be prescribed by law.* 

Wednesday, December 19. — Mr. John Corrill presented 
fhe petitiont to the house. While it was reading the 
members were silent as the house of death; after which 
the debate commenced, and excitement increased till the 
house was in an uproar; their faces turned red; their eyes 
flashed fire, and their countenances spoke volumes. 

Mr. Childs, of Jackson county, said, there was not one 

word of truth in it, so far as he had heard, and that it ought 

never to have been presented to that body. 

The Debate ^ •' 

on the Peti- Not loug ago we appropriated two thousand 
dollars to their relief, and now they have 
petitioned for the pay for their lands, which we took away 
from them. We got rid of a great evil when we drove 
them from Jackson county, and we have had peace there 
ever since; and the state will always be in difficulty so 
long as they suffer them to live in the state; and the 

*The above report is taken from a book containing the documents, the correspond- 
ence, orders, etc., in relation tr. the distiirbances with the "Mormons;" and the 
evidence griven before the Hon. Austin A. King, judge of the Fifth Judicial Circuit 
of the stale of Mi.'.souri, at the courthouse in Richmond, in a criminal court of 
inquirj'^, begun November 12, 1838, on the trial of Joseph Smithy Jun., and others, 
for high treason and other crimes against the state, pp. 1-4. The book is published 
by order of the general assembly. 

tThis was the petition of the 10th of December, signed by Edward Partridge, 
Heber 0. Kimball, John Taylor et a1. in behalf of the citizens of Caldwell county, 
which petition appears in chapter xv. of this volume. Subsequently, viz., in 
1841, when the Missouri legislature published, by order of the general assembly, 
what is alleged to be the documents in relation to the disturbances with the "Mor- 
mons," etc., neither this document nor any account of the debate which followed 
its introduction, as here referred to appears. 

A. 1>. 1838] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 239 

quicker they get that petition from before this body the 

Mr. Ashley, from Livingston, said the petition was 
false from beginning to end, and that himself and the 
^'Mormons" could not live together, for he would always 
be found fighting against them, and one or the other must 
leave the state. He gave a history of the Haun's Mill 
massacre, and said he saw Jack Rogers cut up McBride 
with a corn-cutter. 

Mr. Corrill corrected Mr. Childs, and stated facts in the 
petition which he was acquainted with, and that Mr. 
Childs ought to know that there could not be the first 
crime established against the "Mormons" while in Jack- 
son county. 

One member hoped the matter would not be looked over 
in silence, for his constituents required of him to know 
the cause of the late disturbances. 

Mr. Young, of Lafayette, spoke very bitterly against 
the petition and the "Mormons." 

An aged member from St. Charles moved a reference of 
the bill to a select committee; and, continued he, "as the 
gentleman that just spoke, and other gentlemen, want 
the petition ruled out of the house for fear their evil 
doings will be brought to light ; this goes to prove to me 
and others, that the petition is true " 

Mr. Redman, of Howard county, made a long speech 
in favor of a speedy investigation of the whole matter; 
said he, "The governor's order has gone forth, and the 
Mormons are leaving; hundreds are waiting to cross the 
Mississippi river, and 'by and by they are gone, and our 
state is blasted ; her character is gone ; we gave them no 
chance for a fair investigation. The state demands of us 
that we give them a speedy investigation." 

Mr. Gyer, from St. Louis, agreed with the gentleman 
from Howard county, that the committee Nature of the 
should have j)ower to call witnesses from Te.stimony. 
any part of the state, and defend them; and unless the 

240 HISTORY OF THE CHORCH. [A.. D. 1838 

governor's order was rescinded, he for one would leave 
the state. Other gentlemen made similar remarks. 

The testimony presented the committee of investigation, 
before referred to, was the governor's orders, General 
Clark's reports, the report of the ex parte trial at Rich- 
mond, and a lot of papers signed by nobody, given to 
nobody, and directed to nobody, containing anything 
our enemies were disposed to write. 

Minutes of the High Council at Far West. 

The High council of Ziou met in Far West, Wednesday, December 
19, 1838. 

The Council was organized as follows: Ebenezer Robinson. No. 1; 
Jared Caiter, No. 2; Thomas Grover, 3; Reynolds Gaboon, 4; Theodore 
Turley, 5; Solomon Hancock, 6; John Badger, 7; JohnMurdock, 8; Har- 
low Redfield, 9; George W. Harris, 10; David Dort, 11; Samuel Bent 12. 
The Council was opened by prayer by President Brigham Young, who 

Harlow Redfield gave a statement of his feelings. He said his faith 
was as good as it ever was, notwithstanding he did not feel to fellow- 
ship all the proceedings of his brethren in Daviess county; he thought 
they did not act as wisely as they might have done. 

Voted by the Council that John E. Page and John Taylor* be or- 

* Of John Taylor a biographical note has already been given. See page 154. 
The following facts concerning John E. Page are given by himself: 

The subscriber was born of Ebenezer and Rachael Page, their first child, B^ebru- 
ary 25th, A. D. 1799. My father was of pure English extraction; my mother of 
English, Irish, and Welsh extraction. My place of birth was Trenton Township, 
Oneida county, State of New York. 1 embraced the faith of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, and was baptized August the 18th, 1833, by the hands 
of Elder Emer Harris (own brother to Martin Harris, one of the Three Witnesses to 
the divinity of the Book of Mormon). I was ordained an Elder under the hands 
of Elders Nelson Higgins, Ebenezer Page, Jun., and others. My baptism took 
place in Brownhelm, Lorain county, Ohio; my ordination in Florence, Huron 
county, of the same state, on the 12th of September, 1833. 

1 moved to Kirtland, Geauga county Ohio, in the fall of 1835. 

On the 31st day of May, 1836, I started on a mission to Canada West, Leeds 
•ounty. I was gone from my family seven months and twenty days. 

On the 16th day of February, 1837, I again left Kirtland with my family, a wife 
and two small children, taking with me all the earthly goods 1 possessed, which 
consisted of one bed and our wearing apparel of the plainest kind, to continue my 
rai.ssion in the same region of country as before. 

In July following the commandment came forth for me to occupy a place in the 
quorum of the Twelve. 


dained to the Apostleship, to fill vacaoeies in the quorum of the 
Twelve. They came forward and received their ordination under the 
hands of Brigham Youne: and Heber C. Kimball. 

Voted that we senda petition to the general government, and send it 
by mail. 

Voted that Edward Partridge and John Taylor be a committee to 
draft the above-mentioned petition; also it is their privilege to choose 
another person to assist them. 

Council adjourned until next Wednesday at one o'clock, at same 

E. Robinson, Clerk. 

Tuesday, Decenther 25. — My brother, Don Carlos, and 
my cousin George A. Smith returned, [from Return of Don 
missions through Kentucky and Tennessee], carios smith 

~ -^ -'' and George A. 

having traveled fifteen hundred miles — nine smith. 
hundred on foot, and the remainder by steamboat and 
otherwise. They visited several branches, and would 
have accomplished the object of their mission, had it not 
been for the troubles at Far West. 

When nearly home they were known and pursued by 
the mob, which compelled them to travel one hundred 
miles in two days and nights. The ground at the time 
was slippery, and a severe northwest wind was blowing 
in their faces; they had but little to eat, and narrowly 
escaped freezing both nights. 

On the 14th Jay of May, 1838, I started with a company of Saints, made up of 
men, women and their children, for the state of Missouri, where we landed with a 
company occupj'ing thirty wagons, in the first week of October, at a place called 
De Witt, some six miles above the outlet of Grand river, on the north side of the 
Missouri river, wh'^re we were attacked by an armed mob, and by them barbarously 
treated for nearly two weeks. We then went to Far West. Caldwell county, where 
we united with the general body of the Church, and with them participated in all the 
grievous persecutions practiced on the Church by means of a furious mob, by which 
means I buried one wife and two children as martyrs to our holy religion, since they 
died through extreme suffering for the want of the common comforts of life — 
which I was not allowed to provide even with my money. 

On the 19th of December, 1838, at Far West, Elder John Taylor and myself were 
ordained as Apostles under the hands of Elders Brigham Young and Heber C. 
Kimball, in the quorum of the Twelve, to fill some vacancies in the quorum, which 
had occurred by apostasies. In two year's time 1 had baptized upwards of six 
hundred persons, and traveled more than five thousand miles, principally on foot 
and under the most extreme poverty, relative to earthly means, being sustained 
alone by the power of God and not of man, or the wisdom of the world.— John 
E. Page. 

16 Vol. Ill 


Wednesday, December 26. — David H. Eedfield having 
Redfieid's Re- I'^tumed to Far West, made his report, and 
P"'"'^- the High Council voted that they were satis- 

fied with his proceedings.* 

Thursday, December 27. — Anson Call went to Ray 
county, near Elk Horn, to sell some property, and was 
Experience of taken by tcu of the mob and one old negro. 
Anson Call. gome of the mob were two of Judge Dickey's 
sons, a Mr. Adams, and a constable. They ordered him 
to disarm himself. He told them he had no arms about 
his person. They ordered him to turn his pockets wrong 
side out. They then said they would peel off his naked 
back before morning, with a hickory gad. They beat 
him with their naked hands times without number; they 
struck him in the face with a bowie knife, and severely 
hurt him a number of times. 

After abusing him about four hours, saying he was a 

"Mormon,'' and they would serve him as they had 

others, tie him with a hickory withe and gad him, and 
keep him till morning, they then started off and came 
to a hazel grove ; while consulting together what course to 
pursue with him, he leaped into the bush, when they pur- 
sued him, but he made his escape and returned to Far West. 

After much controversy and angry disputation, as the 
papers of Missouri, published at the time, 

Action of Mis- ^ ^ ' ^ ' 

souri Legisia- abundantly testify, our petition and memorial 
was laid on the table until the 4th of July 
following; thus utterly refusing to grant the request of 
the memorialists to investigate the subject, t 

After we were cast into prison, we heard nothing but 

* David H. Redfleld, it will be remembered, was the messenger from the citizens 
of Caldwell county to the Missouri state legislature, bearing with him the petition 
of the 10th of December, and it is, of course, from his report of the manner in 
which the petition was received and the report of the debate thereon that the 
Prophet makes up his account of that affair. 

tThe bill providing for an investigation of the "Mormon" difficulties was iinally 
laid upon the table until the 4th of July in the house by a vote of 48 in favor of 
such action and 37 against such procedure. Seven members were absent. 
The matter was not again taken up until the legislature of 1840, of which more later. 


threateuings, that, if any judge or jury, or court of any 
kind, should clear any of us, we should never get out of 
the state alive. 

The state appropriated two thousand dollars to be dis- 
tributed among the people of Daviess and 

^ . ,/-.«■ n/^iT State Appro- 

Caldwell counties, the "Mormons" of Cald- priationof 
well not excepted. The people of Daviess 
thought they could live on "Mormon" property, and 
did not want their thousand, consequently it was pre- 
tended to be given to those of Caldwell. Judge Cameron, 
Mr. McHenry, and others attended to the distribution. 
Judge Cameron would drive in the brethren's hogs (many 
of which were identified) '^nd shoot them down in the 
streets; and without further bleeding, and half dress- 
ing, they were cut up and distributed by McHenry to 
the poor, at a charge of four and five cents per pound; 
which, together with a few pieces of refuse goods, such 
as calicoes at double and treble prices soon consumed 
the two thousand dollars ; doing the brethren very little 
good, or in reality none, as the property destroyed by 
them, [i. e. the distributing commission] was equal to 
what they gave the Saints.* 

The proceedings of the legislature were warmly opposed 
by a minority of the house — among whom course of the 
were David R. Atchison, of Clay county, and fJ|f^''jgsS°. 
all the members from St. Louis, and t^^e. 
Messrs. Rollins and Grordon, from Boone county, and 
by various other members from other counties; but 
the mob majority carried the day, for the guilty 
wretches feared an investigation — knowing that it would 
endanger their lives and liberties. Sometime during this 

*0f this matter of distributing the legislature's appropriation the late President 
John Taylor in his discussion with Schuyler Uolfax, Vice-President of the United 
States, 1870, says: "The legislature of Missouri, to cover their infamy, appropri- 
ated the munificent (?) sum of $2,000 to help the suffering 'Mormons.' Their agent 
took a few miserable traps, the sweepings of an old store; for the balance of the 
patrimony he sent into Daviess county and killed our hogs, which we were then 
prevented from doing, and brought them to feed the poor 'Mormons' as part of the 
legislative appropriation. This I saw." 


session the legislature appropriated two hundred thousand 
dollars to pay the troops for driving the Saints out of the 

Many of the state journals tried to hide the iniquity of 
the state by throwing a covering of lies over her atroci- 
Course of the ^^^ decds. But cau they hide the govenor's 
State Press. cruel Order for banishment or extermination? 
Can they conceal the facts of the disgraceful treaty of 
the generals with their own officers and men at the city of 
Far West? Can they conceal the fact that twelve or fif- 
teen thousand men, women and children, have been ban- 
ished from the state without trial or condemnation? And 
this at an expense of two hundred thousand dollars — and 
this sum appropriated by the state legislature, in order to 
pay the troops for this act of lawless outrage? Can they 
conceal the fact that we have been imprisoned for many 
months, while our families, friends and witnesses have 
been driven away? Can they conceal the blood of the 
murdered husbands and fathers, or stifle the cries of the 
widows and the fatherless? Nay! The rocks and moun- 
tains may cover them in unknown depths, the awful abyss 
of the fathomless deep may swallow them up, and still 
their horrid deeds will stand forth in the broad light of 
day, for the wondering gaze of angels and of men! They 
cannot be hid. 

Some time in December Heber C. Kimball and Alanson 
Ripley were appointed, by the brethren in Far West, to 
visit us at Liberty jail as often as circumstances would 
permit, or occasion required, which duty they faithfully 
performed. We were sometimes visited by our friends, 
whose kindness and attention I shall ever remember with 
feelings of lively gratitude; but frequently we were not 
suffered to have that privilege. Our food was of the coars- 
est kind, and served up in a manner which was disgusting. 

Thus, in a land of liberty, in the town of Liberty, 
Clay county, Missouri, my fellow prisoners and I in chains, 
and dungeons, saw the close of 1838. 





Tuesday, January Z, 1830.— T\iq day dawned upon us 
as prisoners of hope, but not as sons of liberty. O Col- 
umbia, Columbia! How thou art fallen! "The land of 
the free, the home of the brave! " "The asy- 
lum of the oppressed" — oppressing thy noblest the oVeSng^ 
sons, in a loathsome dungeon, without any 
provocation, only that they have claimed to worship the 
God of their fathers according to His own word, and 
the dictates of their own consciences. Elder Parley P. 
Pratt and his companions in tribulation were still held in 
bondage in their doleful prison in Richmond. 

Monday, January 7. — Anson Call returned to his farm 
on the three forks of Grand river, to see if he could secure 
any of the property he had left in his flight to ^^^^^ ^^^u 
Adam-ondi-Ahman, and was there met by the beaten, 
mob, and beaten with a hoop pole about his limbs, body 
and head; the man that used the pole about his person 
was George W. O'Neal. With much difficulty Brother Call 
returned to Far West, with his person much bruised, 
and from that time gave up all hopes of securing any of 
his property. 

Tuesday, January 8. — About this time England and Ire- 
land were visited by a tremendous storm of wind from the 
northwest, which unroofed and blew down many ^^^^^ ^^ 
houses in the cities and in the country, doing i^^^igiand- 
much damage to the shipping; many hundreds of persons 
were turned out of doors, many lives lost on the land and 
sea, and an immense amount of property was destroyed. 


Such a wind had not been witnessed by any one living; 
and some began to think that the judgments were about 
to follow the Elders' preaching. 
Thursday , January 10. — 

Rlissouri State Senate Besolutions on Mormon Difficulties. 

Resolved by the Senate, the House of Representatives concurring' 
therein, that the three resolutions of the 18th of December be referred 
to a joint committee of the two Houses, heretofore raised, on the sub- 
ject of the Mormon difficulties, with the instructions to report a bill in 
conformity thereto, as soon as they can conveniently prepare the same; 
which was agreed to.* 

Wednesday, January 16 . — Mr. Turner, from the joint se- 
lect committee, introduced to the Senate, "yJL Bill to provide 
for the investigation of the late disturhances in this state.'*'' 
This bill consists of twenty-three sections, of which the 
followmg is the first: 

1st. A joint committee shall be appointed to investigate the causes 
of the late disturbances between the people called Mormons and other 
inhabitants of this state, and the conduct of the militarj^ operations in 
repressing them ; which committee shall consist of two senators, to be 
elected by the Senate and three representatives, to be elected by the 
House of Representatives. 

The bill further provided that the committee should 
meet at Richmond, Eay county, on the first 

other Provi- ^^, .,r -> ^ o ,. 

sions of the Moudav m May, and thereafter at such times 

Bill " 

and places as they should appoint; that they 
should choose a chairman, clerk, sergeant- at- arms and 
assistants; issue subpoenas and other processes; admin- 

* The above resolutin was offered by Mr, William M. Campbell in the Senate, 
and the three resolutions of the 18th of December were in Mr. Turner's report to 
the Senate of that date, and are as follows: 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient at this time. to prosecute further the inquiry into 
the causes of the late disturbances and the conduct of the military operations in 
suppressing them. 

Resolved, That it is inexpedient to publish at this time, any of the documents 
accompanying the governor's message in relation to the late disturbances. 

Resolved, That it is expedient to appoint a joint committee composed of 

Senators, and Representatives to investigate the cause of said disturb- 
ance's, and the conduct of the military operations in suppressing them, to meet at 
such time, and to be invested with such powers as may be prescribed bylaw." 
See the whole report of Mr. Turner's, at pp. 235-8. 


ister oaths; keep a record; furnish rooms; pay witnesses 
one dollar and fifty cents per day out of the treasury; re- 
ceive their pay as members of the legislature; clerk four 
dollars per day, and one dollar and fifty cents for each 
arrest. In short, all parties concerned were to be paid 
the highest price — and this committee were to be clothed 
with all the powers of the highest courts of record. This 
bill did not concern the "Mormons," as the exterminating 
order of Governor Boggs, and the action of General Clark 
thereon, would compel all the Saints to be out of the state 
before the court would sit, so that they would have no 
testimony but from mobbers and worse, apostates; and this 
was evidently their object in postponing the time so long. 

About this time President Brigham Young proposed to 
Bishop Partridge to help the poor out of the state. The 
Bishop replied, "The poor may take care proposition to 
of themselves, and I will take care of myself." Help the Poor. 
President Brigham Young replied, "If you will not 
help them out, I will." 

Thursday ^January 24. — I wrote as follows from Liberty 

The ProplieVs Petition to the Missouri Legislature. 
To the Honorable Legislature of Missouri: 

Your memorialists, having a few days since solicited your attention 
to the same subject,* would now respectfully submit to your honorable 
body a few additional facts in support of their prayer. 

They are now imprisoned under a charge of treason against the state 
of Missouri, and their lives, and fortunes, and characters, are suspended 
upon the result of the trial on the criminal charges preferred against 
them. Therefore your honorable body will excuse them for manifest- 
ing the deep concern they feel in relation to their trial for a crime so 
enormous as that of treason. 

It is not our object to complain — to asperse any one. All we ask is 
a fair and impartial trial. We ask the sympathies of no one. We ask 
sheer justice; 'tis all we expect, and all we merit, but we merit that. 
We know the people of no county in this state to which we would ask 
our final trial to be sent, who are prejudiced in our favor. But we be- 

* The previous document here referred to, does not appear in this history as here- 
tofore published, nor is it to be found in any of the manuscrips in the historian's office. 


lieve that the state of excitement existing' in most of the upper counties 
is such that a jury would be improperly influenced by it. But that ex- 
citement, and the prejudice against us in the counties comprising: the 
fifth Judicial Circuit, are not the only obstacles we are compelled to 
meet. We know that much of that prejudice against us is not so much 
to be attributed to a want of honest motives amongst the citizens 
as it is to misrepresentation. 

It is a difficult task to change opinions once formed. The other ob- 
stacle which we candidly consider one of the most weighty, is the feel- 
ing which we believe is entertained by Hon, Austin A. King against us, 
and his consequent inability to do us impartial justice. It is from no 
disposition to speak disrespectfully of that high officer, that we lay be- 
fore your honorable body the facts we do; but simply that the legisla- 
ture may be apprised of our real condition. We look upon Judge King 
as like all other mere men, liable to be influenced by his feelings, his 
prejudices, and his previously formed opinions. From his reputation 
we consider him as being partially, if not entirely, committed against 
us. He has written much upon the subject of our late difficulties, in 
which he has placed us in the wrong. These letters have been pub- 
lished to the world. He has also presided at an excited public meeting 
as chairman, and no doubt sanctioned all the proceedings. We do not 
complain of the citizens who held that meeting, they were entitled to 
that privilege. But for the judge Defore whom the very men were to be 
tried for a capital offense to participate in an expression of condem- 
nation of these same individuals, is to us, at least, apparently wrong;and 
we cannot think that we should, after such a course on the part of the 
judge, have the same chance of a fair and impartial trial as all admit 
we ought to have. 

We believe that the foundation of the feeling against us, which we 
have reason to think Judge King entertains, may be traced to the un- 
fortunate troubles which occurred in Jackson county some few years 
ago; in a battle between the "Mormons" and a portion of the citizens 
of that county, Mr. Brazeale, the brother-in-law of Judge King, was 
killed. It is natural that the judge should have some feelings against 
us, whether we were right or wrong in that controversy. 

We mention these facts, not to disparage Judge King; we believe 
that from the relation he bears to us, he would himself prefer that our 
trials should t;e had in a different circuit, and before a different court. 
Many other reasons and facts we might mention, but we forebear. 

This letter was directed to James M. Hughes, Esq., 
„ , . ^ , member of the House of Representatives, Jef- 

Postscnpt to ^ ' 

the Petition. ferson City, with the followmg request : 


Will you be so kind as to present this to the House. The commun- 
ity here would, I believe, have no objection for the trial of these men 
being transferred to St. Louis. 

P. H. B.* 
Saturday, 26. — 

Minutes oj a Public Meeting at Far West. 

A meeting of a respectable number of the citizens of Caldwell county 
members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, was held 
in Far West, according to previous notice, to devise and take into con- 
sideration such measures as might be thought necessary in order 
to comply with the orders of the Executive to remove from the state 
of Missouri immediately, as made known by General Clark to the 
citizens of said county, in the month of November last. 

The meeting was called to order by Don C. Smith; and on motion 
John Smith was unanimously called to the chair, and Elias Smith ap- 
pointed secretary. 

The object of the meeting was then stated by the chairman, who 
briefly adverted to the causes which had brought about the present state 
of affairs, and called for an expression of sentiment on the best course 
to be pursued in the present emergency. 

Several gentlemen addressed the meeting on the subject of our re- 
moval from the state and the seeming impossibility of complying with 
the orders of the governor of Missouri, in consequence of the extreme 
poverty of many, which had come upon them by being driven from 
place to place, deprived of their constitutional rights and privileges, as 
citizens of this, and the United States, and were of the opinion that an 
appeal to the citizens of Upper Missouri ought to be made, setting forth 
our condition, and claiming their assistance towards furnishing means 
for the removal of the poor of this county out of the state, as being 
our right and our due in the present case. 

On motion, resolved: That a committee of seven be appointed to 
make a draft of a preamble and resolutions in accordance with the 
foregoing sentiments to be presented to a future meeting for their con- 

The following were then appointed, viz., — John Taylor, Alanson Rip- 
ley, Brigham Young, Theodore Turley, Heber C. Kimball, John Smith 
and Don C. Smith. 

Resolved: That the committee be further instructed to ascertain the 

* Whom these initials represent cannot be asceitained, or whether they represent 
one person or three They evidently represent secret friends or a friend of the 
Prophet at Liberty, Clay county, willing to urge this matter upon the attention of 
Mr. Hughes and also upon the House. 


niimber of families who are actually destitute of means for their re- 
moval, and report at the next meeting. 

Resolved : That it is the opinion of this meeting that an exertion should 
be made to ascertain how much can be obtained from individuals of the 
societj' [the Church], and that it is the dutj^ of those who have, to assist 
those who have not, that thereby we may, as far as possible, within and 
of ourselves, comply with the demands of the Executive. 

Adjourned to meet again on Tuesday, the 29th instant, at twelve 

o'clock, m. 

John Smith, Chairman. 

Elias Smith, Secretary. 
Tuesday^ 20. — 

Minutes of the Second Meeting at Far West. 

The brethren met again according to adjournment. John Smith was 
again called to the chair, and Elias Smith appointed secretary. 

The committee appointed to draw up a preamble and resolutions to 
be presented to the meeting for consideration, presented by their chair- 
man, John Taylor, a memorial of the transactions of the people of 
Missouri towards us since our first settlement in this state, in which 
was contained some of our sentiments and feelings on the sub- 
ject of our persecutions by the authority of the state, and our depriva- 
tion of the rights of citizenship guaranteed to us by the Constitution. 
The document under preparation by the committee was yet in an un- 
finished state, owing to causes which were stated by the committee; 
and they further apologized for not drawing it up in the form of reso- 
lutions, agreeable to the vote of the former meeting. 

The report was accepted as far as completed, and by a vote of the meet- 
ing, the same committee were directed to finish it, and prepare it for and 
send it to the press for publication, and they were instructed to dwell mi- 
nutely on the subject relating to our arms, and the fiend-like conduct of 
the officers of the militia in sequestering all the best of them after their 
surrender on condition of being returned to us again, or suffering them 
to be exchanged for others, not worth half their value, in violation of 
their bond. and of the honor of the commander of the forces sent against 
us by the state. 

On motion of President Brigham Young, it was resolved that we this 
day enter into a covenant to stand by and assist each other to the ut- 
most of our abilities in removing from this state, and that we will never 
desert the poor who are worthy, till they shall be out of the reach of 
the exterminating order of General Clark, acting for and in the name of 
the state. 

After an expression of sentiments by several who addressed the meet- 
ing on the propriety of taking efficient measures to remove the poor 


from the state, it was resolved, that a committee of seven be appointed 
to superintend the business of our removal, and to provide for those 
who have not the means of moving, till the work shall be completed. 

The following were then appointed, viz., William Huntington, 
Charles Bird, Alanson Ripley, Theodore Turley, Daniel Shearer, Shad- 
rach Roundy, and Jonathan H. Hale. 

Resolved : That the secretary draft an instrument expressive of the 
sense of the covenant entered into this day, by those present, and that 
those who were willing to subscribe to the covenant should do it, that 
their names might be known, which would enable the committee more 
expeditiouslj' to carry their business into effect. 

The instrument was accordingly drawn, and by vote of the meeting 
the secretary attached the names of those who were willing to sub- 
scribe to it. 

Adjourned to meet again on Friday, the 1st of February next, at 
twelve o'clock, m. 

John Smith, Chairman. 
Elias Smith, Secretary. 

The following is the covenant referred to in the pre- 
ceding minutes, with the names which were then and 
afterwards attached to it, as far as they have been pre- 
served : 

We, whose names are hereunder written, do for ourselves indi- 
vidually hereby covenant to stand by and assist one another, to the ut- 
most of our abilities, in removing from this state in compliance with 
the authority of the state; and we do hereby acknowledge ourselves 
firmly bound to the extent of all our available property, to be disposed 
of by a committee who shall be appointed for the purpose of providing 
means for the removing from this state of the poor and destitute who 
shall be considered worthy, till there shall not be one left who desires 
to remove from the state: with this proviso, that no individual shall be 
deprived of the right of the disposal of his own property for the above 
purpose, or of having the control of it, or so much of it as shall be nec- 
essary for the removing of his own family, and to be entitled to the 
over-plus, after the work is effected; and furthermore, said committee 
shall give receipts for all property, and an account of the expenditure 
of the same. 

Far West, Missouri, January 29, 1839. 

List of Names Subscribed to the Foregoing. 

John Smith, James McMillan, 

Wm. Huntington, Chandler Holbrook, 



[A.. D. 1839 

Charles Bird, 
Alanson Ripley, 
Theodore Turley, 
Daniel Shearer, 
Shadrach Roundy, 
Jonathan H, Hale, 
Elias Smith, 
Brigham Young, 
James Burnham, 
Leicester Gaylord, 
Samuel Williams, 
John Miller, 
Aaron M. York, 
George A. Smith, 
Daniel Howe, 
James Bradiu, 
Jonathan Beckelshimer 
David Jones, 
Wm. M. Fossett, 
Charles N. Baldwin, 
Jesse N. Reed, 
Benjamin Johnson, 
Jonathan Hampton, 
Anson Call, 
Peter Dopp, 
Samuel Rolph, 
Abel Lamb, 
Daniel McArthur, 
William Gregory, 
Zenas Curtis, 
John Reed, 
William R. Orton, 
Samuel D. Tyler, 
John H. Goff, 
Thomas Butterfield, 
D wight Hardin, 
Norvil M, Head, 
Stephen V. Foot, 
Jacob G. Bigler, 
Eli Bagley, 
William Milam, 
Lorenzo Clark, 
William Allred, 

Alexander Wright, 
William Taylor, 
John Taylor, 
Reuben P. Hartwell, 
John Lowry, 
Welcome Cbapman, 
Solomon Hancock, 
Arza Adams, 
Henry Jacobs, 
James Carroll, 
David Lyons, 
John Taylor, 
Don Carlos Smith, 
William J . Stewart, 
Isaac B. Chapman, 
Roswell Stephens, 
Reuben Headlock, 
David Holman, 
Joel Goddard, 
Phineas R. Bird, 
Duncan McArthur, 
Allen Taliey, 
James Hampton, 
Sherman A. Gilbert, 
James S. Holman, 
Andrew Lytle, 
Aaron Johnson, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
George W, Harris, 
George W. Davidson, 
Harvey Strong, 
Elizabeth Mackley, 
Sarah Mackley, 
Andrew More, 
Harvey Downey, 
John Maba, 
Lucy Wheeler, 
John Turpin, 
William Earl, 
Zenos H. Gurley, 
Joseph W. Coolidge. 
Anthony Head, 
S. A. P. Kelsey, 

D. 1839] 



Wm. Van Ausdall, 
Nathan K. Knight, 
John Thorp, 
Andrew Rose, 
Johci S. Martin, 
Albert Sloan, 
John D. Lee, 
Eliphas Marsh, 
Joseph Wright, 
John Badger, 
Levi Richards. 
Erastus Bingham, 
Elisha Everett, 
John Lytle, 
Levi Jaekman, 
Thomas Guyman, 
Nahum Curtis, 
Lyman Curtis, 
Philip Ballard, 
William Gould, 
Reuben Middleton, 
William Harper, 
Seba Joes, 
Charles Butler, 
Richard Walton, 
Isaac Kerron, 
Joseph Rose, 
David Foot, 
L. S. Nickerson, 
Moses Daley, 
David Sessions, 
Perrigrine Sessions, 
Alford P. Childs, 
James Daley, 
Noah T. Guyman, 
David Winters, 
John Pack, 
Sylvanus Hicks, 
Horatio N. Kent, 
Joseph W. Pierce, 
Thomas Gates, 
Squire Bozarth, 
Nathan Lewis, 

Moses Evord, 
Ophelia Harris, 
Zuba McDonald, 
Mary Goff, 
Harvey J. Moore, 
Francis Chase, 
Stephen Markham, 
John Outhouse, 
Wm. F. Leavens, 
Daniel Tyler, 
Noah Rogers, 
Stephen N. St. John, 
Francis Lee, 
Eli Lee, 

Benjamin Covey, 
Michel Borkdull, 
Miles Randall, 
Horace Evans, 
David Dort, 
Levi Hancock, 
Edwin Whiting, 
William Barton, 
Elisha Smith, 
James Gallaher, 
Robert Jackson, 
Lemuel Merrick, 
James Dunn, 
Orin Hartshorn, 
Nathan Hawke, 
Pierce Hawley, 
Thomas J. Fisher, 
James Leithead, 
Alfred Lee, 
Stephen Jones, 
Eleazer Harris, 
Elijah B. Gaylord, 
Thomas Grover, 
Alexander Badlam, 
Phebe Kellog, 
Albert Miner, 
William Woodland, 
Martin C. AUred, 
Jedediah Owen, 


Philander Avery, Orin P, Eockwell, 

Benjamin F. Bird, Nathan B. Baldwin, 

Charles Squire, Truman Brace, 

Jacob Curtis, Sarah Wixom, 

Rachel Medfo, Lewis Zobriski, ' 

Lyman Stevens, Henry Zobriski, 

Roswell Evans, Morris Harris, 

Leonard Clark, Absolom Tidwell, 

Nehemiah Harmon, Alvin Wine^ar, 

Daniel Cathcart, Samuel T. Winegar, 

Gershom Stokes, John E. Page, 

Rachel Page, Levi Gifford, 

Barnet Cole, Edmund Durfee, 

William Thompson, Josiah Butterfield, 

Nathan Cheney, John Killion, 

James Sherry, John Patten, 

David Frampton, John Wilkins, 

Elizabeth Pettigrew, Abram Allen, 

Charles Thompson, William Felshaw. 

The committee who had been appointed for removing 
the poor from the state of Missouri, viz. : William Hunt- 
» .• •. .., in^^ton, Charles Bird, Alanson Ripley, Theo- 
Committee on dore Turlev, Daniel Shearer, Shadrach Roun- 

Removal. ^ ^^-^'^ __^^,' . , 

dy, and Jonathan H.. Hale, met m the even- 
ing of that day [January 29, 1839], at the house of Theo- 
dore Turley, and organized by appointing William Hunt- 
ington chairman, Daniel Shearer treasurer, and Alanson 
Ripley clerk, and made some arrangements for carrying 
into operation the business of removing the poor. Presi- 
dent Brigham Young got eighty subscribers to the cove- 
nant the first day, and three hundred the second day. 

Thursday, 31.— My. Turner's bill of the 16th instant 
Investigation passcd the scuate. I sent the poor brethren 
Ordered. ^ hundred dollar bill from jail, to assist them 

in their distressed situation. 

Friday, February 1 : 

Minutes of a Meeting of the Cammittee on Removal. 
The committee met according to adjournment, at the house of Theo- 


dore Turley; John Smith was present and acted as chairman, and Ehas 
Smith as secretary. The meeting^ was called to order by the chair- 

On motion, Resolved: That the covenant entered into at the last 
meeting: be read by the Secretary, which was done accordingly. 

The chairman then called for the expression of sentiments on the 
subject of the covenant. 

Resolved, That the committee be increased to eleven. 

The following were then appointed: Elias Smith, Erastus Bingham, 
Stephen Markham, and James Newberry. 

Several of the committee addressed the meeting on the arduous task 
before them, and exhorted all to exert themselves to relieve and assist 
them in the discharge of the duties of their ofi&ce, to the utmost of 
their abilities. 

Elders Taylor and Young, in the mosl forcible manner addressed 
the assembly on the propriety of union in order to carry our resolu- 
tions into effect, and exhorted the brethren to use wisdom in the sale of 
their property. 

John Smith, Chairman, 
Elias Smith, Secretary. 

The committee met again in the evening at Theodore 
Turley 's. Alanson Ripley declined acting as clerk, and 
Elias Smith was appointed in his stead. 

Resolved, That exertions be made to remove the families of the 
Presidency and the other prisoners first. 

Several of the committee made report of what had been done by 
them towards carrying the business of the committee into operation. 
Elder John Taylor had also been appointed to visit the branches of the 
Church on Log and Upper Goose creeks, and made a report of his pro- 

Resolved, That Charles Bird be appointed to go down towards the 
Mississippi river and establish deposits of corn for the brethren on the 
road, and make contracts for ferriage, etc. 

Monday, February 4. — Mr. Turner's bill of 16th Janu- 
ary came up for the first reading, "when Mr Wright 
moved that the bill be laid on the table until the 4th day 
of July next; and upon this question Mr. Primm desired 
the yeas and nays,w^hich were ordered, and the decision was 
in theailirmative" by eleven majority, which by many was 


considered an approval of all the wrongs the Saints had 
sustained in the state.* 

6tli and 7th. 'f The committee on the removal of the 
Saints from Missouri were in session. Stephen Markham 
started for Illinois, with my wife and children, and Jona- 
than Holmes and wife. 

* At any rate Mr. Turner's bill providing for an elaborate investigation was never 
taken from the table. In the legislature, however, which convened in 1840-41, the 
subject of the "Mormon" difficulties was again taken xip on recommendation of 
(Governor Boggs, who concludes what he had to say in his message in this lan- 
guage. "To explain the attitude which we have been made to assume I would rec- 
ommend the publication of all the events relating to the occurrence, and distribut- 
ing the same to the chief authorities of each state." In pursuance of this 
recommendation the joint committee appointed from the senate aad house made a 
collection of documents on the subject covering 1C2 pages. In the collection, how- 
ever, there are none of the statements, petitions, or representations made to the 
public or the legislature by the Saints. The documents consist in part of the 
action of the respective houses in the appointment of committees and reports 
of those committees recommending investigations, etc.; of the reports and mili- 
tary orders of the militia generals; while the remainder of the pamphlet is made 
up of the ex jiarte testimony taken before Judge King at Richmond, concerning 
W^hich testimony the Turner senate committee in reporting to the senate, under date 
of December 18, 1838, said: It "is manifestly not such evidence as ought to be re- 
ceived by the committee : 

"First, because it is not authenticated; and, 

"Second, it is confined chiefly to the object of the inquiry, namely, the investiga- 
tion of criminal charges against individuals under arrest." 

The action of the legislature in the matter was a "white-washing affair," to use a 
phrase commoD in such cases. It was an attempt to vindicate the state of Mis- 
souri in her treatment of the Latter-day Saints. The effort, however, was in vain. 
The truths in relation to those transactions, in spite of all the efforts of the legisla- 
ture, were known, and the state's attempt to deny them by a publication of docu- 
ments giving a hearing to but one side of the case, only emphasized the crime. 

t February 7th. An event occurred on this date which ought not to be omitted 
from this history, as it throws great light upon the prison life of the Prophet and 
his associates, upon the character of the Prophet himself, and the great faith his 
associates had in bis prophetic powers. This event, and some others of equal in- 
terest were related by Alexander McRae, one of the fellow prisoners of the Prophet, 
in two communications to the Deseret News, under the dates of October 9th, and 
November 1st, respectively, of the year 1854. At that time "The History of Joseph 
Smith" was being published in current numbers of the News, and Brother McRae, 
then Bishop of the Eleventh Ward of Salt Lake City, being siirprised at the omission 
in the narrative of the Prophet of many items of interest concerning their prison 
life, wrote the two following letters to the News: 

Letter of Alexander McRae to the Deseret News. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Oct. 9, 1854. 

Mr. Editor:— In reading the History of Joseph Smith as published in the News: 
last winter, and especially that part of it which relates to his imprisonment in 


Liberty jail, Missouri, 1 see there are many interesting facts which are omitted; 
and as I had the honor of being a fellow prisoner with him, I thought 1 would 
write some of those incidents for the satisfaction of any of your readers who may 
feel interested in them. 

During our imprisonment, we had many visitors, both friends and enemies. 
Among the latter, many were angry with Brother Joseph, and accused him of kill- 
ing a son, a brother, or some relative of theirs, at what was called the Crooked 
River Battle. This looked rather strange to me, that so many should claim a son, 
or » brother killed there, ivheii. they reported only one man hilled. 

Among our friends who visited us, were Presidents Brigham Young and Heber -C. 
Kimball [now — i. e. at the time this letter was written, 1854], of the First Presi- 
dency — the latter several times; George A. Smith, of the quorum of the Twelve; 
Don C. Smith, brother of Joseph, came several times, and brought some of our 
families to see us. Benjamin Covey, Bishop of the Twelfth Ward of this city, 
brought each of us a new pair of boots, and made us a present of them. James 
Sloan, his wife and daughter, came several times. Alanson Ripley also visited us, 
and many others, whom to name would be too tedious. Grin P. Rockwell brought 
us refreshments many times; and Jane Bleven and her daughter brought cakes, 
pies, etc., and handed them in at the window. These things helped us much, as 
our food was very coarse, and so filthy that we could not eat it until we were 
driven to it by hunger. 

After we had been there some time, and had tried every means we could to ob- 
tain our liberty by the law, without effect ( except Sidney Rigdon who was bailed out) , 
and also having heard, from a reliable source, that it had been state<i in the public 
street, by the most influential men in that part of the country, that "the Mor- 
mon prisoners would have to be condemned or the character of the state would 
have to go down," we came to the conclusion that we would try other means to 
effect it. 

Accordingly, on the 7th day of February, 1839, after counseling together on the 
subject, we concluded to try to go that evening when the jailor came with our sup- 
per; but Brother Hyrum, before deciding fully, and to make it more sure, asked 
Brother Joseph to inqiiire of the Lord as to the propriety of the move. He 
did so, and received answer to this effect— that if we were all agreed, we could go 
clear that evening; and if we would ask, we should have a testimony for ourselves. 
I immediately asked, and had not no more than asked, until I received as clear a 
testimony as ever I did of anything in my life, that it was true. Brother Hyrum 
Smith and Caleb Baldwin bore testimony to the same: but Lyman Wight said we 
might go if we chose, but he would not. After talking with him for some time, he 
said, "if we would wait until the next day, he would go with us." Without think- 
ing we had no promise of success on any other day than the one above stated, we 
agreed to wait. 

When nignt came, the jailor came alone with our supper, threw the door wide 
open, put our supper on the table, and went to the back part of the room, where a 
pile of books lay, took up a book, and went to reading, leaving us between him and 
the door, thereby giving us every chance to go if we had been ready. As the next 
day was agreed upon, we made no attempt to go that evening. 

When the next evening came, the case was very different; the jailer brought a 
double guard with him, and with them six of our brethren, to-wit. : Erastus Snow, 
William D. Huntington, Cyrus Daniels, David Holeman, Alanson Ripley and Wat- 
son Barlow. I was afterwards informed that they were sent by the Church. The 
jailer seemed to be badly scared; he had the door locked and everything made 
secure. It looked like a bad chance to get away, but we were determined to try it; 
so when the jailer started out, we started too Brother Hyrum took hold of the 

17 vol. Ill 

258 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. f A. D. 1839 

door, and the rest followed; but before we were able to render him the assistance 
he needed, the jailer and guard succeeded in closing the door, shutting the breth- 
ren in with us, except Cyrus Daniels, who was on the outside. 

As soon as the attempt was made inside, he took two of the guards, one under 
each arm, and ran down the stairs that led to the door, it being in the second story. 
When he reached the ground they got away from him; and seeing we had failed to 
get out, he started to run, but put his foot in a hole and fell, a bullet from one of 
the guards passed very close to his head, and he thinks the fall saved his life. 

The scene that followed this defies description. I should judge, from the num- 
ber, that all the town, and many from the country, gathered around the jail, and 
every mode of torture and death tbat their imagination could fancy, was proposed 
for us, such as blowing up the jail, taking us out and whipping us to death, shoot- 
ing us, burning us to death, tearing us to pieces with horses, etc. But they were 
so divided among themselves that they could not carry out any of their plans, and 
we escaped unhurt. 

During this time, some of our brethren spoke of our being in great danger; and 
I confess 1 felt that we were. But Brother Joseph told them "not to fear, that not 
a hair of their heads should be hurt, and that they should not lose any of their 
things, even to a bridle, saddle, or blanket; that everything should be restored to 
them; they had offered their lives for us and the Gospel; that it was necessary 
the Church should offer a sacrifice, and the Lord accepted the offering." 

The brethren had next to undergo a trial, but the excitement was so great that 
they [the officers] dare not take them out until it abated a little. While they were 
waiting for their trial, some of the brethren employed lawyers to defend them. 
Brother [Erastus] Snow asked Brother Joseph whether he had better employ a 
lawyer or not. Brother Joseph told him to plead his own case. "But," said 
Brother Snow, "I do not understand the law." Brother Joseph asked him if he 
did not understand justice; he thought he did. "Well," said Brother Joseph, "go 
and plead for justice as hard as you can, and quote Blackstone and other authors 
now and then, and they will take it all for law." 

He did as he was told, and the result was as Joseph had said it would be; for 
when he got through his plea, the lawyers floiked around him, and asked him 
where he had studied law, and said they had never heard a better plea. When the 
trial was over Brother Snow was discharged, and all the rest were held to bail, 
and were allowed to bail each other, by Brother Snow going bail with them; and 
they said they got everything that was taken from them, and nothing was lost, al- 
though no two articles were in one place. More ano". 

Yours respectfully, 

Alexander McRae. 

Second Letter of Alexander Mcliae to the Deseret News. 

Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 1, 1854. 

Mr. Editor: — Sometime during our stay in Libert}^ jail an attempt was made to 
destroy us by poison. 1 supposed it was administered in either tea or coffee, but 
as I did not u?e either, I escaped unhurt, while all who did were sorely afflicted, 
some being blind two or three days, and it was only by much faith and prayer that 
the effect was overcome. 

We never suffered ourselves to go into any important measure without asking 
Brother Joseph to inquire of the Lord in relation to it. Such was our confidence 
in him as a Prophet, that when he said "Thus saith the Lord," we were confident 
it would be as he said; and the more we tried it, the more confidence we had, for 
we never found his word fail in a single instance. 

A short time before we were to go to Daviess county for trial, word came to us 

A. i>. is:^9! HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 259 

that either <Teneral Atchison or Doniphan, would raise a military force, and go with 
us to protect us from the wrath of that people. The matter was discussed by the 
brethren (except Brother Joseph), and they naturally enough concluded it would 
be best; and although 1 had nothing to say, I concurred with them in my feelings. 
Brother Hyrum asked Brother Joseph what he thought of it. Brother Joseph 
hung his head a few moments, and seemed in a deep study, and then raised up 
and said, '-Brother Hyrum, it will not do; we must trust in the Lord; if we take 
a guard with us we shall be destroyed." 

This was vei-y unexpected to us, but Brother Hyrum remarked, "If you say it in 
the name of the Lord, we will rely on it." Said Brother Joseph, "In the name of 
the Lord, if we take a guard with us, we will be destroyed; but if we put our trust 
in the Lord, we shall be safe, and no harm shall befall us, and we shall be better 
treated than we have ever been since we have been prisoners." 

This settled the question, and all seemed satisfied, and it was decided that we 
should have no extra guard, and they had only such a guard as they chose for our 
safe keeping. When we arrived at the place where the court was held, I began to 
think he was mistaken for once, for the people rushed upon us en masse, crying, 

"Kill them: them, kill them." I could see no chance for escape, unless 

we could fight our way through, and we had nothing to do it with. At this, Brother 
Joseph, at whom all seemed to rush, rose up and said, "We are in ^our hands; if 
we are guilty, we refuse not to be punished by the law." Hearing these words, 
two of the most bitter mobocrats in the country — one by the name of William 
Peniston and the other Kinney, or McKinney, I do not remember which — got up 
on benches and began to speak to the people, saying, "Yes, gentlemen, these men 
are in our hands; let us not use violence, but let the law have its course; the law 
will condemn them, and they will be punished by it. We do not want the disgrace 
of taking the law into our own hands." 

In a verv few minutes they were quieted, and they seemed now as friendly as 
they had a few minutes before been enraged. Liquor was procured, and we all 
had to drink in token of friendship. This took place in the court-room (a small 
log cabin about twelve feet sqiiare), during the adjournment of the court; and 
from that time until we got away, they could not put a guard over us who would 
not become so friendly that they dare not trust them, and the guard was very fre- 
quently changed. We were seated at the first table with the judge, lawyers, etc., 
and had the best the country afforded, with feather beds to sleep on — a privilege 
we had not before enjoyed in all our imprisonment. 

On one occasion, while we were there, the above-named William Peniston, partly 
in joke and partly in earnest, threw out a rather hard insinuation against some of 
the brethren This touched Joseph's feelings, and he retorted a good deal in the 
same way, only with such power that the earth seemed to tremble under his feet, 
and said, "Your heart is as black as your whiskers," which were as black as any 
crow. He seemed to quake under it and left the room. 

The guards, who had become friendly, were alarmed for our safety, and ex- 
claimed, "0, Mr. Smith, do not talk so; you will bring trouble upon yourself and 
companions." Brother Joseph replied, "Do not be alarmed; I know what I am 
about." He always took up for the brethren, when their characters were assailed, 
sooner than for himself, no matter how unpopular it was to speak in their favor. 

Yours as ever, 

Alexander McRae. 




Some time this month there was a conference of the 
Church at Quincy, a report of which is as follows: 

Minutes of a Conference of the Church Held at Quincy. 

At a meeting of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 
held in the town of Quincy. February — , 1839, to take into considera- 
tion the expediency of locating the ('hurch in some place, Brother 
William Marks was chosen president and Robert B. Thompson, clerk. 

Elder John P. Greene, by request, then stated the object of the meeting, 
and stated that a liberal offer had been made by a gentleman, of about 
twenty thousand acres, lying between the Mississippi and Des Moines 
rivers, at two dollars per acre, to be paid in twenty annual installments, 
without interest; that a committee had examined the land and reported 
very favorably respecting it, and thought it every way suited for a lo- 
cation for the Church. 

Brother Rogers then made some statements, and gave information 
respecting the land, being one of the committee appointed to examine 

President William Marks observed that he was altogether in favor of 
making the purchase, providing that it was the will of the Lord that we 
should again gather together; but from the circumstances of being 
driven from the other places, he almost was led to the conclusion that 
it was not wisdom that we should do so, but hoped that the brethren 
would speak their minds; the Lord would undoubtedly manifest His 
will by His Spirit. 

Brother Israel Barlow thought that it might be in consequence of not 
building according to the pattern, that we had thus been scattered. 

Brother Mace spoke in favor of an immediate gathering. 

Bishop Partridge then spoke on the subject, and thought it was not 
expedient under the present circumstances to collect together, but 
thought it was better to scatter into different parts and provide for the 
poor, which would be acceptable to God. 

Judge Higbee said that he had been very favorable to the proposi- 


tion of purchasing the land and gathering upon it,' but since the Bishop 
had expressed his opinion, he was willing to give up the idea. 

Several of the brethren then spoke on the subject, after which it was 
moved and seconded, and unanimously agreed upon, that it would not 
be deemed advisable to locate on the lands for the present. 

A committee was appointed to draft a petition to the General govern- 
ment, stating our grievances, and one likewise to be presented to the 
citizens [of the United States] for the same object. 

Tuesday, February 12. — The committee [onremoval] sent 
a delegation to Sister Murie to ascertain her necessities. 
Daniel Shearer and Erastus Bingham went. 
Applications for assistance were made from forAssist- 
Sister Morgan L. Gardner, Jeremiah Mack- 
ley's family, Brother Forbush, Echoed Cheney, T. D. 
Tyler, D. McArthur and others. 

Wednesday, February 13. — Voted that Theodore Tur- 
ley be appointed to superintend the management of the 
teams provided for removing the poor, and see that they 
are furnished for the journey. 

Thursday, February 14. — The persecution was so bit- 
ter against Elder Brigham Young (on whom devolved 
the presidency of the Twelve by age,* Thomas 

^ 11- . n\ T 1 • Tr. Persecution of 

B. Marsh havmg apostatized) and his life was Brigham 
so diligently sought for, that he was com- 
pelled to flee; and he left Far West on this day for 

My brother Don Carlos Smith had carried a petition to 
the mob, to get assistance to help our father's petition to 
family out of Missouri. I know not how much smuh'pamiiy 
he obtained, but my father and mother ^^^^ ^^^ 
started this day for Quincy, with an ox team. 

The committee on removal discussed the propriety of 
paying the debts of the Saints in Clay county. Alanson 

* It will be remembered that when the first quorum of the Twelve was organized 
the Prophet arranged the members in the order of their standing according to their 
age. Thereafter and now they hold their places in the quorum according to seniority 
of ordination. A full explanation of this matter is given in the History of the 
Chukch, volume II, pp. 219-20. See foot notes. 


Ripley was requested to call on lawyer Barnet, who was in 
town, and make arrangements concerning the matter. A 
Arrange- letter of attomey was draw^n up for the breth- 

iSg°the^Debts I'^H to slgH, who fclt willing to dispose of their 
of the Saints. ^QSil estate to discharge their debts, appoint- 
ing Alan son Ripley their attorney for that purpose. This 
was not exactly according to the minds of the committee, 
for they only directed Brother Ripley to confer with the 
person above named, for the purpose of obtaining infor- 
mation without reference to his being appointed an attorney 
for that purpose, independent of any other person or per- 

Friday, February 75.— My family arrived at the Missis- 
sippi, opposite Quincy, after a journey of almost insup- 
portable hardships, and Elder Markham returned imme- 
diately to Far West. 

Monday, 18. — 

The Governor''s Order to Return the Arms Belonging to the Saints. 

Executive Department, City of Jefferson, 

February 18, 1839. 
To Colonel Wiley C. Williams, Aid to the Commander-in-Chief: 

Sir: — You will take the measures as soon as practicable, to cause 
the arms surrendered by the Mormons, to be delivered to the proper 
owners upon their producing satisfactory evidence of their claims. If 
in any case j'ou think an improper use would be made of them, you can 
retain such, using a sound discretion in the matter. You will call upon 
Captain Pollard or any other person who may have arms in possession, 
and take charge of them; and this will be your authority for so doing. 

I am respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Lilburn W. Boggs. 

Little benefit would have resulted from this order, even 
if it had been promptly executed, as many of the breth- 
ren who owned the arms had left the state and it would be 
very difficult to decide what would be satisfactory evidence 
of claims. 

Tuesday, February 19. — The committee on removal ap- 
pointed Charles Bird to visit the several parts of Caldwell 


county, and William Huntington the town of Far West, to 
ascertain the number of families that would 

1 .1 •■!• • T ,. . Labors in the 

nave to be assisted ^m removing, and solicit interests of 
means from those who are able to give for the ^ ^^ ^'^^^' 
assistance of the needy, a ad make report as soon as pos- 

Thursday, February .21— Elder Markham arrived at Far 
West, and in the evening the committee on removal were 
in council. Elders Bingham, Turley, and Shearer, were 
appointed to sell the house of Joseph Smith, Sen., to a 
gentleman from Clay county. 

Charles Bird was sent to Liberty relative to a power of 

Committee Resolutions. 

Resolved : To send Stephen Markham to Illinois, to visit the brethren 
there and obtain a power of attorney from such as had left their lands 
without selling them. A report of the committee appointed to visit the 
different parts of the country to ascertain the number of families who 
were destitute of teams for their removal, was made. William Hunt- 
ingrton reported thirty-two families, and Charles Bird seven, as far as 
they had prosecuted their labors. 

Resolved: To send Erastus Bingham to visit the north-west part of 
Caldwell county for the same purpose, and then adjourned till Monday 

Saturday, February 25. — At a meeting of the Demo- 
cratic Association, held this evening at Quincy, Adams 
county, Illinois, Mr. Lindsay introduced a res- Action of the 
olution setting forth that the people called §ommitte'e\f 
"Latter-day Saints" were many of them in "^"'ncy. 
a situation requiring the aid of the citizens of Quincy, 
and recommending that measures be adopted for their re- 
lief, which resolution was adopted, and a committee con- 
sisting of eight persons appointed by the chair; of which 
committee J. W. Whitney was chairman. The associa- 
tion then adjourned to meet on Wednesday evening next 
after instructing the committee to procure the Congrega- 
tional church as a place of meeting, and to invite as many of 

26-1 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 18d9 

our people to attend as should choose to do so; for it was 
in their behalf that the meeting was to be held. Also all 
other citizens of the town who felt to do so were invited 
to attend. The committee not being able to obtain the 
meeting house, procured the Court House for that purpose. 

After we were cast into prison, we heard nothing but 
Determina- threateniugs, that if any judge or jury, or 
Prrsone^s^to ^ouvt of any kind, should clear any of us. 
Escape. ^e shouM uevcr get out of the state alive. 

This soon determined our course, and that was to es- 
cape out of their hands as soon as we could, and by any 
means we could. After we had been some length of time 
in prison, we demanded a habeas corpus of Judge Turn- 
ham, one of the county judges, which with some consid- 
erable reluctance, was granted. Great threatenings were 
made at this time, by the mob, that if any of us were 
liberated, we should never get out of the county alive. 

After the investigation, Sidney Eigdon was released 
from prison by the decision of the judge; the remainder 
Sidney Rig- wcrc Committed to jail; he, however, returned 
ure fr^^^"^^ with US uutil a favorable opportunity offered 
Prison. Iqy his departure. Through the friendship of 

the sheriff, Mr. Samuel Hadley, and the jailor, Mr. Sam- 
uel Tillery, he was let out of the jail secretly in the 
night, after having declared in prison, that the suffer- 
ings of Jesus Christ were a fool to his ; and being sol- 
emnly warned by them to be out of the state with as little 
delay as possible, he made his escape. Being pursued by 
a bodj^ of armed men, it was through the direction of a 
kind Providence that he escaped out of their hands, and 
safely arrived in Quincy, Illinois. 

About this time, Elders Heber C. Kimball and Alanson 
Ripley were at Liberty, where they had been almost 
Importunities wcckly importuuiug at the feet of the judges; 
fease^of^the ^^^ whilc performing this duty on a certain 
Prisoners. occasiou, Judgc Hughcs starcd them full in 
the face, and observed to one of his associates, that "bj'' 

A. D. 1839 1 HISTOKY OF THE CHURCH. 265 

the look of these men's eyes, they are whipped, but not 
conquered; and let us beware how we treat these men; 
for their looks bespeak innocence ; ' ' and at that time he 
entreated his associates to admit of bail for all the pris- 
oners ; but the hardness of their hearts would not admit 
of so charitable a deed. But the brethren continued to 
importune at the feet of the judges, and also to visit the 
prisoners. No one of the ruling part of the commu- 
nity disputed the innocence of the prisoners, but said, in 
consequence of the fury of the mob, that even-handed 
justice could not be administered; Elders Kimball and 
Ripley were therefore compelled to abandon the idea of 
importuning at the feet of the judges, and leave the 
prisoners in the hands of Glod. 

When Elder Israel Barlow left Missouri in the fall of 
1838, either by missing his way, or some other cause, he 
struck the Des Moines river some distance Meeting of 
above its mouth. He was in a destitute sit- la'Ji'ow^a'^d^ 
nation; and making his wants known, found Isaac Oaiiand. 
friends who assisted him, and gave him introductions to 
several gentlemen, among whom was Dr. Isaac Galland, 
to whom he communicated the situation of the Saints; 
the relation of which enlisted Mr, Galland's sympathies, 
or interest, or both united, and hence a providential in- 
troduction of the Church to Commerce [the place of resi- 
dence of Mr. Galland] and its vicinity; for Brother Barlow 
went direct to Quincy, the place of his destination, and 
made known his interview with Dr. Galland to the Church. 

Communication oj Isaac Galland. 

Commerce, Illinois, February 26, 1839. 
3Ir. 1). W. Rogers: 

Dear Sir: — Yours of the 11th instant was received yesterday. I 
perceive that it ha 1 been written before your brethren visited my house. 
I had also written to Mr. Barlow before I received yours, and which is 
herewith also sent. I wish here to remark that about ten or fifteen 
houses or cabins can be had in this neighborhood, and several farms 
may be rented here, on the half breed lands. I think that more than 


fifty families can be accommodated with places to dwell in, but not a 
great quantity of cultivated land, as the improvements on that tract are 
generally new; there are, however, several farms which can also be 

Since writing to Mr. Barlow, I have conversed with a friend of mine, 
who has also conversed with Governor Lucas, of Iowa territory, in re- 
lation to your Church and people. Governor Lucas says that the peo- 
ple called Mormons were good citizens in the state of Ohio, and that he 
respects them now as good and virtuous citizens, and feels disposed to 
treat them as such. 

I wish also to say, through you, to your people, that Isaac Van Allen. 
Esq., the attorney- general of Iowa territory, is a personal and tried 
friend of mine; and I feel fully authorized, from a conversation which 
I have had with him on the subject, to say that I can assure you of his 
utmost endeavors to protect you from insult or violence. 

I will here repeat what I have written to Mr. Barlow, that I do be- 
lieve that under a territorial form of government which is directlj' con- 
nected with the general government of the United States, your Church 
will be better secured against the capriciousness of public opinion, than 
under a state government, where murder, rapine and robbery are ad- 
mirable (!) traits in the character of a demagogue; and where the 
greatest villains often reach the highest offices. I have written to Gov- 
ernor Lucas on the subject; and when I receive his answer, I will com- 
municate it to your Church. 

I desire very much to know how your captive brethren in Missouri 
are faring. I should like to know if Joseph Smith, Jun., is at liberty 
or not, and what his prospects are. I shall be at Carthage, our county 
seat, during the fore part of next week, and soon after that, (perhaps 
the next week following) I expect to go to Burlington, Iowa territory, 
when I expect to see the governor and converse with him on the sub- 
ject. I will probably be at home from the 6th until the 12th of March. 
I shall be pleased to see you or any of your people at my house at any 
time when you can make it convenient. It is now necessary that some- 
thing definite should be done in relation to renting farms, as the season 
for commencing such operations is fast approaching us. A Mr. Whit- 
ney, a merchant in Quincy, is owner and proprietor of several farms in 
this vicinity, and it might be well to see him on the subject. 

1 wish to serve your cause in any matter which Providence may 
afford me the opportunity of doing, and I therefore request that you 
feel no hesitancy or reluctance in communicating to me your wishes, at 
all times and on any subject. I should be much gratified if it could be 
convenient for Mr. Rigdon, or some one or more of the leading members 
of your Church to spend some time with me in traveling through the 


tract, and in hearing and learning the state of the public mind, and 
feelings of the community, in relation to the location of the Church. 

I feel that I am assuming a very great responsibility in this under- 
taking, and I wish to be governed by the dictates of wisdom and dis- 
cretion, while at the same time I am aware that we are often disposed 
to view things as we would wish to have them, rather than as they 
really are; and our great anxiety to accomplish an object may some- 
times diminish the obstacles below their real measure. 

The little knowledge which I have as yet of the doctrine, order or prac- 
tice of the Church, leaves me under the necessity of acting in all this matter 
as a stranger, though, as I sincerely hope, as a friend, for such, I assure 
you I feel myself to be, both towards you collectively, as a people, and in- 
dividually as sufferers. If it should not be convenient for any one to come 
up about the 7th or 8th of March, please write me by the mail. Say to 
Mr. Rigdon, that I regret that I was absent when he was at my house. 1 
cannot visit Quincy until after my return from Burlington, when, I think 
if it is thought necessary, I can. 

Accept, dear sir, for yourself and in behalf of the Church and people, 

assurance of my sincere sympathy in your sufferings and wrongs, and 

deep solicitude for your immediate relief from present distress, and 

future triumphant conquest over every enemy. 

Yours truly, 

Isaac Galland. 
Minutes of the Meeting of the Democratic Association o;f Quincy. 

Wednesday, February 27, 1839, six o'clock p. m. 

The members of the Democratic Association and the citizens of 
Quincy generally, assembled in the court house, to take into consider- 
ation the state and condition of the people called the "Latter-day 
Saints," and organized the meetingby appointing General Leach chair- 
man, and James D. Morgan secretary. Mr. Whitney, from the com- 
mittee appointed at a former meeting, submitted the following: 

The select committee to whom the subject was referred of inquiring 
into and reporting the situation of the persons who have recently ar- 
rived here from Missouri, and whether their circumstances are such as 
that they would need the aid of the citizens of Quincy and its vicinity, to 
be guided by what they might deem the principles of an expanded 
benevolence, have attended to the duties assigned them, and have con- 
cluded on the following: 


"The first idea that occurred to your committee was, to obtain cor- 
rectly the facts of the case, for without them the committee could come 


to no conclusion as to what it migfht be proper for us to do. Without 
the facts they could form no basis upon which the committee might rec- 
ommend to this association what would be proper for us to do, or what 
measures to adopt. The committee, soon after their appointment, sent 
invitations to Mr. Rigdon and several others to meet the committee and 
give them a statement of the facts, and to disclose their situation. 
Those individuals accordingly met the committe and entered into a free 
conversation and disclosure of the facts of their situation; and after 
some time spent therein, the committee concluded to adjourn and re- 
port to this meeting, but not without first requesting those individuals 
to draw up and send us in writing, a condensed statement of the facts 
Relative to the subject in charge of your committee, which those indi- 
viduals engaged to do, and which the committee request may be taken 
as part of their report. 

"That statement is herewith lettered A. 

"The committee believe that our duties at this time, and on this oc- 
casion, are all included within the limits of an expanded benevolence 
and humanity, and which are guided and directed by that charity which 
never faileth. 

"From the facts already disclosed, independent of the statement fur- 
nished to the committee, we feel it our duty to recommend to this asso- 
ciation that they adopt the following resolutions: 

"Resolved, That the strangers recently arrived here from the state of 
Missouri, known by the name of the 'Latter-day Saints,' are entitled 
to our sympathy and kindest regard, and that we recommend to the 
citizens of Quincy to extend all the kindness in their power to bestow 
on the persons who are in affliction. 

"Resolved, That a numerous committee be raised, composed of some 
individuals in every quarter of the town and its vicinity, whose duty it 
shall be to explain to our misguided fellow citizens, if any such there 
be, who are disposed to excite prejudices and circulate unfounded 
rumors; and particularly to explain to them that these people have no 
design to lower the wages of the laboring class, but to procure some- 
thing to save them from starving. 

"Resolved, That a standing committee be raised and be composed of 
individuals who shall immediately inform Mr. Rigdon and others, as 
many as they may think proper, of their appointment, and who shall be 
authorized to obtain information from time to time; and should they [the 
committee] be of opinion that anj'^ individuals, either from destitution 
or sickness, or if they find them houseless, that they appeal directly 
and promptly to the citizens of Quincy to furnish them with the means 
to relieve all such cases. 

"Resolved, That the committee last aforesaid be instructed to use 


their utmost endeavors to obtain employment for all these people, who 
are able and willing to labor; and also to afford them all needful, suit- 
able and proper encouragement. 

"Resolved, That we recommend to all the citizens of Quincy, that in 
all their intercourse with the strangers, they use and observe a becom- 
ing decorum and delicacy, and be particularly careful not to indulge in 
any conversatipn or expressions calculated to wound their feelings, or in 
any way to reflect upon those, who by every law of humanity, are en- 
titled to our sympathy and commiseration. 
"All which is submitted, 

"J. W. Whitney, Chairman. 

"QuiNOY, February 27, 1839." 

Document A. 

"This, gentlemeu, is a brief outline of the difficulties that we have 
labored under, in consequence of the repeated persecutions that have 
been heaped upon us; and as the governor's exterminating order has 
not been rescinded, we as a people were obliged to leave the state of 
Missouri, and with it our lands, corn, wheat, pork, etc., that we had 
provided for ourselves and families, together with our fodder, which 
we have collected for our cattle, horses, etc., those of them that we 
have been able to preserve from the wreck of that desolation which 
has spread itself over Daviess and Caldwell counties. In consequence 
of our brethren being obliged to leave the state, and as a sympathy 
and friendly spirit has been manifested by the citizens of Quincy, num- 
bers of our brethren, glad to obtain an asylum from the hand of perse- 
cution, have come to this place. 

"We cannot but express our feelings of gratitude to the inhabitants 
of this place, for the friendly feelings which have been manifested, and 
the benevolent hand which has been stretched out to a poor, oppressed, 
injured, and persecuted people. And as you, gentlemen of the Demo- 
cratic Association, have felt interested in our welfare, and have desired 
to be put in possession of a knowledge of our situation, our present 
wants, and what would be most conducive to our present good, together 
with what led to those difficulties, we thought that those documents 
[Memorial, Order of Extermination, and General Clark's Address] 
would furnish you with as correct information of our difficulties, 
and what led to them, as anything we are in possession of. 

"If we should say what our present wants are, it would be beyond 
all calculation: as we have been robbed of our corn, wheat, horses, 
cattle, cows, hogs, wearing apparel, houses and homes, and, indeed, of 
all that renders life tolex-able. We do not, we cannot expect to be 
placed in the situation that we once were in; nor are we capable of our- 


selves of supplying the many wants of those of our poor brethren, who 
are daily crowding here and looking to us for relief, in consequence of 
our property, as well as theirs, being in the hands of a ruthless and 
desolating mob. 

"It is impossible to give an exact account of the widows, and those 
that are entirely destitute, as there are so many coming here daily; but 
from inquiry, the probable amount will be something near twenty; be- 
sides numbers of others who are able bodied men, both able and will- 
ing to work, to obtain a subsistence: yet owing to their peculiar situ- 
ation, are destitute of means to supply the immediate wants that the 
necesssities of their families call for. 

"We would not propose, gentlemen, what you shall do; but after 
making these statements, shall leave it to your own judgment and gen- 
erosity. As to what we think would be the best means to promote our 
permanent good, we think that to give us employment, rent us farms, 
and allow us the protection and privileges of other citizens, would 
raise us from a state of dependence, liberate us from the iron grasp of 
poverty, put us in possession of a competency, and deliver us from the 
ruinous effects of persecution, despotism, and tyranny. 

"Written in behalf of a committee of the Latter-day Saints. 

"Elias Higbee, President, 
"John P. Greene, Clerk. 

"To the Quincy Democratic Association." 

Statement of Sidney Bigdon. 

Mr. Rigdon then made a statement of the wi'ongs received by the 
Mormons, from a portion of the people of Missouri, and of their pres- 
ent suffering condition. 

On motion of Mr. Bushnell, the report and resolutions were laid 
upon the table until tomorrow evening. 

On motion of Mr. Bushnell, the meeting adjourned to meet at this 
place tomorrow evening at seven o'clock. 

Stephen Markham left Far West [on the 27th of Febru- 
^xry] for Illinois, to fulfill his appointment of the 2 1st 

Minutes of the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association oj 


'^ Thursday evening, February 28th. Met pursuant to adjournment. 
The meeting was called to order by the chairman. 

On motion of Mr. Morris, a committee of three was appointed to 

A. D. 18:591 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 271 

take up a collection; Messrs. J. T. Holmes, Whitney and Morris were 
appointed. The committee subsequently reported that $48.25 had been 
collected. On motion the amount was paid over to the committee on 
behalf of the Mormons. On motion of Mr. Holmes, a committee of 
three, consisting of S. Holmes, Bushnell and Morris, was appointed 
to draw up subscription papers and circulate them among: the citizens, 
for the purpose of receiving contributions in clothing and provisions. 
On motion sis were added to that committee. 

On motion of J. T, Holmes, J. D. Morgan was appointed a commit- 
tee to wait upon the Quincy Grays [militia company] for the purpose 
of receiving subscriptions. Mr. Morgan subsequently reported that 
twenty dollars had been subscribed by that company. 

The following resolutions were then offered by Mr. J. T. Holmes: 

Resolved, That we regard the rights of conscience as natural and in- 
alienable, and the most sacred guaranteed by the Constitution of our 
free government. 

Resolved, That we regard the acts of all mobs as flagrant violations 
of law; and those who compose them, individually responsible, both to 
the laws of God and man, for every depredation committed upon the 
property, rights, or life of any citizen. 

Resolved, that the inhabitants upon the western frontier of the state 
of Missouri, in their late persecutions of the class of people denomi- 
nated Mormons, have violated the sacred rights of conscience, and 
every law of justice and humanity. 

Resolved, That the governor of Missouri, in refusing protection to 
this class of people, when pressed upon by a heartless mob, and turn- 
ing upon them a band of unprincipled militia, with orders encouraging 
their extermination, has brought a lasting disgrace upon the state over 
which he presides. 

The resolutions were supported in a spirited manner by Messrs. 
Holmes, Morris and Whitney. 

On motion, the resolutions were adopted. 

On motion the meeting then adjourned. 

Samuel Leach, Chairman, 
J. D. Morgan, Secretary. 




Tuesday^ March 5. — 

Edward Partridge'' s Letter to Joseph Smith, Jim., and Others, Confined 
in Liberty Jail, Missouri. 

QuiNOY, Illinois. 

Beloved Brethren: — Having an opportunity to send direct to you 
by Brother Rogers, I feel to write a few lines to you. 

President Rigdon, Judge Higbee, Israel Barlow, and myself went ta 
see Dr. Isaac Galland week before last. Brothers Rigdon, Higbee and 
myself are of the opinion that it is not wisdom to make a trade with the 
Doctor at present; possibly it may be wisdom to effect a trade hereafter. 

The people here receive us kindly; they have contributed near $100 
cash, besides other property, for the relief of the suffering among our 
people. Brother Joseph's wife lives at Judge Cleveland's; I have not 
seen her, but I sent her word of this opportunity to send to you. 
Brother Hyrum's wife lives not far from me. I have been to see her 
a number of times; her health was vei^y poor when she arrived, but 
she has been getting better; she knows of this opportunity to send. I 
saw Sister Wight soon after her arrival here; all were well; I under- 
stand she has moved about two miles with father and John Higbee, 
who are fishing this spring. Sister McRae is here, living with Brother 
Henderson, and is well; I believe she knows of this opportunity to 
send. Brother Baldwin's family I have not seen, and do not know that 
she has got here as yet. She, however, may be upon the other side of 
the river; the ice has run these three days past, so that there has been 
no crossing; the weather is now moderating, and the crossing will soon 
commence again. 

This place is full of our people, yet they are scattering off nearly all 
the while. I expect to start tomorrow for Pittsfield, Pike county, Illi- 
nois, about forty- five miles southeast from this place. Brother George 
W. Robinson told me this morning that he expected that his father-in- 
law, Judge Higbee, and himself would go on a farm about twenty miles 
northeast from this place. Some of the leading men have given us 


[that is the Saints] an invitation to settle in and about this place. 
Many no doubt will stay here. 

Brethren, I hope that you will bear patiently the privations that you 
are called to endure; the Lord will deliver you in His own due time. 

Your letter respecting the trade with Galland was not received here 
until after our return from his residence, at the head of the shoals or 
rapids. If Brother Bigdon were not here, we might, after receiving 
your letter, come to a different conclusion respecting that trade. There 
are some here that are sanguine that we ought to trade with the Doctor. 
Bishops Whitney and Knight are not here, and have not been, as I 
know of. Brothers Morley and Billings have settled some twenty or 
twenty-five miles north of this place, for the present. A Brother Lee, 
who lived near Haun's Mill, died on the opposite side of the river a 
few days since. Brother Rigdon preached his funeral sermon in the 
court-house. It is a general time of health here. 

We greatly desire to see you and to have you enjoy your freedom. 
The citizens hero are willing that we should enjoy the privileges guar- 
anteed to all civil people without molestation. 

I remain your brother in the Lord, 

Edward Partridge. 

Don Carlos Smith to Joseph Smith, .Tun., and Others Confined in Liberty 

Jail, Missouri. 

QuiNCY, Illinois, March 6, 1839. 

Brothers Hyruji and Joseph: — Having an opportunity to send a 
line to you, I do not feel disposed to let it slip unnoticed. Father's 
family have all arrived in this state except you two; and could I but see 
your faces this side of the Mississippi, and know and realize that you 
had been delivered from your enemies, it would certainly light up a new 
gleam of hope in our bosoms; nothing could be more satisfactory, 
nothing could give us more joy. 

Emma and the children are well; they live three miles from here, 
and have a tolerably good place. Hyrum's children and mother Grin- 
old's are living at present with father; they are all well. Mary [wife 
of Hyrum Smith] has not got her health yet, but I think it increases 
slowly. She lives in the house with old Father Dixon; likewise 
Brother Robert T. Thompson and family; they are probably a half 
mile from father's. We are trying to get a house, and to get the 
family together; we shall do the best we can for them, and that which 
we consider to be most in accordance with Hyrum's feelings. 

Father and mother stood their journey remarkably well. They are 
in tolerable health. Samuel's wife has been sick ever since they ar- 
rived. William has removed foity miles from here, but is here now, 

18 Vol. Ill 


and &ays he is auxious to have j'ou liberated, and see you enjoy libertj' 
once more. My family is well: my health has not been good for about 
two weeks; and for two or three days the toothache has been my tor- 
mentor. It all originated with a severe cold. 

Dear brethren, we just heard that the governor says that he is going 
to set you all at liberty; I hope it is true; other letters that you will 
probably receive will give you information concerning the warm feel- 
ing of the people here towards us. 

After writing these hurried lines in misery, I close by leaving the 
blessings of God with you, and praying for your health, prosperity and 
restitution to liberty. 

This from a true friend and brother, 

Don C. Smith. 

William Smith to Joseph and Hyrtim Smith, 

Brothers Hyrum axd Joseph: — I should have called down to 
Liberty to have seen you had it not been for the multiplicity of business 
that was on my hands; and again, I thought that perhaps the people 
might think that the "Mormons" would rise up to liberate you; con- 
sequently too many going to see you might make it worse for you; but 
we all long to see you and have you come out of that lonesome place. 
I hope 3'ou will be permitted to come to your families before long. Do 
not worry about them, for they will be taken care of. All we can do 
will be done; further than this, we can only wish, hope, desire, and 

pray for your deliverance. 

William Smith. 
To Joseph Smith, Jun., and Hj-rum Smith. 

Friday, March 8. — 

Minutes of a Meeting of the Committee on Removal. 

The committee met at Theodore Turley's, William Huntington in the 

Alanson Ripley made a report of his journey to Liberty, and said 
that President Joseph Smith, Jun., counseled to sell all the land in 
Jackson county, and all other lands in the state whatsoever. 

Resolved, That the names of those of the brethren who have sub- 
scribed to our covenant and have done nothing, be sought for, and a 
record made of them, that they may be had in remembrance. 

Resolved, That an extra exertion be made to procure money for re- 
moving the poor, by visiting those who have money, and laj'ing the 
necessities of the committee, in their business of removing the poor out 
of the state, before them, and solicit their assistance. 

Voted that the clerk write a letter to Bishop Partridc e, laying before 


him the advice of President Joseph Smith, Jun., concerning selling the 
Jackson county lands, and requesting a power of attorney to sell them. 

Saturday^ 9. — 

Minutes oj the Adjourned Meeting of the Democratic Association of Quincy. 

At a meeting held at the committee room in the city of Quincy, Illi- 
nois, at two o'clock, p. m., on the 9th March, 1839, pursuant to previ- 
ous appointment, it was moved by President Rigdon, and seconded, 
that Judge Elias Higbee be called to the chair, and he was unanimously 
appointed. James Sloan was then appointed clerk by vote. 

President Rigdon spoke as to the members of the committee being 
absent who had called the meeting, and proposed that other business 
be proceeded with in the meantime, and left it to the chair to decide on 
the propriety thereof. The chair assented to the suggestion of President 

President Rigdon then applied for a paper which had been prepared, 
and signed by several of the citizens of Quincy, describing our situ- 
ation as a people and calling upon the humane in St. Louis and else- 
where to assist them in affording us relief. The paper, being presented 
by Brother Ephraim Owen, was then read, and President Rigdon spoke 
at length upon the subject, and proposed that a committee of two 
of the brethren be appointed by the voice of the meeting to go to St. 
Louis on such business. The motion was then put and carried, and 
Brother Mace was appointed as one of said committee, and Brother 
Ephraim Owen the other. It was proposed that Brother Orson Pratt 
(who is now in St. Louis) be appointed an assistant. 

After the motion was made, and before it was seconded. President 
Rigdon spoke of its inconsistency, and stated, as a better mode, that all 
the Saints in St. Louis, or such of them as the committee may think 
proper, be called upon to assist them. The motion was withdrawn, 
and this business closed. 

Some of the committee who called this meeting, being now present, 
Px'esident Rigdon spoke of two letters which had been received here by 
the brethren, from Iowa Territory, respecting lands in said place, and 
containing sentiments of sympathy on occount of our grievances and 
distressed situation. One of these letters has been mislaid, and the 
other, from Isaac Gallaad to Brother Rogers, was read. It was 
then proposed that a committee be appointed to visit the lands, and 
confer with the gentlemen who had so written, and declared themselves 
interested for our welfare. 

Elder John P. Greene moved that a committee be appointed for that 
purpose, which was seconded, and adopted unanimously President 


Rigdon moved that the committe shall select the land, if it can be safely 
occupied. Seconded by Elder Greene, and carried that the cpmmittee 
be composed of five, viz.: President Rigdon, Elder Greene, Judge Hig- 
bee. Brother Benson and Brother Israel Barlow. 

It was moved, seconded and adopted, that if any one or more of the 
committee be unable to go, the remainder of the committee are to ap- 
point others in their stead. 

The chairman now produced a power of attorney, sent here from the 
committee at Far West, to be executed by such of the brethren here 
who had lands in Caldwell county, and were willing to have them sold, 
to enable the families who are in distress at that place to get here, say 
about one hundred families. 

Power of attorney was read. Moved, seconded and adopted, that 
the clerk of this meeting do make out a copy of the minutes of this 
meeting, to be sent to the committee at Far West. 

James Sloan, Clerk. 

While the persecutions were progressing against us in 
Missouri, the enemy of all righteousness was 

Condition of ' n • 

Affairs in YLQ less busy With the Saiuts m England, ac- 

cording to the length of time the Gospel had 
been preached in that kingdom. Temptation followed 
temptation, and being young in the cause, the Saints suf- 
fered themselves to be buffeted by their adversary. From 
the time that Elder Willard Richards was called to the 
apostleship, in July, 1838, the devil seemed to take a 
great dislike to him, and strove to stir up the minds of 
many against him. Elder Richards was afflicted with 
sickness, and several times was brought to the borders of 
the grave, and many were tempted to believe that he was 
under transgression, or he would not be thus afflicted. 
Some were tried and tempted because Elder Richards took 
to himself a wife; they thought he should have given 
himself wholly to the ministry, and followed Paul's ad- 
vice to the letter. Some were tried because his wife wore 
a veil, and others because she carried a muff to keep her- 
self warm when she walked out in cold weather ; and even 
the President of the Church [Joseph Fielding] there, 
thought "she had better done without it;" she had noth- 
ing ever purchased by the Church; and to gratify their 

^•'^•^^•'•'1 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 277 

feelings, wore the poorest clothes she had, and they were 
too good, so hard was it to buffet the storm of feeling that 
arose from such foolish causes. Sister Richards was very 
sick for some time, and some were dissatisfied because her 
husband did not neglect her entirely and go out preach- 
ing; and others, that she did not go to meeting when she 
was not able to go so far. 

From such little things arose a spirit of jealousy, tat- 
tling, evil speaking, surmising, covetousness, and rebel- 
lion, until the Church but too generally har- 
bored more or less of those unpleasant feel- Efdefnaisai 
mgs: and this evening [March 9th] Elder wXdRlch- 
Halsal came out openly in council against *'"'^^" 
Elder Richards, and preferred some heavy charges, none 
of which he was able to substantiate. Most of the Elders 
in Preston were against Elder Richards for a season, ex- 
cept James Whitehead, who proved himself true in the 
hour of trial. 

Sunday^ 10. — When Elder Richards made proclamation 
from the pulpit, that if anyone had aught against him, or 
his wife Jennetta, he wished they would come rp^^ (.^^^^ ^^ 
to him and state their grievances, and if he Eider Rich- 

^ ' ards' Trou- 

had erred in anything, he would acknowledge bies. 
his fault, one only of the brethren came to him, and 
that to acknowledge his own fault to Elder Richards in 
harboring unpleasant feelings without a cause. 

Sister Richards bore all these trials and persecutions with 
patience. Elder Richards knew the cause of these unpleas- 
antries,his call [to the apostolate] having been made known 
to him by revelation; but he told no one of it. The work 
continued to spread in Manchester and vicinity, among 
the Staffordshire potteries, and other places in England. 

Friday^ 15. — I made the following petition: 

The Petition of the Prophet et al. to Judge Tompkins et al. 

To the Honorable Judge Tompkins, or either of the Judges of the Sujyreme 
Court o/ the State of Missouri: 
Yonr petitioners, Alanson" Ripley, Heber C. Kimball, Joseph B. Noble, 


William Huntington, and Josepli Smith, Jun., beg leave respectfully to 
represent to your honor, that Joseph Smith, Jun., is now unlawfully con- 
fined and restrained of his liberty in Liberty jail, Clay county, Mis- 
souri; that he has been restrained of his liberty nearly five months. 
Your petitioners claim that the whole transaction which has been 
the cause of his confinement, is unlawful from the first to the last. He 
was taken from his house by a fraud being practiced upon him by a 
man of the name of George M. Hinkle, and one or two others; there- 
by your petitioners respectfully show, that he was forced, contrary to 
his wishes, and without knowing the cause, into the camp, which was 
commanded by General Lucas of Jackson county, and thence sent to Ray 
county, sleepingon the ground, and suffering many insults and injuries, 
and deprivations, which were calculated in their nature to break down 
the spirit and constitution of the most robust and hardy of mankind. 

He was put in chains immediately on his being landed at Richmond, 
and there underwent a long and tedious ex parte examination. 

Your petitioners show that the said Joseph Smith. Jun., was deprived 
of the privileges of being examined before the court as the law directs; 
that the witnesses on the part of the state were taken by force of arms, 
threatened with extermination or immediate death, and were brought 
without subpoena or warrant, under the awful and glaring anticipation 
of being exterminated if they did not swear something against him to 
please the mob or his persecutors; and those witnesses were compelled 
to swear at the muzzle of the gun, and some of them have ac- 
knowledged since, which your petitioners do testify, and are able to 
prove, that they did swear falsely, and that they did it in order to save 
their lives. 

And your petitioners testify that all the testimony that had any ten- 
dency or bearing of criminality against said Joseph Smith, Jun., is 
false. We are personally acquainted with the circumstances, and being 
with him most of the time, and being present at the time spoken of by 
them, therefore we know that their testimony was false; and if he 
could have had a fair trial, and impartial, and lawful examination be- 
fore the court, and could have been allowed the privilege of introduc- 
ing his witnesses, he could have disproved everything that was against 
him; but the court suffered them to be intimidated, some of them in 
the presence of the court, and they were driven also and hunted, and 
some of them driven entirely out of the state. 

And thus he was not able to have a fair trial; that the spirit of the 
court was tyrannical and overbearing, and the whole transaction of his 
treatment during the examination was calculated to convince your 
petitioners that it was a religious persecution, proscribing hira in the 
liberty of conscience which is guaranteed to him by the Constitution of the 


United States, and the state of Missouri; that a long catalogue of gar- 
bled testimony was permitted by the court, purporting to be the re- 
ligious sentiment of the said Joseph Smith, Jun., which testimony was 
false, and your petitioners know that it was false, and can prove that 
it was false; because the witnesses testified that those sentiments were 
promulgated on certain days, and in the presence of large congrega- 
tions; and your petitioners can prove, by those congregations, that the 
said Joseph Smith, Jun., did not promulgate such ridiculous and ab- 
surd sentiments for his religion as were testified of and admitted be- 
fore the Honorable Austin A. King; and at the same time those things, 
had no bearing on the offenses that the said Joseph Smith, Jun.,. 
was charged with; and after the examination the said prisoner was. 
committed to the jail for treason against the state of Missouri; whereas 
the said Joseph Smith, Jun., did not levy war against the state of Mis- 
souri; neither did he commit any overt acts; neither did he aid or abet 
an enemy against the state of Missouri during the time he is charged; 
with having done so. 

And further, your petitioners have yet to learn that the state has an! 
enemy; neither is the proof evident, nor the presumption great, in its 
most malignant form, upon the testimony on the part of the state, ex- 
parte as it is in its nature, that the said prisoner has committed the 
slightest degree of treason, or any other act of transgression against 
the laws of the state of Missouri; and yet said prisoner has been com- 
mitted to Liberty jail. Clay county, Missouri, for treason. He has con. 
tinually offered bail to any amount that could be required, not with- 
standing your petitioners allege that he ought to have been acquitted^ 

Your petitioners also allege, that the commitment was an illegal com^ 
mitment, for the law requires that a copy of the testimony should be 
put in the hands of the jailer, which was not done. 

Your petitioners allege, that the prisoner has been denied the privi-. 
lege of the law in a writ of habeas corpus, by the judge of this county. 
Whether they have prejudged the case of the prisoner, or whether they 
are not willing to administer law and justice to the prisoner, or that 
they are intimidated by the high office of Judge King, who only acted 
in the case of the prisoner as a committing magistrate, a conservator of 
the peace, or by the threats of a lawless mob, your petitioners are not 
able to say; but it is a fact that they do not come forward boldly and 
administer the law to the relief of the prisoner. 

And further, your petitioners allege that immediately after the pris- 
oner was taken, his family were frightened and driven out of their 
house, and that too, by the witnesses on the part of the state, and 
plundered of their goods; that the prisoner was robbed of a very fine 
horse, saddle and bridle, and other property of considerable amountj 


that they (the ■witnesses) in connection with the mob, have finally suc- 
ceeded, by vile threatening and foul abuse, in driving the family of the 
prisoner out of the state, with little or no means; and without a pro- 
tector, and their very subsistence depends upon the liberty of the pris- 
oner. And your petitioners allege, that he is not guilty of any crime, 
whereby he should be restrained of his liberty, from a personal knowl- 
edge, having been with him, and being personally acquainted with 
the whole of the difficulties between the "Mormons'' and their perse- 
cutors; and that he has never acted at any time, only in his own de- 
fense, and that too on his own ground, property and possessions. That 
the prisoner has never commanded any military company, nor held any 
military authority, neither any other office, real or pretended in the 
state of Missouri, except that of a religious instructor; that he never 
has borne arms in the military rank; and in all such cases has acted as 
a private character and as an individual. 

How, then, your petitioners would ask, can it be possible that the 
prisoner has committed treason? The prisoner has had nothing to do 
in Daviess county, only on his own Vjusiness as an individual. 

The testimony of Dr. Avard concerning a council held at James 
Sloan's was false. Your petitioners do solemnly declare, that there 
was no such council ; that your petitioners were with the prisoner, and 
there was no such vote or conversation as Dr. Avard swore to. That 
Dr. Avard also swore falsely concerning a constitution, as he said was 
introduced among the Danites; that the prisoner had nothing to do with 
burning in Daviess county; that the prisoner made public proclamation 
against such things; that the prisoner did oppose Dr. Avard and 
George M. Hinkle against vile measures with the mob, but was threat- 
ened by them if he did not let them alone. That the prisoner did not 
have anything to do with what is called Bogart's battle, for he knew 
nothing of it until it was over; that he was at home, in the bosom of 
his own family, during the time of that whole transaction. 

And, in fine, your petitioners allege, that he is held in confinement 
without cause, and under an unlawful and tyrannical oppression, and that 
his health, and constitution, and life depend on being liberated from 
his confinement. 

Your petitioners aver that they can disprove every item of testimony 
that has any tendency of criminality against the prisoner; for they 
know the facts themselves, andean bring many others also to prove the 

Therefore your petitioners pray your honor to grant to him the state's 
writ of habeas corpus, directed to the jailer of Clay county, Missouri, 
commanding him forthwith to bring before j'ou the body of the pris- 
oner, so that his case may be heard before your honor, and the situation 


of the prisoner be considered and adjusted according to law and justice, 
as it shall be presented before your honor, and, as in duty bound, your 
petitioners will ever pray. 

And further, your petitioners testify that the said Joseph Smith, Jun., 
did make a public proclamation in Far West, in favor of the militia of 
the state of Missouri, and of its laws and also of the Constitution of the 
United States; and that he has ever been a warm friend to his country, 
and did use all his influence for peace; that he is a peaceable and quiet 
citizen, and is not worthy of death, of stripes, bond, or imprisonment. 
The above mentioned speech was delivered on the day before the sur- 
render of Far West, 

Alanson Ripley, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
William Huntington, 
Joseph B. Noble, 

Joseph Smith, Jun. 
State of Missouri, ) 
County of Clay, j ^^* 

This day personally appeared before me, Abraham Shafer, a justic 
of the peace within and for the aforesaid county, Alanson Ripley, Heber 
C. Kimball, William Huntington, Joseph B. Noble and Joseph Smith, 
Jun., who being duly sworn, do depose and say that the matters and 
things set forth in the foregoing petition, upon their own knowledge, 
are true in substance and in fact; and so far as set forth upon the in- 
formation of others, they believe to be true. 

Alanson Ripley, 
Heber C. Kimball, 
William Huntington, 
Joseph B. Noble, 
Joseph Smith, Jun. 

Sworn and subscribed to before me, this 15th day of March, 1839. 

Abrham Shafer, J. P. 

We, the undersigned, being many of us personally acquainted with 
the said Joseph Smith, Jun., and the circumstances connected with his 
imprisonment, do concur in the petition and testimony of the aboye- 
named individuals, as most of the transactions therein mentioned we 
know from personal knowledge to be correctly set forth; and from 
information of others, believe the remainder to be true. 

Amasa Lyman, 
H. G. Sherwood, 
James Newberry, 
Cyrus Daniels, 
Erastus Snow, 
Eltas Smith. 


The same day Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wight, Alexander 
McRae, and Hyrum Smith, my fellow prisoners, made 
each a similar petition. 

A. 1) ]8:!!)1 HISTORY OF THE CHUKCH. 283: 



Sunday^ 17. — I here give an extract from the minutes- 
of a conference of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 
day Saints, held this day in Quincy ; Brigham Young by a 
unanimous vote was called to the chair, and Robert B. 
Thompson chosen clerk. 

Minutes of the Conference at Quincy, Illinois. 

Elder Young arose and grave a statement of the circumstances of the 
Church at Par West, and his feelings in regard to the scattering of the 
brethren, believing it to be wisdom to unite together as much as pos- 
sible in extending the hand of charity for the relief of the poor, who 
were suffering for the Gospel's sake, under the hand of persecution in 
Missouri, and to pursue that course which would prove for the general 
good of the whole Church. He would advise the Saints to settle (if 
possible) in companies, or in a situation so as to be organized into 
branches of the Church, that they might be nourished and fed by the 
shepherds; for without, the sheep would be scattered; and he also im- 
pressed it upon the minds of the Saints to give heed to the revelations 
of God; the Elders especially should be careful to depart from all ini- 
quity, and to remember the counsel given by those whom God hath 
placed as counselors in His Church; that they may become as wise stew- 
ards in the vineyard of the Lord, that every man may know and act in 
his own place; for there is order in the kingdom of God, and we must 
regard that order if we expect to be blessed. 

Elder Young also stated that Elder Jonathan Dunham had received 
previous instructions not to call any conferences in this state, or else- 
where; but to go forth and preach repentance, this was his calling: but 
contrary to those instructions, he called a conference in Springfield, 
Illinois, and presided there, and brought forth the business which he 
had to transact; and his proceeding in many respects during the confer- 
ence was contrary to the feelings of Elder Wilford Woodruff and other 

1284 HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. [A. D. 1839 

official memVjers who were present. They considered his proceedings 
■contrary to the will and order of God. 

The conference then voted that Elder Dunham be reproved for his 
improper course, and that he be advised to adhere to the counsel given 

After the conference had transacted various other business, Elder 
George W. Harris made some remarks relative to those who had left us 
in the time of our perils, persecutions and dangers, and were acting 
against the interests of the Church; he said that the Church could no 
longer hold them in fellowship unless they repented of their sins, and 
turned unto God. 

After the conference had fully expressed their feelings upon the sub- 
ject it was unanimously voted that the following persons be excommu- 
nicated from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, viz.: 
George M. Hinkle, Sampson Avard, John Corrill, Reed Peck, William 
W. Phelps, Frederick G. Williams, Thomas B. Marsh, Burr Riggs, and 
several others. After which the conference closed by prayer. 

Brigham Young, President. 
Robert B. Thompson, Clerk. 

This day, 17tli of March, Parley P. Pratt's wife left the 
Departure of pi'isoii lioiise, whei'C she had voluntarily been 
Mrs. Prati. .^jj-]^ j^er husband most of the winter, and re- 
turned to Far West, to get passage with some of the 
brethren for Illinois. 

Action of the Committee of Remoial. 

The committee met at the house of Daniel Shearer, Far West, Wil- 
liam Huntington in the chair. 

Present — Brother Daniel W. Rogers, from Quincy, Illinois. Brother 
Rogers made known the proceedings of the brethren in Quincy, in re- 
lation to locating in the Iowa territorj', and read a private letter from Dr. 
Isaac Galland to him on the same subject, and presented a power of 
attorney from Bishop Partridge to dispose of the lands of the Church 
in Jackson county, and also some lots in Far West. He then presented 
a copy of the proceedings of a council held in Quincy on the 9th 
instant, which was read; after which Brother Rogers explained some 
things relative to said meeting, and the proceedings thereof. 

A bill of articles wanted by the prisoners in Liberty jail, was pre- 
sented by Elder Heber C. Kimball, and accepted. Charles Bird was ap- 
pointed to accompany Brother Rogers to Jackson county to assist him 
in the sale of the Jackson countv lands. 

A. D. 1839] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 28.> 

On motion, resolved: That we will not patronize Brother Lamb 
in his market shaving [extortionl shop, or any other of the kind in this 

A petition of Alanson Ripley and others to the Honorable Judge 
Thompkins, of the Supreme Court of the State of Missouri, praying for 
a writ of habeas corpus for Joseph, Smith, Jun., was read by Elder 

Monda7j, is. — The committee met in the course of the 
day, and appointed Theodore Turley to go to Jelt'erson 
City with Elder Heber C. Kimball to carry the petitions 
of the prisoners in Liberty and Richmond jails. 

Letter of the Projjhef to Mrs. Norman Bull* 

Liberty Jail, March 15, 1839. 
Dear Sister: 

My heart rejoices at the friendship you manifest in requesting to 
have a conversation with us, but the jailer is a very jealous man, fearing 
some one will leave tools for us to get out with. He is under the eye 
of the mob continually, and his life is at stake if he grants us any 
privileges. He will not let us converse with any one alone. Oh, what 
joy it would be to us to see our friends! It would have gladdened my 
heart to have had the privilege of conversing with you, but the hand 
of tyranny is upon us; thanks be to God, it cannot last always; and He 
that sitteth in the heaven will laugh at their calamity, and mock when 
their fear cometh. We feel, dear sister, that our bondage is not of 
long duration. I trust that I shall have the chance to give such in 
structions as are communicated to us before long. I suppose you want 
some instruction for yourself, and also to give us some information and 
administer consolation to us, and to find out what is best for you to do, 
I think that many of the brethren, if thev will be pretty still, can stay 
in this country until the indignation is over and past; but I think it 
would be better for Brother Bull to leave and go with the rest of the 
brethren, if he keep the faith, and at any rate, thus speaketh the Spirit 
concerning him. I want him and you to know that I am your true 
friend. I was glad to see you. No tongue can tell what inexpressible 

♦Among others who called to see the Prophet in prison about this time was Mrs. 
Norman Bull; but apparently she was not allowed to have the coveted interview, 
and hence the prophet wrote to her. The letter here inserted appears in the man- 
uscript history of the Church, but not until now has it been published. It is im- 
portant as showing the frame of mind the Prophet was in, and his anxiety tl^ 
administer comfort, and give helpful counsel to the Saints. 


joy it pives a man, after having' been enclosed in the walls of a prison 
for five months, to see the face of one who has been a friend. It seems 
to me that my heart will always be more tender after this than ever it 
was before. My heart bleeds continually when I contemplate the dis" 
tress of the Church. 0, that I could be with them! I would not 
shrink at toil and hardship to render them comfoi't and consolation. I 
want the blessing once more of lifting my voice in the midst of the 
Saints. I would pour out my soul to God for their instruction. It has 
been the plan of the devil to hamper me and distress me from the be- 
ginning, to keep me from explaining myself to them; and I never have 
had opportunity to give them the plan that God has revealed to me; for 
many have run without being sent, crying "Tidings, my Lord," and 
have done much injury to the Church, giving the devil more power 
over those that walk by sight and not by faith. But trials will only 
give us ihe knowledge necessary to understand the minds of the an- 
cients. For my part, I think I never could have felt as I now do, if I 
had not suffered the wrongs that I have suffered. All things shall 
work together for good to them that love God. Beloved sister, we see 
that perilous times have truly come, and the things which we have so 
long expected have at last began to usher in; but when you see the fig 
tree begin to put forth its leaves, you may know that the summer is 
nigh at hand. There will be a short work on the earth. It has now 
commenced. I suppose there will soon be perplexity all over the earth. 
Do not let our hearts faint when these things come upon us, for they 
must come, or the word cannot be fulfilled. I know that something 
will soon take place to stir up this generation to see what they have 
been dointj, and that their fathers have inherited lies and they have 
been led captive by the devil, to no profit; but they know not what they 
do. Do not have any feelings of enmity towards any son or daughter of 
Adam. I believe I shall be let out of their hands some way or another, 
and shall see good days. We cannot do anything only stand still and 
see the salvation of God. He must do His own work, or it must fall to 
the ground. "We must not take it in our hands to avenge our wrongs. 
Vengeance is mine, saith the Lord, and I will repay. I have no fears. I 
shall stand unto death, God being my helper. I wanted to communi- 
cate something, and I wrote this. 
Write to us if you can. 

(Signed) Joseph Smith, Jun. 

To Mrs. Norman Bull, Clay Co., Mo. 

While I was in jail, the followino; statements were made 
by the witnesses, and sent to Colonel Price, namely: 

William E. McLellin is guilty of entering the house of Joseph Smith, 


Juu., in the city of Far West, and plundering it of the following arti- 
cles, viz. — on e roll of linen clo th, a q uantity of •^^1^^"ab^e buttons, one 
piece of cashme re, a numbe r ^f very valuable boolcs of gr gatJ^llL'^tYi <^ 
number of vesti ngs, w ith various other articles of value. 

Said ISTcLellin was aided and assisted in the above transactions by 
Harvey Green, Burr Riggs and Harlow Redfield.* 

The above mentioned William E. McLellin also came to and took 
away from the stable of the said above mentioned Joseph Smith, Jun., 

*When the Historj' of Joseph Smith was being published in the I>eseret Newx, 
and the above part of the History was reached, Harlow Redfield sent the following 
communications to the Editors vindicating himself from the charge of aidini^ 
McLellin in his robberies. It appears in the IVews of March 10, 1854. 

7'o the Editor of The Deseret JYeivs: 

Sir — In the History of Joseph Smith, published February 2, ^ews No. 5, I find 
my name associated with others, as aiding McLellin and others in plundering the 
house of Joseph Smith while in prison. This is incorrect. The excitement of 
those times was sufiicient reason for the rumor going abroad incorrectly: 

I was at Hyrum Smith's house, rather by accident than design, in company 
with McLellin and Burr Riggs, at a time when they took some books, etc., but was 
not with them when they went to Joseph's. Soon after the rumor got afloat; I ex' 
plained the matter before the Council in Missouri satisfactorily, as I supposed, but 
some time after, an enemy, in my absence, again agitated the subject before the 
Conference in Nauvoo, which led to an inquiry before the High Council in pres- 
ence of Joseph and Hyrum, and the subject appearing in its true light, Joseph 
instructed the Council to give me a certificate of acquittal, that would close every 
man's mouth. 

The following is the certificate, viz: — 

"The High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints met at 
Nauvoo, 20th October, 1840, to consider the case of Harlow Redfield, against whom 
certain accusations were brought at our last conference, in consequence of which, 
he was suspended, and his case referred to the High Council for decision. We 
being organized to investigate his case, when no charge was brought against 
him, nor did an implication appear, nor do we believe that a charge could be sus- 
tained against Elder Redfield. He volunteered confession of certain inadvertent, 
imprudent, [but] no evil meaning acts, that he greatly sorrowed for, and asked 
forgiveness for his folly in such acts. This Council voted that Elder Redfield be 
forgiven, and restored to his former ofiicial state and standing, and to be in full 
fellowship, the same as if no evil insinuation had ever been brought against him; 
and that he take a transcript of these proceedings, to be signed by the Clerk of 
this meeting. 

"I hereby certify that the above is a true transcript of the proceedings and 
decision of the aforesaid case. 

"H. G. Sherwood." 
I will only add that I had before heard how that "poor Tray" got whipped for 
being in bad company, and it ought to have been a sufficient warning for me, and I 
trust it will be for the future. 

I remain your humble servant, 

Harlow Redfield. 
Provo, Feb. 7. 1854. 

288 HISTOKY or the church. [A.. D. 1839 

one_gig^ and harness , with some other articles which cannot now be 
called to mind, aided and assisted by Burr Riggs — which can be proven 
by the following witnesses — 

Caroline Clark, 
James Mulholland, 
Mrs. Sally Hinkle, 
Joanna Carter. 
J. Stollins is guilty of entering the house of Joseph Smith, Jun., in 
the city of Far West, in company with Sashiel Woods and another man 
not known, and taking from a trunk, the property of James Mulholland, 
an inmate of said house, one goldjring, which they carried away; also 
of breaking open a sealed letter, which was in said trunk inside a 
pocket book, in which was the ring above mentioned; besides toss- 
ing and abusing the rest of the contents of said trunk : which can be 
proven by the following persons — 

Mrs. Emma Smith, 
Mrs. Sally Hinkle, 
Caroline Clark, 
James Mulholland. 

Monday^ March 25. — About this time, Elders Kimball 
and Turley started on their mission to see the governor. 
They called on the sheriff of Ray county and rpj^^ Mission 
the jailer for a copy of the mittimus, by which an^^T^^fe" to 
the prisoners were held in custody, but they Governor 
confessed they had none. They went to Judge 
Kmg, and he made out a kind of mittimus. At this time 
we had been in prison several months without even a 
mittimus ; and that too for crimes said to have been com- 
mitted in another county. 

Elders Kimball and Turley took all the papers by which 
we were held, or which were then made out for them, 
with our petition to the supreme judges, and went to Jef- 
ferson City. 

The governor was absent. The secretary of state 
treated them very kindly; and when he saw the papers, 
could hardly believe those were all the documents by which 
the prisoners were held in custody, for they were illegal. 

Lawyer Doniphan had also deceived them in his papers 
and sent them off with such documents, that a change of 


venue could not be effected in time. The secretary was 
astonished at Judge King acting as he did, ^he Pauit 
but said he could do nothing in the premises, Mittimus. 
and if the governor were present, he could do nothing. 
But the secretary wrote a letter to Judge Kmg. 

The brethren then started to find the supreme judges, 
and get writs of habeas corpus; and after riding hundreds 
of miles to effect this object, returned to Liberty on the 
30th of March, having seen Matthias McGirk, George 
Thompkins and John C. Edwards, the supreme judges, 
but did not obtain the writ of habeas corpus in conse- 
quence of a lack in the order of commitment, although 
the judges seemed to be friendly. 

We were informed that Judge King said, that there was 
nothing against my brother Hyrum, only that he was a 
friend to the Prophet. He also said there was nothing 
against Caleb Baldwin, and Alexander McRae. 

Brother Horace Cowan was put into Liberty jail today 
for debt, in consequence of the persecution of the mob. 

The PropheVs Epistle to the Church, Written in Liberty Prison* 
Liberty Jail, Clay County, Missouri, 
March 25, 1839. 
To the Church of Latter-day Saints at Quincy, Illinois, and Scattered 
Abroad, and to Bishop Partridge in Particular: 

Your humble servant, Joseph Smith, Jun., prisoner for the Lord 
Jesus Christ's sake, and for the Saints, taken and held by the power of 
mobocracy, under the exterminating reign of his excellency, the gov- 
ernor, Lilburn W. Boggs, in company with his fellow prisoners and be- 

* The following important communication of the Prophet and his fellow prisoners 
to the Church at large, and to Bishop Edward Partridge in particular, was writtAh 
between the 20th and 25th of March. In the Prophet's history as published 
many years ago in ciirrent issues of the Deseret News and MilUnnial S'ar 
the communication is divided near the middle of it by reciting the few incidents 
happening between the 20th and 25th of March — the former being the date 
on which the letter was begun, the latter the date on which it was completed; but 
in this publication it is thought desirable that the letter be given without this divi- 
sion, and hence it appears under the date on which it was completed, viz. the 
25th of March, 1839. The parts of the communication enclosed in brackets and 
double leaded were regarded of such special value that they were taken from this 
communication and placed in the Doctrine and Covenants and comprise sections 
cxxi, cxxii, cxxiii of that work. 

1© Vol III 


loved brethren, Caleb Baldwin, Lyman Wi{?ht, Hyrum Smith, and 
Alexander MeRae, send unto you all greeting. May the grace of God 
the Father, and of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, rest upon you 
aU, and abide with you forever. May knowledge be multiplied unto 
you by the mercy of God. And may faith and virtue, and knowledge 
and temperance, and patience and godliness, and brotherly kindness 
and charity be in you and abound, that you may not he barren in any- 
thing, nor unfruitful. 

For inasmuch as we know that the most of you are well acquainted 
with the wrongs and the high-handed injustice and cruelty^ that are 
practiced upon us; whereas we have been taken prisoners charged 
falsely with every kind of evil, and thrown into prison, enclosed with 
strong walls, surrounded with a strong guard, who continually watch 
day and night as indefatigable as the devil does in tempting and laying 
snares for the people of God : 

Therefore, dearly beloved brethren, we are the more ready and will- 
ing to lay claim to your fellowship and love. For our circumstances 
are calculated to awaken our spirits to a sacred remembrance of every- 
thing, and we think that yours are also, and that nothing therefore can 
separate us from the love of God and fellowship one with another; and 
that every species of wickedness and cruelty practiced upon us will 
only tend to bind our hearts together and seal them together in love. 
We have no need to say to you that we are held in bonds without cause, 
neither is it needful that you say unto us, We are driven from our 
homes and smitten without cause. We mutualh' understand that if the 
inhabitants of the state of Missouri had let the Saints alone, and had 
been as desirable of peace as they were, there would have been nothing 
but peace and quietude in the state unto this day; we should not have 
been in this hell, surrounded with demons (if not those who are 
damned, they are those who shall be damlied) and where we are com- 
pelled to hear nothinff but blasphemous oaths, and witness a scene of 
blasphemy, and drunkenness and hypocrisj-, and debaucheries of every 

And again, the cries of orphans and widows would not have ascended 
up to God against them. Nor would innocent blood have stained the 
soil of Missouri. But oh! the unrelenting hand! The inhumanity and 
murderous disposition of this people! It shocks all nature; it beggars 
and defies all description; it is a tale of woe; a lamentable tale; yea a 
sorrowful tale; too much to tell; too much for contemplation; loo much 
for human beings; it cannot be found among the heathens; it cannot 
be found among the nations where kings and tyrants are enthroned; it 
cannot be found among the savages of the wilderness: yea. and I think 
it cannot be found among the wild and ferocious beasts of the forest — 


that a mau should be mangled for sport! women be robbed of all that 
they have — their last morsel for subsistence, and then be violated to 
gratify the hellish desires of the mob, and finally left to perish with 
their helpless offspring clinging around their necks. 

But this is not all. After a man is dead, he must be dug up from his 
grave and mangled to pieces, for no other purpose than to gratify 
their spleen against the religion of God. 

They practice these things upon the Saints, who have done them no 
wrong, who are innocent and virtuous; who loved the Lord their God, 
and were willing to forsake all things for Christ's sake. These things 
are awful to relate, but they are yerily true. It must needs be that 
oi^enses come, but woe unto them by whom they come. 
^/fOh God! where art Thou? And where is the pavilion that covereth 
Thy hiding place? How long shall Thy hand be stayed, and Thine eye, 
yea Thy purie eye, behold from the eternal heavens, the wrongs of Thy 
people, and of Thy servants, and Thy ear be penetrated with their 
cries? Yea, Lord, how long shall they suffer these wrongs and un- 
lawful oppressions, before Thine heart shall be softened towards them, 
and Thy bowels be moved with compassion towards them? 

Lord God Almightj', Maker of Heaven, Earth and Seas, and of all 
things that in them are, and who controllest and subjectest the devil, 
and the dark and benighted dominion of Sheol! Stretch forth Thy 
hand, let Thine eye pierce; let Thy pavilion be taken up; let Thy hid- 
ing place no longer be covered; let Thine ear be inclined; let Thine 
heart be softened, and Thy bowels moved with compassion towards us. 
Let Thine anger be kindled against our enemies; and in the fury of 
Thine heart, with Thy sword avenge us of our wrongs; remember Thy 
suffering Saints, our God! and Thy servants will rejoice in Thy 
name forever.] 

Dearly and beloved brethren, we see that perilous times have come, 
as was testified of. We may look, then, with most perfect assurance, 
for the fulfillment of all those things that have been written, and with 
more confidence than ever before, lift up our eyes to the luminary of 
day, and say in our hearts. Soon thou wilt veil thy blushing face. He 
that said "Let there be light," and there was light, hath spoken this 
word. And again. Thou moon, thou dimmer light, thou luminary of 
night, shalt turn to blood. 

We see that everything is being fulfilled; and that the time shall 
soon come when the Son of Man shall descend in the clouds of heaven. 
Our hearts do not shrink, neither are our spirits altogether broken by 


the grievous yoke which is put upon us. We know that God will have 
our oppressors in derision; that He will laugfh at their calamity, and 
mock when their fear cometh. 

that we could be with you, brethren, and unbosom our feelings to 
you! We would tell, that we should have been liberated at the time 
Elder Rigdon was, on the writ of habeas corpus, had not our own law- 
yers interpreted the law, contrary to what it reads, against us; which 
prevented us from introducing our evidence before the mock court. 

They have done us much harm from the beginning. They have of 
late acknowledged that the law was misconstrued, and tantalized our 
feelings with it, and have entirely forsaken us, and have forfeited their 
oaths and their bonds; and we have a come-back on them, for they are 
co-workers with the mob. 

As nigh as we can learn, the public mind has been for a long time 
turning in our favor, and the majority is now friendly; and the lawyers 
can no longer browbeat us by saying that this or that is^ a matter ^f 
public opinion, for public opinion is not willing to brook it; for it is^ 
beginning to look with feelings of indignation against our oppressors, 
and to say that the "Mormons" were not in the fault in the least. We 
think that truth, honor, virtue and innocence will eventually come out 
triumphant. We should have taken a habeas corpus before the high 
judge and escaped the mob in a summary way; but unfortunately for 
us, the timber of the wall being very hard, our auger handles gave 
out, and hindered us longer than we expected; we applied to a friend, 
and a very slight incautious act gave rise to some suspicions, and be- 
fore we could fully succeed, our plan was discovered; we had every- 
thing in readiness, but the last stone, and we could have made our es- 
cape in one minute, and should have succeeded admirably, had it not 
been for a little imprudence or over-anxiety on the part of our 

The sheriff and jailer did not blame us for our attempt; it was a fine 
breach, and cost the county a round sum; but public opinion says that 
we ought to have been permitted to have made our escape; that then 
the disgrace would have been on us, but now it must come on the 
state; that there cannot be any charge sustained against us; and that 
the conduct of the mob, the murders committed at Haun's Mills, and 
the exterminating order of the governor, and the one-sided, rascally 
proceedings of the legislature, have damned the state of Missouai to 
all eternity. I would just name also that General Atchison has proved 
himself as contemptible as any of them. 

We^have tried for a long time to get our lawyers to draw us some 

This alludes to another effort fro escape from prison besides the one related 
by Alexander McRae at pp. 25''-8. 


petitions to the supreme judges of this state, but they utterly refused. 
We have examined the law, and drawn the petitions ourselves, and 
have obtained abundance of proof to counteract all the testimony that 
was against us, so that if the supreme judge does not grant us our liberty, 
he has to act without cause, contrary to honor, evidence, law or 
justice, sheerly to please the devil, but we hope better things and trust 
before many days God will so order our case, that we shall be set at 
liberty and take up our habitation with the Saints. 
(>>J Wfi rf^^^i'^ed s^me l etters last evening — one from Emma, one from 
Don C. Smith, and. one from Bishop Partridge — all breathing a kind 
and consoling spirit. We were much gratified with their contents. We 
had been a long time without information; and when we read those let- 
ters they were to our souls as the gentle air is refreshing^ but our joy 
was mingled with gnef, because of the sufferings of the poor and much 
injured Saints, ^nd we need not say to you that the floodgates of our ,^y^ 
hearts were lifted and our eyes were a fountain of tears, but those who 
have not been enclosed in the walls of prison without cause or provoca- 
tion, can have but little idea how sweet the voice of a friend is; /one 
token of friendship from any source whatever awakens and calls into 
action every sympathetic feeling; it brings up in an instant everything 
that is passed; it seizes the present with the avidity of lightning; it grasps 
after the future with the fierceness of a tiger; it moves the mind back- 
ward and forward, from one thing to another, until finally all enmity, 
malice and hatred, and past differences, misunderstandings and 
mismanagements are slain victorious at the feet of hope;' and 
when the heart is sufficiently contrite, then the voice of inspiration . 
steals along and whispers, [My son, peace be unto thy soul; ^^ 
thine adversity and thine afflictions shall be but a small moment; 
and then if thou endure it well, God shall exalt thee on high; thou 
shalt triumph over all thy foes; thy friends do stand by thee, 
a,nd they shall hail thee again, with warm hearts and friendly 
hands; thou art not yet as Job; thy friends do not contend against 
thee, neither charge thee with transgression, as they did Job; and they 
who do charge thee with transgression, their hope shall be blasted and 
their prospects shall melt away as the hoar frost melteth before the 
burning rays of the rising san; and also that God hath set His hand 
and seal to change the times and seasons, and to blind their minds, 
that they may not understand His marvelous workings, that He may 
prove them also and take them in their own craftiness; also because 
their hearts are corrupted, and the things which they are willing to 
bring upon others, and love to have others suffer, may come upon them- 


selves to the very uttermost ; that they may be disappointed also, and their 
hopes may be out off; and not many j^ears hence, that they and their 
posterity shall be swept from under heaven, saith God, that not one of 
them is left to stand by the wall. Cursed are all those that shall lift 
up the heel against mine anointed, saith the Lord, and cry they have 
sinned when they have not sinned before me, saith the Lord, but have 
done that which was meet in mine eyes, and which I commanded them; 
but those who cry transgression do it because they are the servants of 
sin and are the children of disobedience themselves; and those who 
swear falsely against my servants, that they might bring them into 
bondage and death; wo unto them; because they have offended my lit- 
tle ones; thej' shall be severed from the ordinances of mine house; their 
basket shall not be full, and their houses and their barns shall perish, 
3.nd they themselves shall be despised by those that flattered them; 
tbey shall not have right to the Priesthood, nor their posterity after 

- them, from generation to generation; it had been better for them that 
a millstone had been hanged about their necks, and they drowned in 
the depth of the sea. 

Wo unto all those that discomfort my people, and drive and murder, 
and testify against them, saith the Lord of Hosts; a generation of vip- 
ers shall not escaije the damnation of hell. Behold mine eyes see and 
Know all their works, and I have in reserve a swift judgment in the 
season thereof, for them all; for there is a time appointed for every man 
according as his work shall be.] 

And now, beloved brethren, we say unto you, that inasmuch as God 
hath said that He would have a tried people, that He would purge them 
as gold, now we think that this time He has chosen His own crucible, 
wherein we have been tried; and we think if we get through with any 
degree of safety, and shall have kept the faith, thaLiLwill be a sign to 
this generation, altogether sufficient to leave them without excuse; and 

^we think also, it will be a trial of our faith equal to that of Abraham, 
and that the ancients will not have whereof to boast over us in the, 
day of judgment, as being called to pass through heavier afflictions; 
that we may hold an even weight in the balance with them; but now, 
after having suffered so great sacrifice and having passed through so 
great a season of sorrow, we trust that a ram may be caught in the 
thicket speedily, to relieve the sons and daughters of Abraham from 
their great anxiety, and to light up the lamp of salvation upon their 




countenances, that they may hold on now, after havinp: gone so far unto 
everlastinjr life. 

NQvtyjjr ethren, conceriiing the places for the location of the Sain ts. 
we cannot counsel you as we could if we were present with you; and as 
to the things that were written heretofore, we did not consider theiij 
anything very binding, therefore we now say once for all, that we think 
it iiiosit proper that the general affairs of the Church, which are neces- 
sary to be considered, while your humble servant remains in bondage, 
should be tr ansacted by a general conference of the most faithful and 
the most respecta ble o f the author ities o f the Churchy and a minute of 
t hose tran sactions may be kept, and forwarded fx-om time to time. *o 
your humble servant; and if there should be any corrections by the 
word of the Lord, they shall be freely transmitted, and your humble 
servant will apptove all things whatsoever is acceptable unto God. If 
anything should have ^een s.uggeste71 by us, or any names mentioned, 
except by commandment, or thus saith the Lord, we do not consider it 
binding; therefore Our hearts shall not be grieved if different arrange- 
ments should be entered into.' Nevertheless we would suggest the pro- 
priety of being aware of an aspiring spirit, which spirit has oftentimes 
urged men torward to make toui speeches, and influence the Church to 
reject milder counsels, and has eventually been the means of bringing 
much death and sorrow upon the Church. 

We would say, beware of pride also; for well and truly hath the wise 
man said", that pride goeth before destruction, and a haughty spirit be- 
fore a fall. And again, outward appearance is not always a criterion by 
which to judge our fellow man; but the lips betray the haughty and 
overbearing imaginations of the heart; by his words and his deeds let 
him be judged. Flattery also is a deadly poison. A frank and open 
rebuke provoketh a good man to emulation; and in the hour of trouble 4^^ 
he will be your best friend; but on the other hand, it will draw out all 
the corruptions of corrupt hearts, and lying and the poison of asps is 
under their tongues; and they do cause the pure in heart to be cast 
into prison, because they want them out of their way. 

A fanciful and flowery and heated imagination beware of; because 
the things of God are of deep import; and time, and experience, and 
careful and ponderous and solemn thoughts can only find them out. 
Thy mind, man! if thou wilt lead a soul unto salvation, must stretchi/ 
as high as the utmost heavens, and search into and contemplate the 
darkest abyss, and the broad expanse of eternity — thou must commune 
with God. How much more dignified and noble are the thoughts of 
God, than the vain imaginations of the human heart! None but fools 
will trifle with the souls of men. 

How vain and trifling have been our spirits, our conferences, our 


councils, our meeting's, our private as well as public conversations — 
too low, too mean, too vulgar, too condescending for the dignified 
characters of the called and chosen of God, according to the purposes 
of His will, from before the foundation of the world! We are called 
to hold the keys of the mj'steries of those things that have been kept 
hid from the foundation of the world until now. Some have tasted a 
little of these things, many of which are to be poured down from 
heaven upon the heads of babes; yea, upon the weak, obscure and de- 
spised ones of the earth. Therefore we beseech of you, brethren, that 
you bear with those who do not feel themselves more worthy than your- 
selves, while we exhort one another to a reformation with one and all, 
both old and young, teachers and taught, both high and low, rich and 
poor, bond and free, male and female; let honesty, and sobriety, and 
candor, and solemnity, and virtue, and pureness, and meekness, and 
simplicity crown our heads in every place; and in fine, become as little 
children, without malice, guile or hypocrisy. 

And now, brethren, after your tribulations, if you do these things, 
and exercise fervent prayer and faith in the sight of God always, [He »/ 
shall give unto you knowledge by His Holy Spirit, yea by the unspeak- 
able gift of the Holy Ghost, that has not been revealed since the world 
was until now; which our forefathers have waited with anxious expec- 
tation to be revealed in the last times, which their minds were pointed 
to by the angels, as held in reserve for the fullness of their glory; a 
time to come in the which nothing shall be withheld, whether there be 
one God or many Gods, they shall be manifest; all thrones and domin- 
ions, principalities and powers, shall be revealed and set forth upon all 
who have endured valiantly for the Gospel of Jesus Christ; and also if 
there be bounds set to the heavens, or to the seas; or to the dry land, 
or to the sun, moon or stars; all the times of their revolutions; all the 
appointed days, months and years, and all the days of their days, 
months and years, and all their glories, laws, and set times, shall be 
revealed, in the days of the dispensation of the fullness of times, ac- 
cording to that which was ordained in the midst of the Council of the 
Eternal God of all other Gods, before this world was, that should be 
reserved unto the finishing and the end thereof, when every man shall 
enter into His eternal presence, and into His immortal restj. 

But I beg leave to say unto you, brethren, that ignorance, supersti- 
tion and bigotry placing itself where it ought not, is oftentimes in the 
way of the prosperity of this Church; like the torrent of rain from the 
mountains, that floods the most pure and crystal stream with mire, and 


dirt, and filthiness, and obscures everythinpr that was clear before, and all 
rushes along in one isreneral deluge; but time weathers tide; and not- 
withstanding we are rolled in the mire of the flood for the time being, 
the next surge peradventure, as time rolls on, may bring to us the foun- 
tain as clear as crystal, and as pure as snow; while the filthiness, flood- 
wood and rubbish is left and purged out by the way. 

a iHow long can rolling water remain impure? What power shall stay 
the heavens? As well might man stretch forth his puny arm to stop 
the Missouri river in its decreed course, or to turn it up stream, as to 
hinder the Almighty from pouring down knowledge from heaven, upon 
the heads of the Latter-day Saints]. 

What is Bogg3 or his murderous party, but wimbling willows upon 
the shore to catch the flood- wood? As well might we argue that water 
is not water, because the mountain torrents send down mire and roil 
the crystal stream, although afterwards render it more pure than be- 
fore; or that fire is not fire, because it is of a quenchable nature, by 
pouring on the flood; as to say that our cause is down because renega- 
des, liars, priests, thieves and murderers, who are all alike tenacious of 
their crafts and creeds, have poured down, from their spiritual wicked- 
ness in high places, and from their strongholds of the devil, a flood of 
dirt and mire and filthiness and vomit upon our heads. 

No! God forbid. Hell may pour forth its rage like the burning 
lava of mount Vesuvius, or of Etna, or of the most terrible of the 
1 burning mountains; and yet shall "Mormonism" stand. Water, fire, 
truth and God are all realities. Truth is "Mormonism." God is the 
author of it. He is our shield. It is by Him we received our birth. 
It was by His voice that we were called to a dispensation of His Gos- 
pel in the beginning of the fullness of times. It was by Him we re- 
ceived the Book of Mormon; and it is by Him that we remain unto this 
day; and by Him we shall remain, if it shall be for our glory; and in 
His Almighty name we are determined to endure tribulation as good 
soldiers unto the end. 

But, brethren, we shall continue to offer further reflections in our 
next epistle. You will learn by the time you have read this, and if you 
do not learn it, you may learn it, that walls and irons, doors and creak- 
ing hinges, and half-scared-todeath guards and jailers, grinning like 
some damned spirits, lest an innocent man should make his escape to 
bring to light the damnable deeds of a murderous mob, are calculated 
in their very nature to make the soul of an honest man feel stronger 
than the powers of hell. 

But we must bring our epistle to a close. We send our respects to 



fathers, mothers, wives and children, brothers and sisters; we hold 
them in the most sacred remembrance. 

We feel to inquire after Elder Rijjdon; if he has not forgotten us, it 
has not been signified to us by his writing. Brother George W. Robin- 
son also; and Elder Gaboon, we remember him, but would like to jog- 
his memory a little on the fable of the bear and the two friends who 
mutually agreed to stand by each other. And pex'haps it would not be 
amiss to mention uncle John [Smith], and various others. A v?ord of 
consolation and a blessing would not come amiss from anybody, while 
we are being so closely whispered by the bear. But we feel to .excuse 
everybody and everything, yea the more readily when we contemplate 
that we are in the hands of persons worse that a bear, for the bear 
would not prey upon a dead carcass. 

Our respects and love and fellowship to all the virtuous Saints. We 
are your brethren and fellow- sufferers, and prisoners of Jesus Christ 
for the Gospel's sake, and for the hope of glory which is in us. 


e continue to offer further reflections to Bishop Partridge, and to 
the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, whom we love with a 
fervent love, and do always bear them in mind in all our prayers to the 
throne of God. 

It still seems to bear heavily on our minds that the Church would do 
well to secure to themselves the contract of the land which is proposed 
to them by Mr. Isaac Galland, and to cultivate the friendly feelings of 
that gentleman, inasmuch as he shall prove himself to be a man of 
honor and a friend to humanity; also Isaac Van Allen, Esq., the attor- 
ney-general of Iowa Territory, and Governor Lucas, that peradventure 
such men may be wrought upon by the providence of God, to do good 
unto His people. We really think that Mr. Galland's letter breathes 
that kind of a spirit, if we may judge correctly. Governor Lucas also. 
We suggest the idea of praying fervently for all men who manifest any 
degree of sympathy for the suffering children of God. 

We think that the United States Surveyor of the Iowa Territory may 
be of great benefit to the Church, if it be the will of God to this end; 
and righteousness should be manifested as the girdle of our loins. 

It seems to be deeply impressed upon our minds that the Saints 
ought to lay hold of every door that shall seem to be opened unto them, 
to obtain foothold on the earth, and be making all the preparation that 
is within their power for the terrible storms that are now gathering in 
the heavens, "a day of clouds, with darkness and gloominess, and of 
thick darkness," as spoken of by the Prophets, which cannot be now 
of a long time lingering, for there seems to be a whispering that the 
angels of heaven who have been entrusted with the counsel of these 


matters for the last days, have taken counsel together; and among the 
rest of the general atfairs that have to be transacted in their honorable 
council, they have taken cognizance of the testimony of those who / 
were murdered at Haun's Mills, and also those who were martyred with 
David W, Patten, and elsewhere, and have passed some decisions per- 
adventure in favor of the Saints, and those who were called to suffer 
without cause. 

These decisions will be made known in their time; and the council 
will take into consideration all those things that offend. 

We have a fervent desire that in your general conferences everything 
should be discussed with a great deal of care and propriety, lest you 
grieve the Holy Spirit, which shall be poured out at all times upon your 
heads, when you are exercised with those principles of righteousness 
that are agreeable to the mind of God, and are properly affected one to- 
ward another, and are careful by all means to remember, those who are 
in bondage, and in heaviness, and in deep affliction far your sakes. 
And if there are any among you who aspire after their own aggran- 
dizement, and seek their own opulence, while their brethren are groau-y^ 
ing in poverty, and are under sore trials and temptations, they cannot 
be benefited by the intercession of the Holy Spirit, which maketh inter- 
cession for us day and night with groanings that cannot be ut- ^ 

We ought at all times to be very careful that such high-mindedness 
shall never have place in our hearts; but condescend to men of low 
estate, and with all long-suffering bear the infirmities of the weak. 
\' "^[Behold, there are many called, but few are chosen. And why are \y^ 
they not chosen? Because their hearts are set so much upon the things 
of this world, and aspire to the honors of men, that they do not learn 
this one lesson — that the rights of the Priesthood are inseparably con- 
nected with the powers of heaven, and that the powers of heaven can- 
not be controlled nor handled only upon the principles of righteousness. 
That they may be conferred upon us, it is true; but when we under- 
take to cover our sins, or to gratify our pride, our vain ambition, or to 
exercise control, or dominion, or compulsion, upon the souls of the chil- 
dren of men, in any degree of unrighteousness, behold, (he heavens 
withdraw themselves; the Spirit of the Lord is grieved; and 
when it is withdrawn, Amen to the Priesthood, or the authority of that 
m«i. Behold! ere he is aware, he is left unto himself, to kick against 
the pricks; to persecute the Saints, and to fight against God. 

We have learned by sad experience that it is the nature and disp'^si- 


tion of almost all meo, as soon as they get a little authority, as they 
suppose, they will immediately begin to exercise unrighteous dominion. 
Hence many are called, but few are chosen. 

No power or influence can or ought to be maintained by virtue of 
the Priesthood, only by persuasion, by long-suffering, by gentleness, 
and meekness, and by love unfeigned; by kindness, and pure knowl- 
edge, which shall greatly enlarge the soul without hypocrisy, and with- 
out guile, reproving betimes with sharpness, when moved upon by the 
Holy Ghost, and then showing forth afterwards an increase of love to- 
ward him whom thou hast reproved, lest he esteem thee to be his 
enemy; that he may know that thy faithfulness is stronger than the 
cords of death; let thy bowels also be full of charity towards all men, 
and to the household of faith, and virtue garnish thy thoughts unceas- 
ingly, then shall thy confidence wax strong in the presence of God, and 
the doctrine of the Priesthood shall distill upon thy soul as the dews 
from heaven. The Holy Ghost shall be thy constant companion, and 
thy sceptre an unchanging sceptre of righteousness and truth, and thy 
dominion shall be an everlasting dominion, and without compulsory 
y means it shall flow unto thee forever and ever]. 
i'l«M [The ends of the earth shall inquire after thy name, and fools shall 
have thee in derision, and hell shall rage against thee, while the pure 
in heart, and the wise, and the noble, and the virtuous, shall seek coun- 
sel, and authority and blessings constantly from under thy hand, and 
thy people shall never be turned against thee by the testimony of 
traitors; and although their influence shall cast thee into trouble, and 
into bars and walls, thou shalt be had in honor, and but for a small 
moment and thy voice shall be more terrible in the midst of thine ene- 
mies, than the fierce lion, because of thy righteousness; and thy God 
shall stand by thee forever and ever. 

If thou art called to pass through tribulations; if thou art in perils 
among false brethren; if thou art in perils among robbers; if thou art 
in perils by land or by sea; if thou art accused with all manner of 
false accusations; if thine enemies fall upon thee; if they tear thee 
from the society of thy father and mother and brethren and sisters; 
and if with a drawn sword thine enemies tear thee from the bosom of 
thy wife, and of thine offspring, and thine elder son, although but six 
years of age, shall cling to thy garments, and shall say. My father. 



my father, why can't you stay with us? 0, my father, what are the 
men going to do with you? and if then he shall be thrust from thee by 
the sword, and thou be dragged to prison, and thine enemies prowl 
around thee like wolves for the blood of the lamb; and if thou shouldst 
be cast into the pit, or into the hands of murderers, and the sentence 
of death passed upon thee; if thou be cast into the deep; if the billow- 
ing surge conspire against thee; if fierce winds become thine enemy; 
if the heavens gather blackness, and all the elements combine to hedge 
up the way; and above all, if the very jaws of hell shall gape open the 
mouth wide after thee, know thou, my son, that all these things shall 
give thee experience, and shall be for thy good. The Son of Man hath 
descended below them all; art thou greater than he? 

Therefore, hold on thy way, and the Priesthood shall remain with 
thee, for their bounds are set, they cannot pass. Thy days are known, 
and thy years shall not be numbered less; therefore, fear not what man 
can do, for God shall be with you.forever and ever]. 
^dj Now, brethren, I-woul d e. ug g e st i^ the consideration, of the confer- 
ence, its being carefully and wisely understoood by the_cQM£ilJjr^ 
ferences that our brethren scattered abroad, who understand the spint_ 
of the gathering, that.tlie:^alIiiito the pkee* and xef uge of safety that 
God shall open unto them, between Kirtland and Far West. Those trom 
the east and from the west, and from far countries, let them fall m some- 
where between those two boundaries, in the most safe and quiet places 
hey can find; and let this be the present understanding, until God 
shall open a more effectual door for us for further considerations. 

And again, we further suggest for the considerations of the Council, 
that there be no organization of large bodies upon common stoc-k prin- 
ciples, in property, or of large companies of firms until the Lord shall 
signify it in a proper manner, as it opens such a dreadful field tor the ^ 
avaricious, the indolent, and the corrupt hearted to prey upon the inno- 
cent and virtuous, and honest. 

We have reason to believe that many things were introduced among 
the Saints before God had signiBed the times; and notwithstanding the 
principles and plans may have been good, yet aspiring men or in other 
words, men who had not the substance of godliness about them, per^ 
haps undertook to handle edged tools. Children, you know, are fond 
of tools, while they are not yet able to use them. . 

Time and experience, however, are the only safe remedies against 
such evils. There are many teachers, but, perhaps, not many fathers 
There are times coming when God will signify many things which are 



expedient for the well-beine: of the Saints; but the times have not yet 
come, but will come, as fast as there can be found place and reception 
for them. 

\> [And again, we would suggest for your consideration the propriety 
of all the Saints gathering up a knowledge of all the facts and sufifer- 
ings and abuses put upon them by the people of this state; and also of 
all the property and amount of damages which they have sustained 
both of character and personal injaries, as well as real property; and 
also the names of all persons that have had a hand in their oppressions, 
as far as they can get hold of them and fiud them out; and perhaps a 
committee can be appointed to find out these things, and to take state- 
ments, and affidavits, and also to gather up the libelous publications 
that are afloat, and all that are in the magazines, and in the encyclopae- 
dias, and all the libelous histories that are published, and are writing, 
and bj' whom, and present the whole concatenation of diabolical rascal- 
ity, and nefarious and murderous impositions that have been practiced 
upon this people, that we may not only publish to all the world, but 
present them to the heads of government in all their dark and hellish 
hue, as the last effort which is enjoined on us by our Heavenly Father, 
before we can fully and completely claim that promise which shall call 
Him forth from His hiding place, and also that the whole nation may 
be left without excuse before He can send forth the power of His 
mighty arm. 

It is an imperative duty that we owe to God, to angels, with whom 
we shall be brought to stand, and also to ourselves, to our wives and 
children, who have been made to bow down with grie*^, sorrow, and 
care, under the most damning hand of murder, tyranny, and oppres- 
sion, supported and urged on and upheld by the influence of that spirit 
which hath so strongly riveted the creeds of the fathers, who have in- 
herited lies, upon the hearts of the children, and filled the world with 
confusion, aud has been growing stronger and stronger, and is now the 
very main-spring of all corruption, and the whole earth groans under 
the weight of its iniquitj'. 

It is an iron yoke, it is a strong band; they are the very hand-cuffs, 
and chains, and shackles, and fetters of hell. 

Therefore it is an imperative duty that we owe, not only to our own 
wives and children, but to the widows and fatherless, whose husbands 



and fathers have been murdered under its iron hand; which dark and 
blackening deeds are enough to make hell itself shudder, and to stand 
Aghast and pale, and the hands of the very devil to tremble and palsy. 
And also it is an imperative duty that we owe to all the rising gener- 
ation, and to all the pure in heart, (for there are many yet on the earth 
among all sects, parties, denominations, who are blinded by the 
subtle craftiness of men, whereby they lie in wait to deceive, and who 
are only kept from the truth because they know not where to find it) ; 
therefore, that we should waste and wear out our lives in bringing to 
light all the hidden things of darkness, wherein we know them; and 
they are truly manifest from heaven. 

These should then be attended to with great earnestness. Let no 
man count them as small things; for there is much which lieth in 
futurity, pertaining to the Saints, which depends upon these things. 
You know, brethren, that a very large ship is benefited very much by 
a very small helm in the time of a storm, by being kept work ways with 
the wind and the waves. 

Therefore, dearly beloved brethren, let us cheerfully do all things 
that lie in our power, and then may we stand still with the utmost assur- 
ance, to see the salvation of God, and for His arm to be re- 

And again. I would further suggest the impropriety of the organiza- 
tion of bands or companies, by covenant or oaths, by penalties or 
secrecies; but let the time past of our experience and sufferings by the 
wickedness of Doctor Avard suffice and let our covenant be that of the 
Everlasting Covenant, as is contained in the Holy Writ and the things 
that God hath revealed unto us. Pure friendship always becomes 
weakened the very moment you undertake to make it stronger by penal 
■oaths and secrecy. 

Your humble servant or sei-vants, intend from henceforth to dis- 
approbate everything that is not in accordance with the fullness of 
the Gospel of Jesus Christ, and is not of a bold, and frank, and up- 
right nature. They will not hold their peace — as in times past when 
they see iniquity beginning to rear its head — for fear of traitors, or the 
consequences that shall follow by reproving those who creep in unawares, 
that they may get something with which to destroy the flock. We be- 
lieve that the experience of the Saints in times past has been sufficient, 
that they will from henceforth be always ready to obey the truth with- 
out having men's persons in admiration because of advantage. It is 
expedient that we should be aware of such things; and we ought al- 



ways to be aware of those prejudices which sometimes so strangely- 
present themselves, and are so conj^enial to human nature, against our 
friends, neighbors, and brethren of the world, who choose to differ 
from us in opinion and in matters of faith. Our religion is between us 
J and our God. Their religion is between them and their God. 

There is a love from God that should be exercised toward those of our 
faith, who walk uprightly, whicii is peculiar to itself, but it is without 
pr ejudice]_ jt also gives scope to the mind, which enables us to conduct 
ourselves with greate'- liberality towards all that are not of our faith, 
than what they exercise towards one another. These principles ap- 
proximate nearer to the mind of God, because it is like God, or Godlike. 

Here is a principle also, which we are bound to be exercised with^ 
that is, in common with all men, such as governments, and laws, and 
regulations in the civil concerns of life. This principle guarantees to 
all parties, sects, and denominations, and classes of religion, equal, 
coherent, and indefeasible rights; they are things that pertain to this 
life; therefore all are alike interested; they make our responsibilities 
one towards another in matters of corruptible things, while the former 
principles do not destroy the latter, but bind us stronger, and make our 
responsibilities not only one to another, but unto God also. Hence w e 
£ay, that_ the C onstitution of the United States is a glorious standard; 
jt is fn n ndpd in thft wisdom ofGod. ItTs a heave nly fanner; it.isltct 
a ll those who are_pr ivileged with tb esweets of its liberty, likejthe cool- 
■ ipg sha deg _and refreshing wa ters of a greatr ock in a thirsty and wea,ry 
land. It is like a great tree under whose branches men from every 
clime can be shielded from the burning rays of the sun. 

We/lbrethren, are deprived of the^ protection o£ its glorious princi-- 
ples, by the cruelty of the cruel, i)x,tbo^ejwjio ^ only loo k for the time 
beingi^r pasturage like the beasts of the field, only to fill themselves; 

and forget that tEe~'"'^ormons," as well as the Presbyterians, and those 
of every other class and^de^cription, have equS,l rights to partake .i>f 
the fruits of the great tree of our fiatioiSal liberty. Buf notwithstand- 
ing we see what we see, and feel what we feel, and know what we 
know, yet that fruit is no less precious and delicious to our taste; we 
cannot be weaned from the milk, neither can we be driven from the 
breast; neither will we deny our religion because of the hand of op- 
pression; but we will hold on until death. 

We say that God is true; that the Constitution of the United States 
is true; that the Bible is true; that the Book of Mormon is true; that 
the Book of Covenants is true; that Christ is true; that the minister- 
ing angels sent forth from God are true, and that we know that we 
have an house not made with hands eternal in the heavens, whose 
builder and maker is God; a consolation which our oppressors cannot 


feel, when fortune, or fate, shall lay its iron hand on them as it has on 

us. Now, we ask, what is man? Remember, brethren, that time and 

chance happen to all men. 

We shall continue our reflections in our next. 

We subscribe ourselves, your sincere friends and brethren in the 

bonds of the everlasting Gospel, prisoners of Jesus Christ, for the sake 

of the Gospel and the Saints. 

We pronounce the blessings of heaven upon the heads of the Saints 

who seek to serve God with undivided hearts, in the name of Jesus 

Christ. Amen. 

Joseph Smith, Jun., 
Hyrum Smith, 
Lyman Wight, 
Caleb Baldwin, 
Alexander MoRae. 

20 Vol. Ill 




Thursday^ April 4. — Brothers Kimball and Turley 
called on Judge King, who was angry at their having re- 
judge King's ported the case to the governor, and, said he, 
Anger. "I could havc done all the business for you 

properly, if you had come to me; and I would have 
signed the petition for all except Joe, and he is not fit to 
live." I bid Brothers Kimball and Turley to be of good 
cheer, "for we shall be delivered; but no arm but God's 
can deliver us now. Tell the brethren to be of good 
cheer and get the Saints away as fast as possible." • 

Brothers Kimball and Turley were not permitted to 
enter the prison, and all the communication we had with 
them was through the grate of the dungeon. The breth- 
ren left Liberty on their return to Far West. 

Fridai/, April 5. — Brothers Kimball and Turley arrived 
at Far West. 

This day a company of about fifty men in Daviess coun- 
ty swore that they would never eat or drink, until they 
had murdered "Joe Smith." Their captain, 

Plot Against . . . , 

the Prophet's William Bowmau, swore, in the presence of 
Theodore Turley, that he would "never eat or 
drink, after he had seen Joe Smith, until he had murdered 

Also eight men — Captain Bogart, who was the county 
_ _ iudge, Dr. Lafifity, John Whitmer, and five 

The Truth of '' ^ ' -^ ' ' 

a Revelation others — camc iuto the committees room [i.e. 
the room or office of the committee on remov- 
al] and presented to Theodore Turley the paper con- 
taining the revelation of July 8, 1838,* to Joseph Smith, 
directing the Twelve to take their leave of the Saints in 

♦See Doctrine and Covenants, sec. cxviii. 


Far West on the building site of the Lords House 
on the 26th of April, to go to the isles of the 
sea, and then asked him to read it. Turley said, "Gen- 
tlemen, I am well acquainted with it." They said, "Then 
you, as a rational man, will give up Joseph Smith's being 
a prophet and an inspired man? He and the Twelve are 
now scattered all over creation ; let them come here if they 
dare; if they do, they will be murdered. As that revela- 
tion cannot be fulfilled, you will now give up your faith." 

Turley jumped- up and said j_^ n the nan i e of God that 
rftvftlati on will b e fulfilled." , They laughed him to 
scorn. Q^hiLjffi^Mtm^r liuiig o^^ They said, 

"If they (the Twelve) come, they will get ,p , , r, 
murdered ; they dare not come to take their fense of the 
leave here; that is like all the rest of Joe 
Smith's d n prophecies." They commenced on Tur- 
ley and said, he had better do as John Corrill had done; 
"he is going to publish a book called 'Mormonism Fairly 
Delineated;' he is a sensible man, and you had better 
assist him." 

Turley said, "Gentlemen,! presume there are men here 
who have heard Corrill say,that'Mormonism'was true, that 
Joseph Smith was a prophet, and inspired of coUoquy be- 
God. I now call upon you, John Whitmer: SnTjohn"^'^^ 
you say Corrill is a moral and a good man ; do ^vhitmer. 
you believe him when he says the Book of Mormon is true, 
or when he says it is not true? There are many things pub- 
lished that they say are true, and again turn around 
and say they are false?" Whitmer asked, "Do you 
hint at me?" Turley replied, "If the cap fits you, wear 
it; all I know is that you have published to the world 
that an angel did present those plates to Joseph Smith." 
Whitmer replied: "I now say, I handled those plates; 
there were fine engravings on both sides. 1 handled them;" 
and he described how they were hung, and ' 'they were shown 
to me by a supernatural power;" he acknowledged all. 

Turley asked him, "Why is not the translation now 


true?" He said, "I could not read it [in the original] 
and Tdo not know whether it [i. e., the translation] is true 
or not." Whitmer testified all this in the presence of 
eight men. 

The committee [on removal of the Saints from Missouri] 
met, and Brother William Huntington made report of his 
journey to Liberty on business of the committee. 

The subject of providing some clothing for the prison- 
Land Sales ers at Richmond was discussed, and the pro- 
ing of Prison- priety of sending two brethren to Liberty, to 
make sales of some lands, was taken up, and 
Elders H. G. Sherwood and Theodore Turley were ap- 

A bill of clothing for the Richmond prisoners having 
been made up, was presented and given to those appointed 
to go to Liberty, that they might procure the goods on 
the sales of land. 

Saturday, April 6'.— Judge King evidently fearing a 
change of venue, or some movement on our part to escape 
The Prisoners his uuhallowed persecutiou (and most prob- 
Davless ^^^'^ ^^^ly expectiug that we would be murdered 
County. Qj^ ^jjg way) hurried myself and fellow prison- 

ers off to Daviess county, under a guard of about ten 
men, commanded by Samuel Tillery, deputy jailer of 
Clay county. We were promised that we should go 
through Far West, which was directly on our route, which 
our friends at that j)lace knew, and expected us ; but in- 
stead of fulfilling their promise, they took us around the 
city, and out of the direct course some eighteen miles; 
far from habitations, where every opportunity presented 
for a general massacre. 

This evening the committee (i. e. on removal) met in 
council. Prayer bv Elder Kimball. The busi- 

Peremptory "^ 

Orders Con- ncss of the couucil was the consideration of 
the order of the leaders of the Daviess mob, 
delivered this day to the Saints in Caldwell county, to 
leave before Friday next. 


Resolved: To hire all teams that can be hired, to move the families of 
the Sd.ints out of the couoty, to Tenny's Grove. 

Resolved: To send Henry G. Sherwood immediately to Illinois for 
assistance, in teams from the Saints thei'e. 

The mission of Elders Sherwood and Turley to Liberty- 
was deferred for the present. 

Sunday, April 7. — The committee met in comieil at 
Brother Turley 's. Brother Erastus Snow made a report 
of his visit to the judges at Jefferson city. A Actions of the 
letter from the prisoners at Liberty was read Committee. 
and Daniel Shearer and Heber C. Kimball were appointed 
to see Mr. Hughes and get him to go to Daviess county 
and attend the sitting of the court there. 

We continued our travels across the prairie, while the 
brethren at Far West, anxious for our welfare, gave a 
man thirty dollars to convey a letter to, us in Daviess 
county, and return an answer. 

Monday, April 8. — After a tedious journey — for our 
long confinement had enfeebled our bodily powers — we ar- 
rived in Daviess county, about a mile from Gallatin, where 
we were delivered into the hands of William Arrival of the 
Morgan, sheriff of Daviess county, with his Davrj'sT^''^ 
guard, William Bowman, John Brassfield and County. 
John Pogue. The Liberty guard returned immediately, 
but became divided, or got lost on their way; a part of 
them arrived in Far West after dark, and got caught in 
the fence; and calling for help, Elder Markham went to 
their assistance and took them to the tavern. From 
them he got a letter I had written to the committee, in- 
forming them of our arrival in Daviess county. 

Tuesday, April 9. — Our trial commenced before a 
drunken grand jury, Austin A. King, presiding judge, as 
drunk as the jury; for they were all drank Arrival of 
together . Elder Stephen Markham had been war^kiram in 
dispatched by the committee to visit us, and cjaiiatin. 
bring a hundred dollars that was sent by Elder Kimball, 
iis we were destitute of means at that time. He left Far 


West this morning, and swimming several streams he ar- 
rived among us in the afternoon, and spent the evening 
in our company . Brother Markham brought us a written 
copy of a statute which had passed the legislature, giving 
us the privilege of a change of venue on our own affidavit. 

Judge Morin arrived from Mill Port, and was favorable 
to our escape from the persecution we were enduring, 
Judge Morin 9,nd spcut the evening with us in prison, and 
Prophet^s^*^ wc had as pleasant a time as such circum- 
Escape. stauccs would permit, for we were as happy 

as the happiest; the Spirit buoyed us above our trials, 
and we rejoiced in each other's society. 

Wednesday, April 10. — The day was spent in the exam- 
The Examina- inatiou of witucsscs beforc the grand jury. Dr. 
nesses. Sampsou Avard was one of the witnesses. 

Brother Markham was not permitted to give his testi- 

Our guard went home, and Colonel William P. Penis- 
ton, Blakely, and others took thieir place. 

Letter of Sidney Bigdon to the Prophet. Rigdon''s Plans for the 
Impeachment of Missouri. 

QuiNCY, Illinois, April 10, 1839. 

To the Saints in Prison, Greeting: 

In the midst of a crowd of, I haste to send a few lines by 
the hand of Brother Mace, our messenger. We wish you to know that 
our friendship is unabating, and our exertions for your delivery, and 
that of the Church unceasing. For this purpose we have labored to se- 
cure the friendship of the governor of this state, with all the principal 
men in this place. In this we have succeeded beyond our highest antic- 
ipations. Governor Carlin assured us last evening, that he would lay 
our case before the legislature of this state, and have the action of that 
body upon it; and he would use all his influence to have an action 
which should be favorable to our people. He is also getting papers 
prepared signed by all the noted men in this part of the country, to give 
us a favorable reception at Washington, whither we shall repair forth- 
with, after having visited the Governor of Iowa, of whose frienship we 
have the strongest testimonies. We leave Quiney this day to visit him. 
Our plan of operation is to impeach the state of Missouri on an item of 


the Constitution of the United States; that the general government shall 
give to each state a Republican form of government. Such a form of 
government does not exist in Missouri, and we can prove it. 

Governor Carlin and his lady enter with all the enthusiasm of their 
natures into this work, having no doubt but that we can accomplish this 

Our plan of operation in this work is, to get all the governors, in 
their next messages, to have the subject brought before the legislatures; 
and we will have a man at the capital of each state to furnish them 
with the testimony on the subject; and we design to be at Washington 
to wait upon Congi^ess, and have the action of that body on it also; all 
this going on at the same time, and have the action of the whole during 
one session. 

Brother Geoige W. Robinson will be engaged all the time between 
this and the next sitting of the legislatures, in taking affidavits, and pre- 
paring for the tug of war; while we will be going from state to state, 
visiting the respective governors, to get the case mentioned in their re- 
spective messages to legislatures, so as to have the whole going on at 
once. You will see by this that our time is engrossed to overflowing. 

The Bishops of the Church are required to ride and visit all scattered 
abroad, and to collect money to carry on this great work. 

Be assured, brethren, that operations of an all-important character 
are under motion, and will come to an issue as soon as possible. Be 
assured that our friendship is unabated for you, and our desires for 
your deliverance intense. May God hasten it speedily, is our prayer 
day and night. 

Yours in the bonds of affliction, 

Sidney Rigdon. 

To Joseph Smith, Jun., Hyrum Smith, Caleb Baldwin, Lyman 
Wight, Alexander McRae. 

Letter of Alanson Riplerj to the Prophet.* 

QuiNCY, Illinois, April 10, 1839. 

Dear Brethren in Christ Jesus: 

It is with feelings of no small moment that 1 take pen in hand to 
address you, the prisoners of Jesus Christ, and in the same faith of the 

*It must be remembered that this letter was written under very great stress of 
feeling, and that accounts for its general harshness. It should also be remembered 
that as Edmund Burke said a long while ago— and it is now accepted as a trueism— 
"It is not fair to judge of the temper or disposition of any man, or any set of men 
when they are composed and at rest, from their conduct or their expressions in a 
state of disturbance and, irritation." 


Gospel with myself — who are holden by the cords of malice and of hel- 
lish plottings agrainst the just, and through the lifting up the heel against 
the Lord's anointed; but they shall soon fall and not rise again, for 
their destruction is sure; and no power beneath the heavens can save 

President Rigdon is wielding a mighty shaft against the whole host 
of foul calumniators and mobocrats of Missouri. Yesterday he spent a 
part of the day with Governor Carlin of this state. President Rigdon 
told him that he was informed that Governor Boggs was calculating to 
take out a bench warrant for himself and others, and then make a de- 
mand of his excellency for them to be given up, to be taken back to 
Missouri for trial; and he was assured by that noble-minded hero, that 
if Mr. Boggs undertook the thing, he would get himself insulted. He 
also assured him that the people called "Mormons" should find a per- 
manent protection in this state. He also solicited our people, one and 
all, to settle in this state, and if there could be a tract of country that 
would suit our convenience, he would use his influence for Congress to 
make a grant of it to us, to redress our wrongs, and make up our losses. 

We met last night in council of the whole, and passed some resolu- 
tions with respect to sending to the city of Washington. We are mak- 
ing every exertion possible that lies in our power, to accomplish that 
grand object upon which hangs our temporal salvation; and interwoven 
with this, our eternal salvation; and so closely allied to each other are 
they, that I want to see the head connected with the body again; and 
while we are enjoying one, let us be ripening for the other. But my 
heart says. Where is he whose lips used to whisper the words of life to 
us? Alas! he is in the hands of Zion's enemies. Lord! crieth my 
heart, will not heaven hear our prayers, and witness our tears! Yes, 
saith the the Spirit, thy tears are all remembered, and shall speedily be 
rewarded with the deliverance of thy dearly beloved brethren. 

But when I see the fearful apprehensions of some of our brethren, it 
causes me to mourn. One instance I will mention. When I arrived at 
Far West I made my mind known to some of the community, and told 
them that I wanted they should send a messenger to the jail to com- 
municate with you; but my request was denied. They said that the 
Presidency was so anxious to be free once more, that they would not 
consider the danger the Church was in. 

They met in council and passed resolutions that myself, Amasa Ly- 
man, and Watson Barlow, should leave Far West for Quincy forthwith. 
My spirit has been grieved ever since, so that I can hardly hold my 
peace; but there is a God in Israel that can blast the hellish desires and 
designs of that infernal banditti, whose hands have been imbrued in the 
blood of the martyrs and Saints. They wish to destroy the Church of 

^- ^- 1839] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 313 

Ood; but their chain IS short ; there is just enough left to bind their 
own hands with. 

Dear brethren, I am at your service, and I await your counsel at 
Quiney, and shall be happy to grant you the desire of your hearts. I 
am ready to act. Please to give me all the intelligence that is in your 
power. If you take a change of venue, let me know what county you 
will come to, and when, as near as possible, and what road you will 
come; for I shall be an adder in the path. 

Yes, my dear brethren, God Almighty will deliver you. Fear not, 
for your redemption draweth near; the day of your deliverance is at 

Dear brethren, I have it in my heart to lay my body In the sand, or 
deliver you from your bonds; and my mind is intensely fixed on the 

Dear brethren, you will be able to judge of the spirit that actuates 
my breast; for when I realize your sufferings, my heart is like wax be- 
fore the fire; but when I reflect upon the cause of your afflictions, it is 
like fire in my bones, and burns against your enemies, and I never can 
be satisfied, while there is one of them to stand against a wall, or draw 
a sword, or pull a trigger. My sword has nqver been sheathed in peace> 
for the blood of David W. Patten and those who were butchered at 
Haun's Mill, crieth for vengeance from the ground. 

Therefore, hear ye heavens! and write it, ye recording angels! 
bear the tidings ye flaming seraphs! that I from this day declare my- 
self the avenger of the blood of those innocent men, and of the inno- 
cent cause of Zion, and of her prisoners; and I will not rest until they 
are as free, who are in pi'ison, as I am. 

Your families are all' well and in good spirits. May the Lord bless 
you all. Amen. 

Brother Amasa Lyman and Watson Barlow join in saying. Our hearts 
are as thy heart. Brother Joseph, if my spirit is wrong, for God's 
sake correct it. Brethren, be of good cheer, for we are determined, as 
God liveth, to rescue you from that hellish crowd, or die in the furrow. 
We shall come face foremost. 

Alanson Ripley. 

N. B. — S B. Crockett says he has been once driven but not whipped; 
Brother Brigham Young sends his best respects to you all. 

A. R. 

Thursday April 11. — 

Letter of Don Carlos Smith to His Brother, Hyrum Smith. 
Brother Hyrum: 

After reading. a line from you to myself, and one to father, which 


awakens all the feelings of tenderness and brotherly affection that 
one heart is capable of containing, I sit down in haste to answer it. My 
health and that of my family is good; mother and Lucy have been 
very sick, but are getting better. Your families are in better health 
now than at any other period since your confinement. 

Brother Hyrum, I am in hopes that my letter did not increase your 
trouble, for I know that your affliction is too great for human nature to 
bear; and if I did not know that there was a God in heaven, and that 
His promises are sure and faithful, and that He is your friend in the 
midst of all your trouble, I would fly to your relief, and either be with 
you in prison, or see you breathe free air — air too that had not been in- 
haled and corrupted by a pack of ruffians, who trample upon virtue 
and innocence with impunity; and are not even satisfied with the 
property and blood of the Saints, but must exult over the dead. You 
both have my prayers, mv influence and warmest feelings, with a, fixed 
determination, if it should so be that you should be destroyed, to avenge 
your blood four fold. 

Joseph must excuse me for not writing to him at this time. Give my 
love to all the prisoners. Write to me as often as j'ou can, and do not 
be worried about your families. Yours in affliction as well as in peace. 

Don C. Smith. 

Letter of Agnes Smith to Hyrum and Joseph Smith. 

Beloved Brothers, Hyrum and Josex>h: 

By the permit of my companion, I write a line to show that I have 
not forgotten you; neither do I forget you; for my prayer is to my 
Heavenly Father for your deliverance. It seems as though the Lord is 
slow to hear the prayers of the Saints. But the Lord's ways are not 
like our ways ; therefore He can do better than we ourselves. You must 
be comforted, Brothers Hyrum and Joseph, and look forward for bet- 
ter daj's. Your little ones are as playful as little lambs; be comforted 
concerning them, for they are not cast down and sorrowful as we are; 
their sorrows are only momentary but ours continual. 

May the Lord bless, protect, and deliver you from all your enemies 
and restore you to the bosom of your families, is the prayer of 

Agnes M. Smith. 

To Hyrum and Joseph Smith, Liberty, Missouri. 

The examination of witnesses was continued, and Elder 
Markham was permitted to give his testimony. After he 
had closed, Blakely, one of the gi^ard, came in and said 
to Markham, that he wanted to speak to him. Brother 


Markham walked out with him, and around the end of 

the house when Blakely called out, " Attempt upon 

you old Mormon; I'll kill you;" "iephe^ "^ 

and struck at Markham with his fist and then '^lai^kham. 
with a club. Markham took the club from liim and 
threw it over the fence. 

There were ten of the mob who immediately rushed 
upon Markham to kill him, Colonel William P. Penis- 
ton, captain of the guard, being one of the number. But 
Markham told them he could kill the whole of them at 
one blow apiece, and drove them off. The court and 
grand jury stood and saw the affray, and heard the mob 
threaten Markham's life, by all the oaths they could in- 
vent, but they took no cognizance of it. 

The ten mobbers went home after their guns to shoot 
Markham, and the grand jury brought in a bill 
for "murder, treason, burglary, arson, larceny, Found against 
theft, and stealing," against Lyman Wight, 
Alexander McEae, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and my- 

This evening the committee [on removal] assembled at 
Daniel Shearer's. After prayer by Brother 
James Newberry, he was ordained an Elder committee on 
on the recommendation of Elder Heber C. 
Kimball, under the hands of Hiram Clark and William 

Elder Kimball reported that Jessie P. Maupin, the 
thirty-dollar messenger they had sent to us, had returned; 
that the prisoners were well and in good spirits. 

Brother Rogers who had returned from Jackson county, 
reported that he had sold all the lands in Jackson. Elder 
Kimball was requested to attend a meeting of „ , , , , 

^ ® Sale of Jack- 

the Daviess county officials tomorrow, and as son county 
an individual, mention the case of the com- 
mittee [on removal] and the brethren generally, and 
learn their feelings, whether they would protect the 
brethren from the abuse of the mob, incase they came im- 


mediately to drive them out, as they had recently threatened. 

During this night the visions of the future were opened 
to my understanding; when I saw the ways and means 
Vision of the and near approach of my escape from impris- 
MaTkham*'^ oumcut, and the danger that my beloved 
safety Brother Markham was in. I awoke Brother 

Markham, and told him if he would rise very early and 
not wait for the judge and lawyers, as he had contem- 
plated doing, but rise briskly, he would get safe home, al- 
most before he was aware of it ; and if he did not the mob 
would shoot him on the way; and I told him to tell the 
brethren to be of good cheer, but lose no time in remov- 
ing from the country. 

Friday^ April 12. — This morning Brother Markham 
Escape of arosc at dawn of day, and rode rapidly to- 
Markham. wards Far West, where he arrived before nine 

a. m. The mobbers pursued to shoot him, but did not 
overtake him. 

This day 1 received the following letter : 

Jacob Stollings^ Communication to the Prophet. 

Dear Sir: — Enclosed I send you the receipt which I promised; and if 
you will pay the necessary attention to it, it will be a benefit to the Church 
and to me ; and I think with a little attention on your part, they can be pro- 
duced; and any person who will deliver them at any point in the state, 
so I can g:et them, I will compensate them well, as I know you feel 
deeply interested in the welfare of the Church; and when you consider 
it will add to their character, and look upon it in a proper lij^ht, you 
will spare no pains in assisting me in the recovery of those bookvS. 

Yours, etc., in haste, 

Jacob Stollings. 

To Joseph Smith, Jun., Diaiiman. 

Gallatin, Daviess County, Missouri, 

April 12, 1839. 

Know all men by these present.s — That I, Jacob Stollings, have this 
day agreed with Joseph Smith, Jun., to release all members of the Mor- 
mon Church, from any and all debts due to me from them for goods 
sold to them by me at Gallatin during the year 1838, on the following 
condition, viz.: That said Joseph Smith, Jun., return or cause to be 

A. D. 1839.] HISTORY OF THE CHURCH. 317 

returned to me the following books— one ledger, three day books, and 

one day book of groceries, -which was taken from my store in Gallatin 

when said store was burned. And if said books are returned to me 

within four months, this shall be a receipt in full, to all intents and 

purposes, against any debt or debts due from said Mormons to me on 

said books; but if not returned, this is to be null and void. 

Given under my hand this day and date before written. 

Jacob Stollings. 
Attest, J. Lynch. 

A curious idea, tliat I who had been a prisoner many 
months should be called upon to hunt up lost ^j^g prophet's 
property, or property most likely destroyed Comiuents. 
by the mob; but it is no more curious than a thousand 
other things that have happened ; and I feel to do all 1 
can to oblige any of my fellow creatures. 

Isaac Galland^s Communication to the Quincy Argus. 

Commerce, Illinois, April 12, 1839. 
Messrs. Editors: — Enclosed I send you a communication from Gover- 
nor Lucas of Iowa territory. If you think the publication thereof will in any 
way promote the cause of justice, by vindicating the slandered reputation 
of the people called "Mormons,"' from the ridiculous falsehoods which 
the malice, cupidity and envy of their murderers in Missouri have en- 
deavored to heap upon them, you are respectfully solicited to publish it 
in the Argus. The testimony of Governor Lucas as to the good moral 
character of these people, I think will have its deserved influence upon 
the people of Illinois, in encouraging our citizens in their humane 
and benevolent exertions to relieve this distressed people, who are now 
wandering in our neighborhoods without comfortable food, raiment, or 
a shelter from the pelting storm. 

I am, gentlemen, very respectfully. 
Your obedient servant, 

Isaac Galland. 

Letter ofJRohert Lucas, Governor of the Territory of Iowa, Eesj)ecting the 
Manner in Which the Saints Might Hope to be Beceived and Treated 

in Iowa. 

Executive Office, Iowa, Burlington, 

March, 1839. 

Dear Sir:— On my return to this city, after a few weeks' absence 
in the interior of the territory, I received your letter of the 25th ultimo, 
in which you give a short account of the sufferings of the people called 
Mormons and ask "whether they could be permitted to purchase lands 

318 HISTOEY OF THE CHURCH. [A.. D. 1839 

and settle upon them, in the territory of Iowa, and there worship Al- 
mighty God according to the dictates of their own consciences, secure 
from oppression,'' etc. 

In answer to your inquiry, I would say that I know of no authority 
that can constitutionally deprive them of this right. They are citizens 
of the United States, and are entitled to all the rights and privileges of 
other citizens. The 2nd section of the ith Article of the Constitution 
of the United States (which all are solemnly bound to support) de- 
clares that "the citizens of each state shall be entitled to all the privi- 
leges and immunities of citizens of the several states." This privilege 
extends in full force to the territories of the United States. The first 
amendment to the Constitution of the United States, declares that 
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, 
or prohibiting the free exercise thereof." 

The ordiuance of Congress of the ISth July, 1787, for the govern- 
ment of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, secures to the citi- 
zens of said territory, and the citizens of the states thereafter to be 
formed therein, certain privileges which were by the late Act of Con- 
gress organizing the territory of Iowa, extended to the citizens of this 

The first fundamental Article in the Ordinance, which is declared to 
be forever unalterable, except by common consent, reads as follows, to 
wit: "No person demeaning himself in a peaceable and orderly man- 
ner, shall ever be molested on account of his mode of worship or relig- 
ious sentiment in said territory." 

These principles I trust will ever be adhered to in the territory of 
Iowa. They make no distinction between religious sects. They extend 
equal privileges and protection to all; each must rest upon its own 
merits, and will prosper in proportion to the purity of its principles, 
and the fruit of holiness and piety produced thereby. 

With regard to the peculiar people mentioned in j'our letter, I know 
but little. They had a community in the northern part of Ohio for sev- 
eral years; aad I have no recollection of ever having heard in that state 
of any complaints against them for violating the laws of the country. 
Their religious opinions I consider have nothing to do with our political 
transactions. Thej' are citizens of the United States, and are entitled 
to the same political rights and legal protection that other citizens are 
entitled to. 

The foregoing are briefly my views on the subject of your inquiries. 
With sincere respect, 

I am your obedient servant, 

Robert Lucas. 

To Isaac Galland, Esq., Commerce, Illinois. 


Saturday^ April 13. — Elder Mai'kham went to Independ- 
ence to close the business of the Church in that region. 

Sunday^ April 14. — The committee [on removal] in 
<jouncil resolved to send Sisters Fosdick and Meeks, and 
Brother William Mon jar and another family, Activity of 
with Brothers Jones, Burton, and Bar- thecommit- 

' ' tee on Re- 

low's teams. which had recently arrive! movai. 
at Quincy. 

The committee moved thirty-six families into Tenney's 
Grove, about twenty-five miles from Far West; and a 
few men were appointed to chop wood for them, while 
Brother Turley was to furnish them with meal and meat, 
until they could be removed to Quincy. The corn was 
ground at the committee's horse mill, in Far West. Elder 
Kimball was obliged to secrete himself in the cornfields 
during the day, and was in at night counseling the com- 
mittee and brethren. 

Monday, April 15. — Having procured a change of 
venue we started for Boone county, and were a,, „ , , 

•' ' The Prophet 

conducted to that place by a strong guard. an^ Feiiow 

^ "^ o,o Prisoners 

This evening the committee [on removal] start for 

, , t . , Boone countv. 

met to make arrangements concerning teams 

and the moving of the few families who yet remained 

at Far West. 

Letter of Elias Higbee to Joseph Smith, Jun., and Fellow Prisoners. 

Tuesday, Quincy, April 16, 1839. 
2b Joseph Smith, Jun., and others. Prisoners in Liberty or Elsewhere, 

Dear Brethren in Affliction: — Through the mercy and provi- 
dence of God, I am here alive, and in tolerable health, as also are all 
of j'our families, as far as 1 know, having heard from them lately, and 
having seen Sister Emma yesterday. 

Brethren, I have sorrow of heart when I think of your great suffer- 
ings by that ungodly mob which has spread such desolation and caused 
so much suffering among us. I often reflect on the scenes which we 
passed through together; the course we pursued; the counseliugs we 
had; the results which followed, when harassed, pressed on every side 


insulted and abused by that lawless banditti; and I am decidedly of 
opinion that the hand of the Great God hath controlled the whole busi- 
ness for purposes of His own, which will eventually work out good for 
the Saints (I mean those who are worthy of the name). I know that 
your intentions, and the" intentions of all the worthy Saints, have been 
pure, and tending to do good to all men, and to injure no man in per- 
son or property, except we were forced to it in defense of our lives. 

Brethren, I am aware that I cannot wholly realize j'our sufferings; 
neither can any other person who has not experienced the like afflictions; 
but I doubt not for a moment, neither have I ever doubted for a mo- 
ment, that the same God which delivered me "from their grasp 
(though narrowly) will deliver you. I staid near Far West for about 
three weeks, being hunted by them almost every day; and as I learned, 
they did not intend to give me the chance of a trial, but put an end ta 
me forthwith, I went for mj' horse and left the wicked clan and came 
off. Francis* is with his uncle in Ohio. I received a letter lately from 
him; he is strong in the faith. I now live in the Big-Neck-Prairie, on 
the same farm with President Rigdon, who is here with me and wait- 
ing for me with his riding dress on, to go home. So I must necessarily 
close, praying God to speedily deliver you, and bless you. 

From yours in the bonds of the everlasting love, 

Elias Higbee. 

This evening our guard got intoxicated. We thought 
it a favorable opportunity to make our escape ; knowing 

that the only object of our enemies was our 
ReasraTfo^r'^ destructiou ; and likewise knowing that a 
From^thf offi- number of our brethren had been massacred 
Law'^**^^ by them on Shoal Cresk, amongst whom 

were two children ; and that they sought every 
opportunity to abuse others who were left in that state; and 
that they were never brought to an account for their bar- 
barous proceedings, which were winked at and encouraged 
by those in authority. We thought that it was necessary 
for us, inasmuch as we loved our lives, and did not wish 
to die by the hand of murderers and assassins; and inas- 
much as we loved our families and friends, to deliver our- 
selves from our enemies, and from that land of tyranny 
and oppression, and again take our stand among a people 

*This refers to Francis M. Higbee, son of Elias Higbee 


in whose bosoms dwell those feelings of republicanism and 
liberty which gave rise to our nation : feelings which the 
inhabitants of the State of Missouri were strangers to. 
Accordingly, we took advantage of the situation of our 
guard and departed, and that night we traveled a consid- 
erable distance.* 

* Undoubtedly the giiards, and formatter of that Jndo:e Birch himself, and 
also the ex-sheriff' of Daviess countj', William Bowman, connived at the escape of 
the prisoners. The story of the escape was afterwards told in detail by Hyrnm 
Smith, as follows: "They got us a change of venue from Daviess to Boone coun- 
ty, and a mittimus was made out by the pretended Judge Birch, without date, 
name, or place. They [the court officials at Gallatinl fitted us out with a two 
horse wagon, ahorse and four men, besides the sheriff, to be our guard. There 
were five of us that started from Gallatin, the sun about two hours high, and went 
as far as Diahman that evening, and stayed till morning. There we bought 
two horses of the guard, and paid for one of them in our clothing 
which we had with us, and for the other we gave our note. We went 
down that day as far as Judge Morin's, a distance of some four or five 
miles. There we stayed until the next morning, when we started on our journey 
to Boone county, and traveled on the road about twenty miles distance. There we 
bought a jug of whisky, with which we treated the company, and while there the 
sheriff showed us the mittimus before referred to, without date or signature, and 
said that Judge Birch told him never to carry us to Boone county, and never to 
show the mittimus; and, said he, I shall take a good drink of grog, and go to bed, 
and you may do as you have a mind to. Three others of the guards drank pretty 
freely of the whisky, sweetened with honey. They also went to bed, and were 
soon asleep and the other guard went along with us, and helped to saddle the 
horses. Two of us mounted the horses, and the other three started on foot, and 
we took our change of venue for the State of Illinois; and in the course of nine 
or ten days arrived safely at Quincy, Adams countj', where we found our families 
in a state of poverty, although in good health." (Prom the affidavit of Hyrum 
Smith before the municipiil court of Nauvoo, given July 1, 1843.) 

The name of the sheriff in charge of the prisoners was William Morgan, and 
upon his return to Gallatin both he and the ex-sheriff, William Bowman, who was 
suspected of complicity in the escape of the prisoners, received harsh treatment 
at the hands of the citizens of that place. The story is told in the '"History of 
Daviess County, "published by Birdsall& Dean, 1882, as follows: "The prisoners 
took change of venue to Boone county, and the Daviess county officers started with 
the prisoners to their destination in Boone county. Some of the prisoners having 
no horses, William Bowman, the first sheriff of Daviess county, [and now ex- 
sheriff], furnished the prisoners three horses, and they left in charge of William 
Morgan, the sheriff' of the county. The sheriff' alone returned on horseback, the 
guard who accompanied him returning on foot, or riding and tying by turns. The 
sheriff reported that the prisoners had all escaped in the night, taking the horses 
with them, and that a search made for them proved unavailing The people of 
Gallatin were greatly exercised, and they disgraced themselves by very ruffianly 
conduct. They rode the sheriff on a rail, and Bowman was dragged over the 
square by the hair of the head. The men guilty of these dastardly acts, accused 
sheriff Morgan and ex-Sheriff Bowman of complicity in the escape of the Mormon 
leaders; that Bowman furnished the horses, and that Morgan allowed them to es- 
cape, and both got well paid for their treachery. The truth of history compels us 
21 VOj III 


Wednesday, April 17. — We prosecuted our journey to- 
wards Illinois, keeping off from the main road as much 
as possible, which impeded our progress. 

Thursday, April 18. — This morning Elder Kimball went 
into the committee room and told the committee [on re- 
EiderKim- moval] to wiud up their affairs and be off, or 
ball's Warn- their Hvcs would be taken. Stephen Mark- 

ing to the ^ 

Committee. ham had gone over the Missouri river on busi- 
ness. Elders Turley and Shearer were at Far West. 

Twelve men went to Elder Turley 's with loaded rifles 

to shoot him. They broke seventeen clocks into match 

wood. They broke tables, smashed in the 

Attack on "^ ' 

Theodore wiudows ; while Bogart (the county judge) 


looked on and laughed. One Whitaker threw 
iron pots at Turley, one of which hit him on the shoulder, 
at which Whitaker jumped and laughed like a madman. 
The mob shot down cows while the girls were milking 
them. The mob threatened to send the committee "to 
hell jumping," and "put daylight through them." 

The same day, previous to the breaking of the clocks, 
some of the same company met Elder Kimball on the 

public square in Far West, and asked him if 

The Mob's As- ^ i ' 

ssuitonEider he was a " Mormon;" he replied, 1 am a 

Mormon." "Well, you, we'll blow 

your brains out, you Mormon," and tried to 

ride over him with their horses. This was in the presence 
of Elias Smith, Theodore Turley, and others of the com- 

The brethren gathered up what they could and left Far 

West in one hour; and the mob staid until 

Loots Far they left, then plundered thousands of dollars' 

worth of property which had been left by the 

exiled brethren and sisters to help the poor to remove. 

One mobber rode up, and finding no convenient place 

to state that the charges were never sustained by any evidence adduced by the per 
sons who committed this flagrant act of mob law." — See above named history, 
page 20C. 


to fasten his horse, shot a cow that was standing near, 
and while the poor animal was yet struggling in death, 
he cut a strip of her hide from her nose to the tip of her 
tail, this he tied round a stump, to which he fastened his 

During the commotion this day, a great portion of the 
records of the committee, accounts, history, 

1 . -. \ , , '^''e Loss of 

etc., were destroyed or lost, so that but Records, Ac- 
few definite items can be registered in their '^°"° ^' ^ '^' 

When the Saints commenced removing from Far West 
they shipped as many families and goods as pugj^t ^f ^^^^ 
possible at Richmond to go down the Missouri ?**"*'' '"'."- 

^ _ _ _ ~ Missouri 

river to Quincy, Illinois. This mission was River. 

in charge of Elder Levi Richards and Reuben Hedlock, 

who were appointed by the committee. 

I continued on my journey with my brethren towards 

Elder David W. Rogers made a donation of money 
to remove the poor from Missouri. Assistancefor 

The brethren and sisters who had arrived ^^^ ^o*^'"- 
in Illinois were beginning to write of their sufferings and 
losses in Missouri. The statement of Sister Amanda 
Smith, written by her own hand, I will here insert: 

Narrative of Amanda Smith Respecting the Massacre at Haun'' s Mills . 
lo whom this may come: 

I do hereby certify that my husband, Warren Smith,in company with 
several other families, was moving [in 1838] from Ohio to Missouri. We 
came to Caldwell county. Whilst we were traveling, minding our own 
business, we were stopped by a mob; they told us that if we went an- 
other step, they would kill us all. They took our guns from us (as we 
were going into a new country, we took guns along with us) ; they took 
us back five miles, placed a guard around us, kept us throe days, and 
then let us go. 

I thought — Is this our boasted land of liberty? for some said we 
must deny our faith, or they would kill us; others said, we should die at 
any rate. 

The names of this mob, or the heads, were Thomas O'Brien, county 


clerk; Jefferson Brien, William Ewell, Esq., and James Austin, all of 
Livingston county. After they let us go we traveled ten miles, came 
to a small town composed of one grist mill, one saw mill, and eight or 
ten houses belonging to our brethi'en; there we stopped for the night* 

A little before sunset a mob of three hundred came upon us. The 
men hallooed for the women and children to run for the woods; and 
they ran into an old blacksmith's shop, for they feared, if we all ran 
together, they would rush upon us and kill the women and children. 
The mob fired before we had time to start from our camp. Our men 
took off their hats and swung 'them, and cried "quarters" until they 
were shot. The mob paid no attention to their cries nor entreaties, but 
fired alternately. 

I took my little girls, my boy I could not find, and started for the 
woods. The mob encircled us on all sides but the brook. I ran down 
the bank, across the mill-pond on a plank, up the hill into the bushes. 
The bullets whistled around me all the way like hail, and cut down the 
bushes on all sides of us. One girl was wounded by my side, and fell 
over a log, and her clothes hung across the log; and they shot at them, 
expecting they were hitting her; and our people afterwards cut out of 
that log twenty bullets, 

I sat down and witnessed the dreadful scene. When they had done 
firing, they began to howl, and one would have thought that all the in- 
fernals had come from the lower regions. They plundered the princi- 
pal part of our goods, took our horses and wagons, and ran off howl- 
ing like demons. 

I came down to view the awful sight. Oh horrible! My husband, and 
one son ten j'ears old, lay lifeless upon the ground, and one son seven 
years old, wounded very badly. The ground was covered with the 
dead. These little boys crept under the bellows in the shop; one little 
boy of ten years had three wounds in him ; he lived five weeks and 
died; he was not mine. 

Realize for a moment the scene ! It was sunset; nothing but horror 
and distress; the dogs filled with rage, howling over their dead mas- 
ters; the cattle caught the scent of the innocent blood, and bellowed; 
a dozen helpless widows, thirty or forty fatherless children, crying and 
moaning for the loss of their fathers and husbands; the groans of the 
wounded and dying were enough to have melted the heart of anything 
but a Missouri mob. 

There were fifteen dead, and ten wounded: two died the next day. 
There were no men, or not enough to bury the dead; so they were 
thrown into a dry well and covered with dirt. The nest day the mob 
came back. They told us we must leave the state forthwith, or be killed. 
It was cold weather, and they had our teams and clothes, our husbands 


were dead or wounded. I told them they might kill me and my chil- 
dren, and welcome. They sent word to us from time to time that if we 
did not leave the state, they would come and kill us. We had little 
prayer meetings. They said it we did not stop them they would kill 
every man, woman and child. We had spelling schools for our little 
children; they said if we did not stop them they would kill every man, 
woman and child. We did our own milking, got our own wood; no 
man to help us. 

I started the first of February for Illinois, without money, (mob all 
the way), drove my own team, slept out of doors. I had five small 
children; we suffered hunger, fatigue and cold; for what? For our re- 
ligion, where, in a boasted land of liberty, "Deny your faith or die," 
was the cry. 

I will mention some of the names of the heads of the mob: two 
brothers by the name of Comstock, William Mann, Benjamin Ashley, 
Robert White, one by the name of Rogers, who took an old scythe and 
cut an old white-headed man all to pieces. [Thomas McBride.] 

I wish further also to state, that when the mob came upon us (as I 
was told by one of them afterwards), their intention was to kill every- 
thing belonging to us, that had life; and that after our men were shot 
down by them, they went around and shot all the dead men over again, 
to make sure of their death. 

I now leave it with this Honorable Government [the United States] 
to say what my damages may be, or what they would be willing to see 
their wives and children slaughtered for, as I have seen my husband, 
son and others. 

I lost in property by the mob — to goods stolen, fifty dollars; one 
pocketbook, and fifty dollars cash notes; damage of horses and time, 
one hundred dollars; one gun, ten dollars; in short, my all. Whole 
damages are more than the State of Missouri is worth. 

Written by my own hand, this 18th day of April, 1839. 

Amanda Smith. 

Quincy, Adams County, Illinois. 

Thus are the cries of the widows and the fatherless as- 
cending to heaven. How long, O Lord, wilt thou net